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State-of-the-Art Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Italy (Closed)

A topical collection in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This collection belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98122 Messina, Italy
Interests: biochemistry; molecular mechanism; oxidative stress; endometriosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Laboratoty Physiology Department Translational Medicine, UPO, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy
Interests: cell biology; ageing; nutraceuticals; neurogical disorders; natural extract; molecular biology; 3D in vitro models; gut-brain axis; gut-eye axis; gut-prostate axis; ADME in vitro model
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Colleaction aims to publish contributions that report on novel research findings regarding bioactive compounds and nutraceutical products in Italy. We welcome submissions concerning nutritional applications that use biological, chemical, cellular, molecular, and immunological methods. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • the discovery of novel bioactive natural products;
  • the role of these products in manipulating food structure, and hence potential physiological mediation for human nutrition;
  • the use of in vitro and in vivo bioactivity research using cell lines and animal models as exemplars of human physiology.

Please note that for this Colleaction, the main part of the study must have been carried out in Italy or by Italian researchers. Additionally, the exact active ingredient of the natural origin extract must be reported in the submitted research manuscript, since papers describing the effects of mixed extraction from natural origin are not within the scope of this journal.

Dr. Roberta Fusco
Dr. Elia Ranzato
Dr. Francesca Uberti
Colleaction Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive
  • nutraceutical
  • nutrient
  • health
  • diet
  • functional food
  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
  • vitamins
  • proteins
  • peptides
  • polysaccharides
  • carotenoids
  • polyphenols
  • phytosterols and isoflavones
  • saponins
  • phytic acid
  • probiotics
  • prebiotics
  • enzymes
  • flavonoids
  • caffeine
  • carnitine
  • choline
  • creatine
  • dithiolthiones
  • phytoestrogens
  • glucosinolates, etc.

Published Papers (12 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022

15 pages, 3134 KiB  
Article
Pro-Osteogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Synergistic Effect of Orthosilicic Acid, Vitamin K2, Curcumin, Polydatin and Quercetin Combination in Young and Senescent Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
by Chiara Giordani, Giulia Matacchione, Angelica Giuliani, Debora Valli, Emanuele Salvatore Scarpa, Antonella Antonelli, Jacopo Sabbatinelli, Gilberta Giacchetti, Sofia Sabatelli, Fabiola Olivieri and Maria Rita Rippo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 8820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24108820 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1775
Abstract
During aging, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)—the precursors of osteoblasts—undergo cellular senescence, losing their osteogenic potential and acquiring a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype. These dysfunctions cause bone loss and lead to osteoporosis. Prevention and intervention at an early stage of bone loss are [...] Read more.
During aging, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)—the precursors of osteoblasts—undergo cellular senescence, losing their osteogenic potential and acquiring a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype. These dysfunctions cause bone loss and lead to osteoporosis. Prevention and intervention at an early stage of bone loss are important, and naturally active compounds could represent a valid help in addition to diet. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the combination of two pro-osteogenic factors, namely orthosilicic acid (OA) and vitamin K2 (VK2), and three other anti-inflammatory compounds, namely curcumin (CUR), polydatin (PD) and quercetin (QCT)—that mirror the nutraceutical BlastiMin Complex® (Mivell, Italy)—would be effective in promoting MSC osteogenesis, even of replicative senescent cells (sMSCs), and inhibiting their pro-inflammatory phenotype in vitro. Results showed that when used at non-cytotoxic doses, (i) the association of OA and VK2 promoted MSC differentiation into osteoblasts, even when cultured without other pro-differentiating factors; and (ii) CUR, PD and QCT exerted an anti-inflammatory effect on sMSCs, and also synergized with OA and VK2 in promoting the expression of the pivotal osteogenic marker ALP in these cells. Overall, these data suggest a potential role of using a combination of all of these natural compounds as a supplement to prevent or control the progression of age-related osteoporosis. Full article
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17 pages, 3134 KiB  
Article
The Combination of Natural Molecules Naringenin, Hesperetin, Curcumin, Polydatin and Quercetin Synergistically Decreases SEMA3E Expression Levels and DPPIV Activity in In Vitro Models of Insulin Resistance
by Emanuele-Salvatore Scarpa, Chiara Giordani, Antonella Antonelli, Massimiliano Petrelli, Giancarlo Balercia, Francesca Silvetti, Alessio Pieroni, Jacopo Sabbatinelli, Maria Rita Rippo, Fabiola Olivieri and Giulia Matacchione
