Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2023) | Viewed by 40143

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Special Issue Editors

1. National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2. MOA Key Laboratory for the Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: rapid detection technology; veterinary drug residues; animal derived food; food safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Agri-food Quality and Safety, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: agricultural standardization; quality and safety risk monitoring and assessment of agricultural products; combined toxicity effect study of mixed pollutants in agricultural products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The contaminants in food (e.g., heavy metals, foodborne pathogenic microorganisms, pesticides, veterinary drugs/antibiotics, toxins, prohibited additives, and allergens) can seriously threaten the ’health of human beings. In recent years, research on the source, detection, toxicity, and removal of food contaminant components has undergone rapid development and achieved tremendous progress through the painstaking efforts of researchers. Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to provide a broader perspective of the latest advances in the source, detection, toxicity, and removal of food contaminant components. In this Special Issue, we aim to address: 1) Where do these contaminant components come from? How can we detect these contaminant components? How toxic are these contaminant components? How can we remove these contaminant components? Methodological advances in all areas of food contaminant components, from fundamental research to applied research, can be covered. We welcome both original research and review articles on topics including, but not limited to:

  • food contaminants;
  • sources;
  • metabolism;
  • biotransformation;
  • toxicity;
  • elimination;
  • excretion;
  • detection;

Prof. Dr. Dapeng Peng
Prof. Dr. Yongzhong Qian
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • source
  • detection
  • metabolism
  • risk assessment
  • analysis
  • toxicity
  • removal
  • elimination

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1401 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Determine Promethazine and Its Metabolites in Edible Tissues of Swine
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112180 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
This study aimed to determine promethazine (PMZ) and its metabolites, promethazine sulfoxide (PMZSO) and monodesmethyl-promethazine (Nor1PMZ), in swine muscle, liver, kidney, and fat. A sample preparation method and high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis were established and validated. The samples [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine promethazine (PMZ) and its metabolites, promethazine sulfoxide (PMZSO) and monodesmethyl-promethazine (Nor1PMZ), in swine muscle, liver, kidney, and fat. A sample preparation method and high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis were established and validated. The samples were extracted using 0.1% formic acid–acetonitrile and purified with acetonitrile-saturated n-hexane. After concentration by rotary evaporation, the extract was re-dissolved in a mixture of 0.1% formic acid-water and acetonitrile (80:20, v/v). Analysis was performed using a Waters Symmetry C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm) with 0.1% formic acid–water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The target compounds were determined using positive ion scan and multiple reaction monitoring. PMZ and Nor1PMZ were quantified with deuterated promethazine (PMZ-d6) as the internal standard, while PMZSO was quantified using the external standard method. In spiked muscle, liver, and kidney samples, the limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for PMZ and PMZSO were 0.05 μg/kg and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively, while for Nor1PMZ, these values were 0.1 μg/kg and 0.5 μg/kg, respectively. For spiked fat samples, the LOD and LOQ for all three analytes were found to be 0.05 μg/kg and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively. The sensitivity of this proposed method reaches or exceeds that presented in previous reports. The analytes PMZ and PMZSO exhibited good linearity within the range of 0.1 μg/kg to 50 μg/kg, while Nor1PMZ showed good linearity within the range of 0.5 μg/kg to 50 μg/kg, with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.99. The average recoveries of the target analytes in the samples varied from 77% to 111%, with the precision fluctuating between 1.8% and 11%. This study developed, for the first time, an HPLC–MS/MS method for the determination of PMZ, PMZSO, and Nor1PMZ in four swine edible tissues, comprehensively covering the target tissues of monitoring object. The method is applicable for monitoring veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods, ensuring food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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10 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Uptake of Fungicide Fluopyram from Soil by Scallions during Greenhouse Cultivation
