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Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 14175

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: biochemistry; oxidative stress; inflammation; ischemic injury; neurodegenerative diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Natural products and their extracts play a key role in almost every field of chemistry and biology, from microbiology and biochemistry to medicine and bioinformatics.

Food bioactive compounds are extra-nutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods. In summary, numerous bioactive compounds appear to have beneficial health effects. Much scientific research needs to be conducted before we can begin to make science-based dietary recommendations. This Special Issue welcomes both original articles and reviews focusing on the properties of bioactive compounds from natural sources.

Dr. Roberta Fusco
Dr. Daniela Impellizzeri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • flavonoids
  • terpenoids
  • carotenoids
  • saponins
  • oxidative stress
  • inflammation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 4545 KiB  
Article
Targeting Nrf2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Inflammatory Pain: The Role of Polyphenols from Thinned Apples
by Livia Interdonato, Giulio Ferrario, Marika Cordaro, Ramona D’Amico, Rosalba Siracusa, Roberta Fusco, Daniela Impellizzeri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Giancarlo Aldini and Rosanna Di Paola
Molecules 2023, 28(14), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28145376 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
Diet can modulate the different stages of inflammation due to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. Apples are a great source of phenolic compounds that show anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and these might be used as a dietary supplement and/or functional [...] Read more.
Diet can modulate the different stages of inflammation due to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. Apples are a great source of phenolic compounds that show anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and these might be used as a dietary supplement and/or functional element in the treatment of chronic inflammatory illnesses. The aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions of thinned apple polyphenol (TAP) extracts in a model of paw edema. The experimental model was induced in rats via subplantar injections of 1% λ-Carrageenan (CAR) in the right hind leg, and TAP extract was administered via oral gavage 30 min before and 1 h after the CAR injection at doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The inflammatory response is usually quantified by the increase in the size of the paw (edema), which is maximal about 5 h after the injection of CAR. CAR-induced inflammation generates the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the inflammatory state induces the pain that involves the peripheral nociceptors, but above all it acts centrally at the level of the spinal cord. Our results showed that the TAP extracts reduced paw histological changes, neutrophil infiltration, mast cell degranulation, and oxidative stress. Additionally, the oral administration of TAP extracts decreased thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, along with a reduction in spinal microglia and the markers of nociception. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TAP extract is able to modulate inflammatory, oxidative, and painful processes, and is also useful in the treatment of the symptoms associated with paw edema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources)
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16 pages, 20915 KiB  
Article
Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) Inducing Endothelial Injury: UPLC-MS/MS-Based Quantification and the Activation of Cathepsin B-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome
by Dongyu Lei, Wenbo Yu, Yi Liu, Yujie Jiang, Xiaohui Li, Jing Lv and Ying Li
Molecules 2023, 28(9), 3817; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28093817 - 29 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1546
Abstract
TMAO is a new risk biomarker for cardiovascular disease. With trimethylammonium as its main chemical skeleton, TMAO is structurally similar to many endogenous metabolites, such as acetylcholine, carnitine, phosphorylcholine, etc. The mechanism of TMAO on the pathological process of CVD is still unclear. [...] Read more.
TMAO is a new risk biomarker for cardiovascular disease. With trimethylammonium as its main chemical skeleton, TMAO is structurally similar to many endogenous metabolites, such as acetylcholine, carnitine, phosphorylcholine, etc. The mechanism of TMAO on the pathological process of CVD is still unclear. In this study, the quantitative analysis of plasma TMAO is conducted, and the contribution of Cathepsin B and NLRP3 inflammasome during the process of TMAO-induced endothelial injury was proposed and investigated at animal and cellular levels. Immunofluorescence assay was applied to represent the protein expression of Cathepsin B and NLRP3 inflammasome located at endothelial cells. The results showed that TMAO could disrupt endothelial cells permeability to induce endothelial injury, meanwhile, TMAO could increase NLRP3 inflammasome activation and promote the activity and expression of Cathepsin B in vitro and in vivo, whereas inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by MCC950 could protect the endothelial cells from TMAO associated endothelial injury via Cathepsin B. The study reveals that TMAO can cause endothelial injury via Cathepsin B-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome, and inhibition of Cathepsin B and NLRP3 inflammasome can reduce the TMAO-induced damage. The results provide new insight into the role of TMAO in CVD, which can be a potential therapeutic target for disease treatment and drug design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources)
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12 pages, 1248 KiB  
Article
The Evaluation of Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria for Bioconversion of Milk and Whey from Goat Milk to Release Biomolecules with Antibacterial Activity
by Agata Biadała, Tomasz Szablewski, Renata Cegielska-Radziejewska, Małgorzata Lasik-Kurdyś and Noranizan Mohd Adzahan
