Non-Destructive Characterization and Processing of Composite Materials

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X). This special issue belongs to the section "Composites Modelling and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 14175

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to provide a good forum for scientists and engineers to share and discuss their pioneering original findings or insightful reviews on the characterization of composite materials. Reports on non-destructive characterization research towards process enhancement and the development/application of an advanced characterization method are particularly welcome.

The proper characterization of heterogeneous composite materials is still a challenging task, since the majority of characterization methods often require the size reduction and dissolution of a material that average the whole material and could overlook potential issues associated with spatially heterogeneous materials and values associated with fine grains (e.g., [1]).

Some potential contributions are listed below under “Topics”. One of them can be the characterization of industrial wastes for understanding the spatial distribution and liberation/association of key components in order to develop a recycling flowsheet. This correlation was found to be useful in many different respects, while there remain so many research gaps that have been identified. At the same time, better understanding heterogeneous composite materials is of great importance from scientific and engineering points of view, since the processing and production/application of composite materials are vital of our modern society, including raw materials (e.g., complex ores) and advanced technologies (e.g., batteries, printed circuit boards, [2-5]).

References

[1] A. Otsuki, Y. Chen, Y. Zhao, 2014. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Res. 20(2) 126-135.

[2] Otsuki, A.; Gonçalves, P.P.; Stieghorst, C.; Révay, Z. Non-Destructive Characterization of Mechanically Processed Waste Printed Circuit Boards: X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3, 54.

[3] Otsuki, A.; Pereira Gonçalves, P.; Leroy, E. Selective Milling and Elemental Assay of Printed Circuit Board Particles for Their Recycling Purpose. Metals 2019, 9, 899.

[4] Pereira Gonçalves, P.; Otsuki, A. Determination of Liberation Degree of Mechanically Processed Waste Printed Circuit Boards by Using the Digital Microscope and SEM-EDS Analysis. Electronics 2019, 8, 1202.

[5] Otsuki, A.; De La Mensbruge, L.; King, A.; Serranti, S.; Fiore, L.; Bonifazi, G. Non-destructive liberation analysis of mechanically processed waste printed circuits boards, Waste Management, 2020, 102, 510-519.

Topics

-Characterization

  • In-situ measurement (e.g., rheo-SANS, rheo-SAXS, rheo-NMR)
  • Neutrons, X-rays
  • Operando measurement
  • Imaging (e.g., SEM, TEM, tomography/radiography)
  • Surface analysis (e.g., AFM, STM, XPS, XAFS, reflectometry, mass spectrometry)
  • Suspension rheology
  • Physical/physico-chemical properties (e.g., particle surface charge, particle size, wetting, specific surface area, porosity)

-Physical chemistry

  • Heterogeneity
  • Concentrated colloidal suspension
  • Colloidal forces (e.g., DLVO forces, non-DLVO forces)
  • Chemical environment (e.g., salt/electrolyte, surfactant, pH)

-Process and functional materials

  • Industrial wastes
  • Complex ores
  • Mechanical processes (e.g., thickening/sedimentation, filtration, agitation/mixing)
  • Separation (e.g., flotation, magnetic separation)
  • Functional material synthesis and its characterization

-Fluid dynamics and applied mechanics

  • Particle-laden flow
  • Flow diagnosis
  • Flow visualization (e.g., MRI velocimetry)
  • Flow behavior under external field application (e.g., mechanical agitation, electric field application)
  • Non-Newtonian fluid
  • Complex fluid

Thank you very much!

Dr. Akira Otsuki
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Physical chemistry
  • Process and functional materials
  • Flow dynamics
  • Applied mechanics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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15 pages, 1181 KiB  
Article
Non-Destructive Characterization of Mechanically Processed Waste Printed Circuit Boards: X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis
by Akira Otsuki, Pedro Pereira Gonçalves, Christian Stieghorst and Zsolt Révay
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3020054 - 1 Jun 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5015
Abstract
This work aimed to characterize the deportment/concentration and liberation/association of the metals and light elements within mechanically processed waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) that hold the complex and heterogeneous structure and distribution of different material components. Waste PCBs passed through a series of [...] Read more.
This work aimed to characterize the deportment/concentration and liberation/association of the metals and light elements within mechanically processed waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) that hold the complex and heterogeneous structure and distribution of different material components. Waste PCBs passed through a series of mechanical processing (i.e., comminution and sieving) for metal recovery and were then characterized without further destroying the particles in order to capture their heterogeneity. The characterizations were performed in a laboratory and large-scale neutron facility. The results obtained with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and prompt gamma activation analysis were compared and confirmed the good agreement and complementarities in general. The advantages and disadvantages of the two different methods were identified and discussed in this paper, in relation to their application to the analysis of mechanically processed PCB particles. Full article
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29 pages, 6044 KiB  
Review
A Review of Sensing Technologies for Non-Destructive Evaluation of Structural Composite Materials
by Ranjeetkumar Gupta, Daniel Mitchell, Jamie Blanche, Sam Harper, Wenshuo Tang, Ketan Pancholi, Lee Baines, David G. Bucknall and David Flynn
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(12), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5120319 - 6 Dec 2021
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 8312
Abstract
The growing demand and diversity in the application of industrial composites and the current inability of present non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to perform detailed inspection of these composites has motivated this comprehensive review of sensing technologies. NDE has the potential to be a [...] Read more.
The growing demand and diversity in the application of industrial composites and the current inability of present non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to perform detailed inspection of these composites has motivated this comprehensive review of sensing technologies. NDE has the potential to be a versatile tool for maintaining composite structures deployed in hazardous and inaccessible areas, such as offshore wind farms and nuclear power plants. Therefore, the future composite solutions need to take into consideration the niche requirements of these high-value/critical applications. Composite materials are intrinsically complex due to their anisotropic and non-homogeneous characteristics. This presents a significant challenge for evaluation and the associated data analysis for NDEs. For example, the quality assurance, certification of composite structures, and early detection of the failure is complex due to the variability and tolerances involved in the composite manufacturing. Adapting existing NDE methods to detect and locate the defects at multiple length scales in the complex materials represents a significant challenge, resulting in a delayed and incorrect diagnosis of the structural health. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the NDE techniques, that includes a detailed discussion of their working principles, setup, advantages, limitations, and usage level for the structural composites. A comparison between these techniques is also presented, providing an insight into the future trends for composites’ prognostic and health management (PHM). Current research trends show the emergence of the non-contact-type NDE (including digital image correlation, infrared tomography, as well as disruptive frequency-modulated continuous wave techniques) for structural composites, and the reasons for their choice over the most popular contact-type (ultrasonic, acoustic, and piezoelectric testing) NDE methods is also discussed. The analysis of this new sensing modality for composites’ is presented within the context of the state-of-the-art and projected future requirements. Full article
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