Foods 2023, 12(10), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12101996 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Unintentional pesticide contamination in rotational crops, often caused by soil contamination from pesticide use in the preceding crops, is a major concern in a positive list system. The residue and dissipation pattern of fluopyram in soil and scallions were investigated to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Unintentional pesticide contamination in rotational crops, often caused by soil contamination from pesticide use in the preceding crops, is a major concern in a positive list system. The residue and dissipation pattern of fluopyram in soil and scallions were investigated to evaluate the uptake of fluopyram from the soil by scallions. In addition, the management concentration in soil (MCsoil) was calculated based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and the maximum residue limit (0.2 mg/kg) in leaf-and-stem vegetables. In a field experiment, plots in two different trials, A and B, were treated with 0.06 g fluopyram/m2 and maintained for 30 days according to OECD guidelines. Scallion seedlings were cultivated for 48 days. Soil samples were taken at three different time points: DAP (Days after planting) 0, 34, and 48. Scallion samples were collected at five different time points: DAP 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48. The initial amounts of fluopyram in soil at DAP 0 were 0.94 ± 0.03 and 0.96 ± 0.04 mg/kg in trials A and B, respectively. The half-life of fluopyram in the soil was 87–231 days. Fluopyram uptake by the roots increased over time, but fluopyram residue in the scallions decreased due to the dilution effect caused by an increase in plant weight. The residues in the scallions at DAP 48 were 0.22 ± 0.01 and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/kg in trials A and B, respectively. The BCFs of scallions for fluopyram were 0.21–0.24 (trial A) and 0.14–0.18 (trial B). The MCsoil was proposed as 0.8 mg/kg, and may be utilized as a safe management guideline for precautionary practices to cultivate safe rotational crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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17 pages, 1126 KiB  
Article
Impact of Potentially Toxic Compounds in Cow Milk: How Industrial Activities Affect Animal Primary Productions
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081718 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently coexist in soils near industrial areas and sometimes in environmental compartments directly linked to feed (forage) and food (milk) production. However, the distribution of these pollutants along the dairy farm production chain is [...] Read more.
Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently coexist in soils near industrial areas and sometimes in environmental compartments directly linked to feed (forage) and food (milk) production. However, the distribution of these pollutants along the dairy farm production chain is unclear. Here, we analyzed soil, forage, and milk samples from 16 livestock farms in Spain: several PTEs and PAHs were quantified. Farms were compared in terms of whether they were close to (<5 km) or far away from (>5 km) industrial areas. The results showed that PTEs and PAHs were enriched in the soils and forages from farms close to industrial areas, but not in the milk. In the soil, the maximum concentrations of PTEs reached 141, 46.1, 3.67, 6.11, and 138 mg kg−1 for chromium, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, respectively, while fluoranthene (172.8 µg kg−1) and benzo(b)fluoranthene (177.4 µg kg−1) were the most abundant PAHs. Principal component analysis of the soil PTEs suggested common pollution sources for iron, arsenic, and lead. In the forage, the maximum contents of chromium, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead were 32.8, 7.87, 1.31, 0.47, and 7.85 mg kg−1, respectively. The PAH found in the highest concentration in the feed forage was pyrene (120 µg kg−1). In the milk, the maximum PTE levels were much lower than in the soil or the feed forages: 74.1, 16.1, 0.12, 0.28, and 2.7 µg kg−1 for chromium, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, respectively. Neither of the two milk samples exceeded the 20 µg kg−1 limit for lead set in EU 1881/2006. Pyrene was the most abundant PAH found in the milk (39.4 µg kg−1), while high molecular weight PAHs were not detected. For PTEs, the results showed that soil–forage transfer factors were higher than forage–milk ratios. Our results suggest that soils and forages around farms near industries, as well as the milk produced from those farms, have generally low levels of PTE and PAH contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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14 pages, 1601 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Nonylphenols in Foods by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2023, 12(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020269 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Nonylphenols (NPs) are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are known to cause disorders in the endocrine systems of organisms. Due to their high lipophilicity and low degradability, these harmful substances are known to accumulate and persist in the environment, and even enter [...] Read more.