Molecules 2023, 28(9), 3696; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28093696 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial features of functional macromolecules released during the fermentation of goat milk and whey from goat milk by selected lactic acid bacteria strains that are components of kefir grain microflora. Two milk sources were [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial features of functional macromolecules released during the fermentation of goat milk and whey from goat milk by selected lactic acid bacteria strains that are components of kefir grain microflora. Two milk sources were used: goat milk and whey from goat milk. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and indicator microorganisms used were Lactobacillus plantarum PCM 1386, Lactobacillus fermentum PCM 491, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PCM 2677, Lactobacillus acidophilus PCM 2499, Escherichia coli PCM 2793, Salmonella enteritidis PCM 2548, Micrococcus luteus PCM 525, and Proteus mirabilis PCM 1361. The metabolic activity of LAB was described by the Gompertz model, and the parameters proposed for this experiment were the maximum rate of change of electrical impedance and potential biodegradability. Antibacterial activity was examined using the culture method in a liquid medium, determination of the reduction in indicator microorganisms, and optical density changes. Results show that the selective LAB produced certain active biomolecules with antibacterial activity from whey, a by-product that is sometimes troublesome for goat milk processors to manage. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a microorganism that is characterized by the highest metabolic activity in goat milk and whey from goat milk. It has the possibility to produce macromolecules with antibacterial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources)
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12 pages, 5784 KiB  
Article
Cripowellins Pause Plasmodium falciparum Intraerythrocytic Development at the Ring Stage
by Joshua H. Butler, Heather J. Painter, Emily K. Bremers, Priscilla Krai, Manuel Llinás and Maria B. Cassera
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2600; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062600 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
Cripowellins from Crinum erubescens are known pesticidal and have potent antiplasmodial activity. To gain mechanistic insights to this class of natural products, studies to determine the timing of action of cripowellins within the asexual intraerythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum were performed and led [...] Read more.
Cripowellins from Crinum erubescens are known pesticidal and have potent antiplasmodial activity. To gain mechanistic insights to this class of natural products, studies to determine the timing of action of cripowellins within the asexual intraerythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum were performed and led to the observation that this class of natural products induced reversible cytostasis in the ring stage within the first 24 h of treatment. The transcriptional program necessary for P. falciparum to progress through the asexual intraerythrocytic life cycle is well characterized. Whole transcriptome abundance analysis showed that cripowellin B “pauses” the transcriptional program necessary to progress through the intraerythrocytic life cycle coinciding with the lack of morphological progression of drug treated parasites. In addition, cripowellin B-treated parasites re-enter transcriptional progression after treatment was removed. This study highlights the use of cripowellins as chemical probes to reveal new aspects of cell cycle progression of the asexual ring stage of P. falciparum which could be leveraged for the generation of future antimalarial therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources)
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0 pages, 1558 KiB  
Article
Treatment with Glyphosate Induces Tolerance of Citrus Pathogens to Glyphosate and Fungicides but Not to 1,8-Cineole
by Nor EL Houda Tahiri, Hamza Saghrouchni, Noureddine Hamamouch, Mostafa El Khomsi, Abdulhakeem Alzahrani, Ahmad Mohammad Salamatullah, Lyoussi Badiaa and Lalla Aicha Lrhorfi
Molecules 2022, 27(23), 8300; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238300 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
During the postharvest period, citrus fruits are exposed to Penicillium italicum, Penicillium digitatum, and Geotrichum candidum. Pesticides such as imazalil (IMZ), thiabendazole (TBZ), orthophenylphenol (OPP), and guazatine (GUA) are commonly used as antifungals. Glyphosate (GP) is also used in citrus fields [...] Read more.
During the postharvest period, citrus fruits are exposed to Penicillium italicum, Penicillium digitatum, and Geotrichum candidum. Pesticides such as imazalil (IMZ), thiabendazole (TBZ), orthophenylphenol (OPP), and guazatine (GUA) are commonly used as antifungals. Glyphosate (GP) is also used in citrus fields to eliminate weed growth. The sensitivity of fungal pathogens of citrus fruit to these pesticides and 1,8-cineole was evaluated, and the effect of GP on the development of cross-resistance to other chemicals was monitored over a period of 3 weeks. IMZ most effectively inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of P. digitatum and P. italicum, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.01 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively, followed by 1,8-cineole, GP, and TBZ. 1,8-Cineole and GP more effectively inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of G. candidum, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.2 and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively, than OPP or GUA. For the spore germination assay, all substances tested showed a total inhibitory effect. Subculturing the fungal strains in culture media containing increasing concentrations of GP induced fungal tolerance to GP as well as to the fungicides. In soil, experiments confirmed that GP induced the tolerance of P. digitatum to TBZ and GP and the tolerance of P. italicum to IMZ, TBZ, and GP. However, no tolerance was recorded against 1,8-cineole. In conclusion, it can be said that 1,8-cineole may be recommended as an alternative to conventional fungicides. In addition, these results indicate that caution should be taken when using GP in citrus fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources)
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19 pages, 4625 KiB  
Article
Interactive Effect of Biological Agents Chitosan, Lentinan and Ningnanmycin on Papaya Ringspot Virus Resistance in Papaya (Carica papaya L.)
by Heling Fan, Xingxiang Yan, Mingqing Fu, Difa Liu, Abdul Waheed Awan, Ping Chen, Syed Majid Rasheed, Ling Gao and Rongping Zhang
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7474; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217474 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
The papaya industry is mainly impacted by viral diseases, especially papaya ringspot disease (PRSD) caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). So far, research on the interaction between Chitosan, Lentinan and Ningnanmycin on PRSD has not been reported. This research studied the controlled and [...] Read more.