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(9), 8071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24098071 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease characterized by a prolonged hyperglycemic condition caused by insulin resistance mechanisms in muscle and liver, reduced insulin production by pancreatic β cells, and a chronic inflammatory state with increased levels of the pro-inflammatory marker semaphorin [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease characterized by a prolonged hyperglycemic condition caused by insulin resistance mechanisms in muscle and liver, reduced insulin production by pancreatic β cells, and a chronic inflammatory state with increased levels of the pro-inflammatory marker semaphorin 3E. Phytochemicals present in several foods have been used to complement oral hypoglycemic drugs for the management of T2DM. Notably, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of T2DM. Our study aimed to investigate, in in vitro models of insulin resistance, the ability of the flavanones naringenin and hesperetin, used alone and in combination with the anti-inflammatory natural molecules curcumin, polydatin, and quercetin, to counteract the insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory molecular mechanisms that are involved in T2DM development. Our results show for the first time that the combination of naringenin, hesperetin, curcumin, polydatin, and quercetin (that mirror the nutraceutical formulation GliceFen®, Mivell, Italy) synergistically decreases expression levels of the pro-inflammatory gene SEMA3E in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and synergistically decreases DPPIV activity in insulin-resistant Hep3B cells, indicating that the combination of these five phytochemicals is able to inhibit pro-inflammatory and insulin resistance molecular mechanisms and could represent an effective innovative complementary approach to T2DM pharmacological treatment. Full article
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12 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Hydroxytyrosol-Rich Food Supplements on Reducing Lipid Oxidation in Humans
by Cecilia Bender, Ilaria Candi and Eva Rogel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065521 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
In the present study we report the efficacy of two food supplements derived from olives in reducing lipid oxidation. To this end, 12 healthy volunteers received a single dose (25 mL) of olive phenolics, mainly hydroxytyrosol (HT), provided as a liquid dietary supplement [...] Read more.
In the present study we report the efficacy of two food supplements derived from olives in reducing lipid oxidation. To this end, 12 healthy volunteers received a single dose (25 mL) of olive phenolics, mainly hydroxytyrosol (HT), provided as a liquid dietary supplement (30.6 or 61.5 mg HT), followed by an investigation of two reliable markers of oxidative stress. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, and 12 h post-intake. Plasma-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) cholesterol levels were measured with ELISA using a monoclonal antibody, while F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) were quantified in urine with UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Despite the great variability observed between individuals, a tendency to reduce lipoxidation reactions was observed in the blood in response to a single intake of the food supplements. In addition, the subgroup of individuals with the highest baseline oxLDL level showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in F2-IsoPs at 0.5 and 12 h post-intervention. These promising results suggest that HT supplementation could be a useful aid in preventing lipoxidation. Additionally, people with a redox imbalance could benefit even more from supplementing with bioavailable HT. Full article
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24 pages, 2206 KiB  
Article
Novel Approach to the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain Using a Combination with Palmitoylethanolamide and Equisetum arvense L. in an In Vitro Study
by Sara Ruga, Rebecca Galla, Sara Ferrari, Marco Invernizzi and Francesca Uberti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065503 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2967
Abstract
Neuropathic pain is a typical patient disorder resulting from damage and dysfunction of the peripheral neuraxis. Injury to peripheral nerves in the upper extremities can result in a lifelong reduction in quality of life and a devastating loss of sensory and motor function. [...] Read more.
Neuropathic pain is a typical patient disorder resulting from damage and dysfunction of the peripheral neuraxis. Injury to peripheral nerves in the upper extremities can result in a lifelong reduction in quality of life and a devastating loss of sensory and motor function. Since some standard pharmaceutical therapies can cause dependence or intolerance, nonpharmacological treatments have gained great interest in recent years. In this context, the beneficial effects of a new combination of palmitoylethanolamide and Equisetum arvense L. are evaluated in the present study. The bioavailability of the combination was initially analyzed in a 3D intestinal barrier simulating oral intake to analyze its absorption/biodistribution and exclude cytotoxicity. In a further step, a 3D nerve tissue model was performed to study the biological effects of the combination during the key mechanisms leading to peripheral neuropathy. Our results demonstrate that the combination successfully crossed the intestinal barrier and reached the target site, modulating the nerve recovery mechanism after Schwann cell injury and offering the initial response of relieving pain. This work supported the efficacy of palmitoylethanolamide and Equisetum arvense L. in reducing neuropathy and modifying the major pain mechanisms, outlining a possible alternative nutraceutical approach. Full article
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14 pages, 2128 KiB  
Communication
Effects of Usnic Acid to Prevent Infections by Creating a Protective Barrier in an In Vitro Study
by Rebecca Galla, Sara Ferrari, Sara Ruga, Beatrice Mantuano, Giorgia Rosso, Stelvio Tonello, Luigi Rosa, Piera Valenti and Francesca Uberti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043695 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Nasal sprays are medical devices useful for preventing infection and the subsequent spread of airborne pathogens. The effectiveness of these devices depends on the activity of chosen compounds which can create a physical barrier against viral uptake as well as incorporate different substances [...] Read more.
