Resource Sustainability for Energy and Electronics

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 13109

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Interests: sustainable supply chain design; sustainable product/service; multiagent systems; sustainable sourcing; multicriteria decision making; sustainable production and consumption; closed-loop supply chain management; Industry 4.0 supply chains

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to provide an excellent forum for scientists and engineers to share and exchange their latest contributions on resource sustainability for energy and electronics. Within this context, original articles as well as insightful review articles are expected.

In order to have a better insight into/opportunity of achieving sustainable utilization of our limited resources, the development of new methods and/or the combination of multiple supplemental (and other) characterization methods for the utilization of complex/functional materials in energy saving and consumer electronics is particularly welcome. A proper utilization of such complex materials is still a complicated and challenging task, since the material/element spatial heterogeneity and thus their process and/or resultant products/services might be varied with time (e.g., [1–5]). On the other hand, submissions that are relevant to many other areas of correlation between resources and energy/electronics are also highly appreciated. You can find some potential contribution topics under the “keywords”.

We look forward to receiving your contributions, and to future collaborations.

Thank you for your cooperation.

Best regards, 

References

1) Akira Otsuki, Luc De La Mensbruge, Andrew King, Silvia Serranti, Ludovica Fiore, Giuseppe Bonifazi, 2020. Non-destructive liberation analysis of mechanically processed waste printed circuits boards, Waste Management, 102, 510-519.

2) Pedro Pereira Gonçalves, Akira Otsuki, 2019. Determination of Liberation Degree of Mechanically Processed Waste Printed Circuit Boards by using the Digital Microscope and SEM-EDS analysis, Electronics, 8(10), 1202.

3) Akira Otsuki, Pedro Pereira Gonçalves, Emilien Leroy, 2019. Selective milling and elemental assay of printed circuit board particles for their recycling purpose, Metals, 9(8), 899.

4) Akira Otsuki, Pedro Pereira Gonçalves, Christian Stieghorst, Zsolt Révay, 2019. Non-destructive characterization of mechanically processed waste printed circuit boards: X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and prompt gamma activation analysis, J. Composite Sci., 3, 54.

5) Akira Otsuki, Yue Chen, Yihong Zhao, 2014. Characterisation and Beneficiation of Complex Ores for Sustainable Use of Mineral Resources: Refractory Gold Ore Beneficiation as an Example, International Journal of the Society of Materials Engineering for Resources, 20(2) 126-135,

Dr. Akira Otsuki
Dr. Pezhman Ghadimi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Complex/functional materials
  • New method development, hybrid method
  • Eco-design, recycling, material processing
  • Process optimization/intensification
  • Multiphase flows (e.g., liquid–gas flows, liquid–solid flows)
  • Energy saving