The papaya industry is mainly impacted by viral diseases, especially papaya ringspot disease (PRSD) caused by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). So far, research on the interaction between Chitosan, Lentinan and Ningnanmycin on PRSD has not been reported. This research studied the controlled and interactive effect of three biological agents, namely, Chitosan (C), Lentinan (L) and Ningnanmycin (N), on PRSV in papaya, individually and collectively. The changes in disease index, controlled effect, Peroxidase (POD), Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), growth and development of plants were observed at the seedling stage, in pots, and at the fruiting stage, in the field. The appearance and nutrient contents of fruits were measured during the fruit stage. The disease index of PRSV, at seedling and fruiting stages, was significantly lower for chitosan, lentinan and ningnanmycin and their interactive effect, compared to a control check treatment. The activity of the defense enzymes could be improved by the three kinds of biological agents and their interactive effect, especially lentinan and ningnanmycin. The chlorophyll content, plant height, stem diameter and fruit quality rose significantly under chitosan, lentinan and ningnanmycin treatments. The interaction of LN could inhibit PRSV disease at the seedling and fruiting stages of papaya, and promote the growth of plants and the quality of fruit at the fruit stage. Hence, this study provides the theoretical foundation for the biological control of papaya ringspot disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources)
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12 pages, 1396 KiB  
Article
Potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Hibiscus Acid to Reverse Skin Aging
by Duanyang Wang, Maki Nagata, Masako Matsumoto, Yhiya Amen, Dongmei Wang and Kuniyoshi Shimizu
Molecules 2022, 27(18), 6076; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27186076 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2971
Abstract
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) has a long history of edible and medicinal uses. In this study, the biological activities of the extracts, chromatographic fractions, and hibiscus acid obtained from HS were evaluated for their potential bioactivities. Their ability to promote extracellular [...] Read more.
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) has a long history of edible and medicinal uses. In this study, the biological activities of the extracts, chromatographic fractions, and hibiscus acid obtained from HS were evaluated for their potential bioactivities. Their ability to promote extracellular matrix synthesis in skin fibroblasts was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in a nitric oxide (NO)–Griess inflammatory experiment. Furthermore, hibiscus acid was found to have a strong anti-oxidative stress effect through the establishment of an oxidative stress model induced by hydrogen peroxide. Several assays indicated that hibiscus acid treatment can effectively reduce extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion and carbonyl protein production, as well as maintain a high level of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in skin cells, thus providing a possible mechanism by which hibiscus acid can counter antioxidative stress. The present study is the first to explore the reversing skin aging potential and the contributory component of HS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources)
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Review

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15 pages, 3629 KiB  
Review
Azumamides A-E: Isolation, Synthesis, Biological Activity, and Structure–Activity Relationship
by Sooheum Jo, Jin-Hee Kim, Jiyeon Lee, Youngjun Park and Jaebong Jang
Molecules 2022, 27(23), 8438; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238438 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Cyclic peptides are one of the important chemical groups in the HDAC inhibitor family. Following the success of romidepsin in the clinic, naturally occurring cyclic peptides with a hydrophilic moiety have been intensively studied to test their function as HDAC inhibitors. Azumamides A-E, [...] Read more.
Cyclic peptides are one of the important chemical groups in the HDAC inhibitor family. Following the success of romidepsin in the clinic, naturally occurring cyclic peptides with a hydrophilic moiety have been intensively studied to test their function as HDAC inhibitors. Azumamides A-E, isolated from Mycale izuensis, are one of the powerful HDAC inhibitor classes. Structurally, azumamides A-E consist of three D-α-amino acids and unnatural β-amino acids such as 3-amino-2-methyl-5-nonenedioic acid-9-amide (Amnna) and 3-amino-2-methyl-5-nonenoic-1,9-diacid (Amnda). Moreover, azumamides have a retro-arrangement peptide backbone, unlike other naturally occurring cyclopeptide HDAC inhibitors, owing to the D-configuration of all residues. This review summarizes the currently available synthetic methods of azumamides A-E focusing on the synthesis of β-amino acids and macrocyclization. In addition, we overview the structure–activity relationship of azumamides A-E based on reported analogs. Collectively, this review highlights the potentiality of azumamides A-E as an HDAC inhibitor and provides further developmental insight into naturally occurring cyclic peptides in HDAC inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources)
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