Nonylphenols (NPs) are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are known to cause disorders in the endocrine systems of organisms. Due to their high lipophilicity and low degradability, these harmful substances are known to accumulate and persist in the environment, and even enter into the food chain. Analytical methods of liquid–liquid extraction using solid-phase extraction for sample clean-up combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were established to determine the presence of NPs in foods. This study aimed to develop and validate these methods using four food matrices representing high-fat and low-fat solid food, as well as high-fat and low-fat liquid food, groups. The single linear isomer 4-n-NP was used to validate the quantification of NPs, which exist in complex isomer mixtures. Our results showed good linearity, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.998 for all four matrices. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.37–1.79 and 1.11–5.41 μg/kg, respectively. Recovery rates were 86.8–108.6% and 92.6–101.9% for intraday and interday assays, respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 12% for both assays. The method was applied to analyze 1185 domestic food samples consumed by Koreans, with NPs detected at concentration ranges of 2.57–269.07 μg/kg. Results for each food type over wide concentration ranges indicated that these compounds are highly dependent on the area of cultivation, and are affected by the levels of those contaminants in different environments. The contents of NPs in foods from animal sources were generally higher than those from plant sources, in particular being higher in the intestines than in lean tissue. The present findings could form the basis for determining the level of dietary exposure to NPs and how each food source contributes to it in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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12 pages, 1550 KiB  
Article
Improved LC/MS/MS Quantification Using Dual Deuterated Isomers as the Surrogates: A Case Analysis of Enrofloxacin Residue in Aquatic Products
Foods 2023, 12(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010224 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Extensive and high residue variations in enrofloxacin (ENR) exist in different aquatic products. A novel quantitative method for measuring ENR using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was developed employing enrofloxacin-d5 (ENR-d5) and enrofloxacin-d3 (ENR-d3 [...] Read more.
Extensive and high residue variations in enrofloxacin (ENR) exist in different aquatic products. A novel quantitative method for measuring ENR using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was developed employing enrofloxacin-d5 (ENR-d5) and enrofloxacin-d3 (ENR-d3) as isotope surrogates. This reduced the deviation of detected values, which results from the overpass of the linear range and/or the large difference in the residue between the isotope standard and ENR, from the actual content. Furthermore, high residue levels of ENR can be directly diluted and re-calibrated by the corresponding curve with the addition of high levels of another internal surrogate without repeated sample preparation, avoiding the overflow of the instrument response. The validation results demonstrated that the method can simultaneously determine ENR residues from MQL (2 µg/kg) to 5000 × MQL (method quantification limit) with recoveries between 97.1 and 106%, and intra-precision of no more than 2.14%. This method realized a wide linear calibration range with dual deuterated isomers, which has not been previously reported in the literature. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ENR in different aquatic products, with ENR residue levels varying from 108 to 4340 μg/kg and an interval of precision in the range of 0.175~6.72%. These results demonstrate that batch samples with a high variation in ENR residues (over the linear range with a single isotope standard) can be detected by the dual isotope surrogates method in a single sample preparation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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13 pages, 880 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Household Food Processing on Pesticide Residues in Oranges (Citrus sinensis)
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3918; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233918 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
In this study, the effect of various household food-processing methods (washing, peeling, processing into jam and fruit juice, freezing, storage) on pesticide residues (abamectin, buprofezin, ethoxazole, imazalil, and thiophanate-methyl) in oranges was investigated. Residue analyses were performed by quick-easy-cheap-efficient-rugged-safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of various household food-processing methods (washing, peeling, processing into jam and fruit juice, freezing, storage) on pesticide residues (abamectin, buprofezin, ethoxazole, imazalil, and thiophanate-methyl) in oranges was investigated. Residue analyses were performed by quick-easy-cheap-efficient-rugged-safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The limit of quantification of the method for each pesticide was 10 µg/kg. Physicochemical properties of the pesticides and the type of the food process had a considerable effect on the fate of pesticide residue. Pesticide residues were mostly dispersed on orange peels and washing with tap water decreased the residue levels by 26–84%. The amount of residue in oranges was reduced by 63–100% during fruit juice processing, while residues were removed by 90–100% after jam processing. Pesticides with a high octanol–water coefficient were absorbed by the wax of the orange peel, therefore they remained on the peel and could not easily be removed by washing. Moreover, pesticides with lower water solubility did not diffuse easily through the fruit juices from the pulp section of the fruit. The processing factor was greater than 1 for the separation of the orange peel and less than 1 for the washing step and jam and fruit juice productions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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14 pages, 2875 KiB  
Article
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis to Investigate the Immunotoxicity Mechanism Triggered by Dimethomorph on Human Jurkat T Cell Lines
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3848; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233848 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Dimethomorph (DMM) is a broad-spectrum fungicide used globally in agricultural production, but little is known regarding the immunotoxicity of DMM in humans. In this study, the immunotoxicity of DMM on human Jurkat T cells was evaluated in vitro. The results indicated that the [...] Read more.