Nasal sprays are medical devices useful for preventing infection and the subsequent spread of airborne pathogens. The effectiveness of these devices depends on the activity of chosen compounds which can create a physical barrier against viral uptake as well as incorporate different substances with antiviral activity. Among antiviral compounds, UA, a dibenzofuran derived from lichens, has the mechanical ability to modify its structure by creating a branch capable of forming a protective barrier. The mechanical ability of UA to protect cells from virus infection was investigated by analyzing the branching capacity of UA, and then the protection mechanism in an in vitro model was also studied. As expected, UA at 37 °C was able to create a barrier confirming its ramification property. At the same time, UA was able to block the infection of Vero E6 and HNEpC cells by interfering with a biological interaction between cells and viruses as revealed also by the UA quantification. Therefore, UA can block virus activity through a mechanical barrier effect without altering the physiological nasal homeostasis. The findings of this research could be of great relevance in view of the growing alarm regarding the spread of airborne viral diseases. Full article
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22 pages, 2440 KiB  
Review
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cancer: Could Unfolded Protein Response Be a Druggable Target for Cancer Therapy?
by Gregorio Bonsignore, Simona Martinotti and Elia Ranzato
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021566 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3584
Abstract
Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive response which is used for re-establishing protein homeostasis, and it is triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specific ER proteins mediate UPR activation, after dissociation from chaperone Glucose-Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78). UPR can decrease ER stress, [...] Read more.
Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive response which is used for re-establishing protein homeostasis, and it is triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specific ER proteins mediate UPR activation, after dissociation from chaperone Glucose-Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78). UPR can decrease ER stress, producing an ER adaptive response, block UPR if ER homeostasis is restored, or regulate apoptosis. Some tumour types are linked to ER protein folding machinery disturbance, highlighting how UPR plays a pivotal role in cancer cells to keep malignancy and drug resistance. In this review, we focus on some molecules that have been revealed to target ER stress demonstrating as UPR could be a new target in cancer treatment. Full article

2022

Jump to: 2023

15 pages, 2651 KiB  
Article
Involvement of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1-α in Experimental Testicular Ischemia and Reperfusion: Effects of Polydeoxyribonucleotide and Selenium
by Pietro Antonuccio, Giovanni Pallio, Herbert Ryan Marini, Natasha Irrera, Carmelo Romeo, Domenico Puzzolo, Jose Freni, Giuseppe Santoro, Igor Pirrotta, Francesco Squadrito, Letteria Minutoli and Antonio Micali
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(21), 13144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113144 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1531
Abstract
Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) is an agonist of the A2A adenosine receptor derived from salmon trout sperm. Selenium (Se) is a trace element normally present in the diet. We aimed to investigate the long-term role of PDRN and Se, alone or in association, after ischemia-reperfusion [...] Read more.
Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) is an agonist of the A2A adenosine receptor derived from salmon trout sperm. Selenium (Se) is a trace element normally present in the diet. We aimed to investigate the long-term role of PDRN and Se, alone or in association, after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats. The animals underwent 1 h testicular ischemia followed by 30 days of reperfusion or a sham I/R and were treated with PDRN or Se alone or in association for 30 days. I/R significantly increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α) in Leydig cells, malondialdehyde (MDA), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (pErk 1/2), and apoptosis decreased testis weight, glutathione (GSH), testosterone, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), induced testicular structural changes, and eliminated HIF-1α spermatozoa positivity. The treatment with either PDRN or Se significantly decreased MDA, apoptosis, and HIF-1α positivity of Leydig cells, increased testis weight, GSH, testosterone, and Nrf2, and improved the structural organization of the testes. PDRN and Se association showed a higher protective effect on all biochemical, structural, and immunohistochemical parameters. Our data suggest that HIF-1α could play important roles in late testis I/R and that this transcriptional factor could be modulated by PDRN and Se association, which, together with surgery, could be considered a tool to improve varicocele-induced damages. Full article
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26 pages, 2530 KiB  
Article
New Hyaluronic Acid from Plant Origin to Improve Joint Protection—An In Vitro Study
by Rebecca Galla, Sara Ruga, Silvio Aprile, Sara Ferrari, Arianna Brovero, Giorgio Grosa, Claudio Molinari and Francesca Uberti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158114 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3208
Abstract
Background: In recent decades, hyaluronic acid (HA) has attracted great attention as a new treatment option for osteoarthritis. Classical therapies are not able to stop the cartilage degeneration process nor do they favor tissue repair. Nowadays, it is accepted that high molecular weight [...] Read more.