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 1431 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Objective Approach to Robust Control of Air Handling Units for Optimized Energy Performance
by Mubashir Wani, Faizal Hafiz, Akshya Swain and Abhisek Ukil
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030661 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
This paper presents a robust control framework with meta-heuristic intelligence to optimize the energy performance of air handling units (AHUs) and to maximize the thermal comfort of occupants by judiciously selecting the temperature set points of two controllers (i.e., the H controller [...] Read more.
This paper presents a robust control framework with meta-heuristic intelligence to optimize the energy performance of air handling units (AHUs) and to maximize the thermal comfort of occupants by judiciously selecting the temperature set points of two controllers (i.e., the H controller and the boiler controller). The selection of these set points is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem, where the goal is to balance energy consumption with thermal comfort. Furthermore, the uncertainty weights of the H controller are estimated to minimize oscillations in the outflow air temperature of the AHU plant. The performance of the proposed framework is investigated by considering the real-time weather data of Auckland, New Zealand. The results of the simulation show that the proposed robust control framework could significantly reduce oscillations in the outflow air temperature compared with the conventional case, where the temperature set points are selected empirically. Moreover, annual energy savings of 49.13% are achieved without compromising the thermal comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Sustainability for Energy and Electronics)
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11 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Design of Cost-Efficient SRAM Cell in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Technology
by Soha Maqbool Bhat, Suhaib Ahmed, Ali Newaz Bahar, Khan A. Wahid, Akira Otsuki and Pooran Singh
Electronics 2023, 12(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12020367 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2368
Abstract
SRAM or Static Random-Access Memory is the most vital memory technology. SRAM is fast and robust but faces design challenges in nanoscale CMOS such as high leakage, power consumption, and reliability. Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is the alternative technology that can be used [...] Read more.
SRAM or Static Random-Access Memory is the most vital memory technology. SRAM is fast and robust but faces design challenges in nanoscale CMOS such as high leakage, power consumption, and reliability. Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is the alternative technology that can be used to address the challenges of conventional SRAM. In this paper, a cost-efficient single layer SRAM cell has been proposed in QCA. The design has 39 cells with a latency of 1.5 clock cycles and achieves an overall improvement in cell count, area, latency, and QCA cost compared to the reported designs. It can therefore be used to design nanoscale memory structures of higher order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Sustainability for Energy and Electronics)
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11 pages, 2705 KiB  
Article
A New Nano-Scale and Energy-Optimized Reversible Digital Circuit Based on Quantum Technology
by Saeid Seyedi, Nima Jafari Navimipour and Akira Otsuki
Electronics 2022, 11(23), 4038; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11234038 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
A nano-scale quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA) is one of the most promising replacements for CMOS technology. Despite the potential advantages of this technology, QCA circuits are frequently plagued by numerous forms of manufacturing faults (such as a missing cell, extra cell, displacement cell, [...] Read more.
A nano-scale quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA) is one of the most promising replacements for CMOS technology. Despite the potential advantages of this technology, QCA circuits are frequently plagued by numerous forms of manufacturing faults (such as a missing cell, extra cell, displacement cell, and rotated cell), making them prone to failure. As a result, in QCA technology, the design of reversible circuits has received much attention. Reversible circuits are resistant to many kinds of faults due to their inherent properties and have the possibility of data reversibility, which is important. Therefore, this research proposes a new reversible gate, followed by a new 3 × 3 reversible gate. The proposed structure does not need rotated cells and only uses one layer, increasing the design’s manufacturability. QCADesigner-E and the Euler method on coherence vector (w/energy) are employed to simulate the proposed structure. The 3 × 3 reversible circuit consists of 21 cells that take up just 0.046 µm2. Compared to the existing QCA-based single-layer reversible circuit, the proposed reversible circuit minimizes cell count, area, and delay. Furthermore, the energy consumption is studied, confirming the optimal energy consumption pattern in the proposed circuit. The proposed reversible 3 × 3 circuit dissipates average energy of 1.36 (eV) and overall energy of 1.49 (eV). Finally, the quantum cost for implementing the reversible circuits indicates a lower value than that of all the other examined circuits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Sustainability for Energy and Electronics)
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16 pages, 2655 KiB  
Article
A New Energy-Aware Method for Gas Lift Allocation in IoT-Based Industries Using a Chemical Reaction-Based Optimization Algorithm
by Kouros Zanbouri, Mostafa Razoughi Bastak, Seyed Mehdi Alizadeh, Nima Jafari Navimipour and Senay Yalcin