Background: In recent decades, hyaluronic acid (HA) has attracted great attention as a new treatment option for osteoarthritis. Classical therapies are not able to stop the cartilage degeneration process nor do they favor tissue repair. Nowadays, it is accepted that high molecular weight HA can reduce inflammation by promoting tissue regeneration; therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of a new high molecular weight HA of plant origin (called GreenIuronic®) in maintaining joint homeostasis and preventing the harmful processes of osteoarthritis. Methods: The bioavailability of GreenIuronic® was investigated in a 3D intestinal barrier model that mimics human oral intake while excluding damage to the intestinal barrier. Furthermore, the chemical significance and biological properties of GreenIuronic® were investigated in conditions that simulate osteoarthritis. Results: Our data demonstrated that GreenIuronic® crosses the intestinal barrier without side effects as it has a chemical–biological profile, which could be responsible for many specific chondrocyte functions. Furthermore, in the osteoarthritis model, GreenIuronic® can modulate the molecular mechanism responsible for preventing and restoring the degradation of cartilage. Conclusion: According to our results, this new form of HA appears to be well absorbed and distributed to chondrocytes, preserving their biological activities. Therefore, the oral administration of GreenIuronic® in humans can be considered a valid strategy to obtain beneficial therapeutic effects during osteoarthritis. Full article
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16 pages, 1626 KiB  
Review
Role of Vitamin K in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Focus on Bone and Cardiovascular Health
by Federica Bellone, Maria Cinquegrani, Ramona Nicotera, Nazareno Carullo, Alessandro Casarella, Pierangela Presta, Michele Andreucci, Giovanni Squadrito, Giuseppe Mandraffino, Marcello Prunestì, Cristina Vocca, Giovambattista De Sarro, Davide Bolignano and Giuseppe Coppolino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 5282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095282 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6540
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with vitamin K deficiency. Some of the serious complications of CKD are represented by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and skeletal fragility with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A complex pathogenetic link between hormonal and ionic [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is commonly associated with vitamin K deficiency. Some of the serious complications of CKD are represented by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and skeletal fragility with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A complex pathogenetic link between hormonal and ionic disturbances, bone tissue and metabolism alterations, and vascular calcification (VC) exists and has been defined as chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Poor vitamin K status seems to have a key role in the progression of CKD, but also in the onset and advance of both bone and cardiovascular complications. Three forms of vitamin K are currently known: vitamin K1 (phylloquinone), vitamin K2 (menaquinone), and vitamin K3 (menadione). Vitamin K plays different roles, including in activating vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) and in modulating bone metabolism and contributing to the inhibition of VC. This review focuses on the biochemical and functional characteristics of vitamin K vitamers, suggesting this nutrient as a possible marker of kidney, CV, and bone damage in the CKD population and exploring its potential use for promoting health in this clinical setting. Treatment strategies for CKD-associated osteoporosis and CV disease should include vitamin K supplementation. However, further randomized clinical studies are needed to assess the safety and the adequate dosage to prevent these CKD complications. Full article
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18 pages, 4413 KiB  
Article
Resveratrol Inhibition of the WNT/β-Catenin Pathway following Discogenic Low Back Pain
by Tiziana Genovese, Daniela Impellizzeri, Ramona D’Amico, Marika Cordaro, Alessio Filippo Peritore, Rosalia Crupi, Enrico Gugliandolo, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Roberta Fusco, Rosalba Siracusa and Rosanna Di Paola
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(8), 4092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23084092 - 7 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Low back pain (LBP) management is an important clinical issue. Inadequate LBP control has consequences on the mental and physical health of patients. Thus, acquiring new information on LBP mechanism would increase the available therapeutic tools. Resveratrol is a natural compound with many [...] Read more.
Low back pain (LBP) management is an important clinical issue. Inadequate LBP control has consequences on the mental and physical health of patients. Thus, acquiring new information on LBP mechanism would increase the available therapeutic tools. Resveratrol is a natural compound with many beneficial effects. In this study, we investigated the role of resveratrol on behavioral changes, inflammation and oxidative stress induced by LBP. Ten microliters of Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was injected in the lumbar intervertebral disk of Sprague Dawley rats to induce degeneration, and resveratrol was administered daily. Behavioral analyses were performed on day zero, three, five and seven, and the animals were sacrificed to evaluate the molecular pathways involved. Resveratrol administration alleviated hyperalgesia, motor disfunction and allodynia. Resveratrol administration significantly reduced the loss of notochordal cells and degenerative changes in the intervertebral disk. From the molecular point of view, resveratrol reduced the 5th/6th lumbar (L5–6) spinal activation of the WNT pathway, reducing the expression of WNT3a and cysteine-rich domain frizzled (FZ)8 and the accumulation of cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin. Moreover, resveratrol reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-18 that are target genes strictly downstream of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. It also showed important anti-inflammatory activities by reducing the activation of the NFkB pathway, the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and the levels of PGE2 in the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, resveratrol reduced the oxidative stress associated with inflammation and pain, as shown by the observed reduced lipid peroxidation and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT activities. Therefore, resveratrol administration controlled the WNT/β-catenin pathway and the related inflammatory and oxidative alterations, thus alleviating the behavioral changes induced by LBP. Full article
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18 pages, 1438 KiB  
Article
The Activity of Ten Natural Extracts Combined in a Unique Blend to Maintain Cholesterol Homeostasis—In Vitro Model
by Sara Ruga, Rebecca Galla, Claudia Penna, Claudio Molinari and Francesca Uberti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073805 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and statins, the HMGCoA inhibitors, are the most prescribed drugs. Statins reduce the production of hepatic cholesterol, leading to greater expression of the LDL receptor and greater absorption of circulating LDL, reducing peripheral LDL [...] Read more.
Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and statins, the HMGCoA inhibitors, are the most prescribed drugs. Statins reduce the production of hepatic cholesterol, leading to greater expression of the LDL receptor and greater absorption of circulating LDL, reducing peripheral LDL levels. Unfortunately, statins are believed to induce myopathy and other severe diseases. To overcome this problem, safe nutraceuticals with the same activity as statins could hold great promise in the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In this study, the anti-cholesterol efficacy of a new nutraceutical, called Esterol10®, was evaluated. Methods: HepG2 cells were used to study the biological mechanisms exerted by Esterol10® analyzing different processes involved in cholesterol metabolism, also comparing data with Atorvastatin. Results: Our results indicate that Esterol10® leads to a reduction in total hepatocyte cholesterol and an improvement in the biosynthesis of free cholesterol and bile acids. Furthermore, the anti-cholesterol activity of Esterol10® was also confirmed by the modulation of the LDL receptor and by the accumulation of lipids, as well as by the main intracellular pathways involved in the metabolism of cholesterol. Conclusions: Esterol10® is safe and effective with anti-cholesterol activity, potentially providing an alternative therapy to those based on statins for hypercholesterolemia disease. Full article
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15 pages, 2525 KiB  
Review
Anti-Eryptotic Activity of Food-Derived Phytochemicals and Natural Compounds
by Ignazio Restivo, Alessandro Attanzio, Luisa Tesoriere, Mario Allegra, Guadalupe Garcia-Llatas and Antonio Cilla
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063019 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3384
Abstract
Human red blood cells (RBCs), senescent or damaged due to particular stress, can be removed by programmed suicidal death, a process called eryptosis. There are various molecular mechanisms underlying eryptosis. The most frequent is the increase in the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ [...] Read more.
Human red blood cells (RBCs), senescent or damaged due to particular stress, can be removed by programmed suicidal death, a process called eryptosis. There are various molecular mechanisms underlying eryptosis. The most frequent is the increase in the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ ions, later exposure of erythrocytes to oxidative stress, hyperosmotic shock, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, and energy depletion. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposed by eryptotic RBCs due to interaction with endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor, causes the RBCs to adhere to vascular wall with consequent damage to the microcirculation. Eryptosis can be triggered by various xenobiotics and endogenous molecules, such as high cholesterol levels. The possible diseases associated with eryptosis are various, including anemia, chronic kidney disease, liver failure, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, thrombosis, obesity, metabolic syndrome, arthritis, and lupus. This review addresses and collates the existing ex vivo and animal studies on the inhibition of eryptosis by food-derived phytochemicals and natural compounds including phenolic compounds (PC), alkaloids, and other substances that could be a therapeutic and/or co-adjuvant option in eryptotic-driven disorders, especially if they are introduced through the diet. Full article
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