Electronics 2022, 11(22), 3769; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11223769 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) has recently developed opportunities for various industries, including the petrochemical industry, that allow for intelligent manufacturing with real-time management and the analysis of the produced big data. In oil production, extracting oil reduces reservoir demand, causing oil supply [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has recently developed opportunities for various industries, including the petrochemical industry, that allow for intelligent manufacturing with real-time management and the analysis of the produced big data. In oil production, extracting oil reduces reservoir demand, causing oil supply to fall below the economically viable level. Gas lift is a popular artificial lift system that is both efficient and cost-effective. If gas supplies in the gas lift process are not limited, a sufficient amount of gas may be injected into the reservoir to reach the highest feasible production rate. Because of the limited supply of gas, it is essential to achieve the sustainable utilization of our limited resources and manage the injection rate of the gas into each well in order to enhance oil output while reducing gas injection. This study describes a novel IoT-based chemical reaction optimization (CRO) technique to solve the gas lift allocation issue. The CRO algorithm is inspired by the interaction of molecules with each other and achieving the lowest possible state of free energy from an unstable state. The CRO algorithm has excellent flexibility, enabling various operators to modify solutions and a favorable trade-off between intensification and diversity. A reasonably fast convergence rate serves as a powerful motivator to use as a solution. The extensive simulation and computational study have presented that the proposed method using CRO based on IoT systems significantly improves the overall oil production rate and reduces gas injection, energy consumption and cost compared to traditional algorithms. Therefore, it provides a more efficient system for the petroleum production industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Sustainability for Energy and Electronics)
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19 pages, 11609 KiB  
Article
QCA-Based PIPO and SIPO Shift Registers Using Cost-Optimized and Energy-Efficient D Flip Flop
by Naira Nafees, Suhaib Ahmed, Vipan Kakkar, Ali Newaz Bahar, Khan A. Wahid and Akira Otsuki
Electronics 2022, 11(19), 3237; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11193237 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
With the growing use of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology, digital circuits designed at the Nanoscale have a number of advantages over CMOS devices, including the lower utilization of power, increased processing speed of the circuit, and higher density. There are several flip [...] Read more.
With the growing use of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology, digital circuits designed at the Nanoscale have a number of advantages over CMOS devices, including the lower utilization of power, increased processing speed of the circuit, and higher density. There are several flip flop designs proposed in the literature with their realization in the QCA technology. However, the majority of these designs suffer from large cell counts, large area utilization, and latency, which leads to the high cost of the circuits. To address this, this work performed a literature survey of the D flip flop (DFF) designs and complex sequential circuits that can be designed from it. A new design of D flip flop was proposed in this work and to assess the performance of the proposed QCA design, an in-depth comparison with existing designs was performed. Further, sequential circuits such as parallel-in-parallel-out (PIPO) and serial-in-parallel-out (SIPO) shift registers were designed using the flip flop design that was put forward. A comprehensive evaluation of the energy dissipation of all presented fundamental flip-flop circuits and other sequential circuits was also performed using the QCAPro tool, and their energy dissipation maps were also obtained. The suggested designs showed lower power dissipation and were cost-efficient, making them suitable for designing higher-power circuits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Sustainability for Energy and Electronics)
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14 pages, 4336 KiB  
Article
Ultra-Low-Cost Design of Ripple Carry Adder to Design Nanoelectronics in QCA Nanotechnology
by Mohsen Vahabi, Ali Newaz Bahar, Akira Otsuki and Khan A. Wahid
Electronics 2022, 11(15), 2320; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11152320 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
Due to the development of integrated circuits and the lack of responsiveness to existing technology, researchers are looking for an alternative technology. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) technology is one of the promising alternatives due to its higher switch speed, lower power dissipation, and [...] Read more.
Due to the development of integrated circuits and the lack of responsiveness to existing technology, researchers are looking for an alternative technology. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) technology is one of the promising alternatives due to its higher switch speed, lower power dissipation, and higher device density. One of the most important and widely used circuits in digital logic calculations is the full adder (FA) circuit, which actually creates the problem of finding its optimal design and increasing performance. In this paper, we designed and implemented two new FA circuits in QCA technology and then implemented ripple carry adder (RCA) circuits. The proposed FAs and RCAs showed excellent performance in terms of QCA evaluation parameters, especially in cost and cost function, compared to the other reported designs. The proposed adders’ approach was 46.43% more efficient than the best-known design, and the reason for this superiority was due to the coplanar form, without crossovers and inverter gates in the designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Sustainability for Energy and Electronics)
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13 pages, 5448 KiB  
Article
A Topology Generation and Synthesis Method for Boost Converters Based on Inductive Volt-Second Balance Theory
by Shaoru Zhang, Ran Zhou, Xiuju Du, Yanhua Zhang, Wenxiu Yang, Hua Zhao, Jielu Zhang and Fang Lin Luo
Electronics 2022, 11(15), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11152286 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
In this paper, a comprehensive method is proposed to derive the boost DC–DC converter from a given gain formula. The given gain formula is obtained by analyzing, generalizing, and summarizing previous boost structures in the literature. The analysis is based on the volt-second [...] Read more.
In this paper, a comprehensive method is proposed to derive the boost DC–DC converter from a given gain formula. The given gain formula is obtained by analyzing, generalizing, and summarizing previous boost structures in the literature. The analysis is based on the volt-second balance theory of inductors. Thus, the gain formula is only related to two elements, the connection between components and the duty cycle of the switches. Therefore, the topology corresponding to the gain can be derived and synthesized according to the connection of the inductors and the capacitor components during the commutation of the switch to meet the demand for different boost converters in different applications. Meanwhile, all the three-order gain formulas generated by this method are analyzed and three of them are selected for topology simplification and focus analysis, and the correctness of the selected topologies is verified by the simulation results and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Sustainability for Energy and Electronics)
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