Dimethomorph (DMM) is a broad-spectrum fungicide used globally in agricultural production, but little is known regarding the immunotoxicity of DMM in humans. In this study, the immunotoxicity of DMM on human Jurkat T cells was evaluated in vitro. The results indicated that the half-effective concentration (EC50) of DMM for Jurkat cells was 126.01 mg/L (0.32 mM). To further elucidate the underlying mechanism, transcriptomics based on RNA sequencing for exposure doses of EC25 (M21) and EC10 (L4) was performed. The results indicated that compared to untreated samples (Ctr), 121 genes (81 upregulated, 40 downregulated) and 30 genes (17 upregulated, 13 downregulated) were significantly differentially regulated in the L4 and M21 samples, respectively. A gene ontology analysis indicated that the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mostly enriched in the negative regulation of cell activities, and a KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the DEGs were mainly enriched in the immune regulation and signal transduction pathways. A quantitative real-time PCR for the selected genes showed that compared to the high-dose exposure (M21), the effect of the low-dose DMM exposure (L4) on gene expression was more significant. The results indicated that DMM has potential immunotoxicity for humans, and this toxicity cannot be ignored even at low concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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14 pages, 3643 KiB  
Article
Rapid Detection of Malathion, Phoxim and Thiram on Orange Surfaces Using Ag Nanoparticle Modified PDMS as Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Substrate
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3597; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223597 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Malathion, phoxim, and thiram are organophosphates and organosulfur pesticides widely used in agricultural products. The residues of these pesticides present a direct threat to human health. Rapid and on-site detection is critical for minimizing such risks. In this work, a simple approach was [...] Read more.
Malathion, phoxim, and thiram are organophosphates and organosulfur pesticides widely used in agricultural products. The residues of these pesticides present a direct threat to human health. Rapid and on-site detection is critical for minimizing such risks. In this work, a simple approach was introduced using a flexible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. The prepared Ag nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (AgNPs-PDMS) substrate showed high SERS activity, good precision (relative standard deviation = 5.33%), and stability (30 days) after optimization. For target pesticides, the linear relationship between characteristic SERS bands and concentrations were achieved in the range of 10~1000, 100~5000, and 50~5000 μg L−1 with LODs down to 3.62, 41.46, and 15.69 μg L−1 for thiram, malathion, and phoxim, respectively. Moreover, SERS spectra of mixed samples indicated that three pesticides can be identified simultaneously, with recovery rates between 96.5 ± 3.3% and 118.9 ± 2.4%, thus providing an ideal platform for detecting more than one target. Pesticide residues on orange surfaces can be simply determined through swabbing with the flexible substrate before acquiring the SERS signal. This study demonstrated that the prepared substrate can be used for the rapid detection of pesticides on real samples. Overall, this method greatly simplified the pre-treatment procedure, thus serving as a promising analytical tool for rapid and nondestructive screening of malathion, phoxim, and thiram on various agricultural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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14 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cooking Methods on Amphenicols and Metabolites Residues in Livestock and Poultry Meat Spiked Tissues
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3497; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213497 - 03 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Foods of animal origin, as nutritional supplements, are usually consumed after cooking, but residues of amphenicols in fresh raw meat threaten human health. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of boiling, deep-frying and microwave processing under different time conditions on [...] Read more.
Foods of animal origin, as nutritional supplements, are usually consumed after cooking, but residues of amphenicols in fresh raw meat threaten human health. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of boiling, deep-frying and microwave processing under different time conditions on the residue levels of amphenicols and metabolites in livestock and poultry meat. Antibiotic-free pork, beef, lamb and chicken samples were spiked with chloramphenicol (CAP), thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and florfenicol amine (FFA) standard solutions and made into homogeneous meat blocks. These positive mock meat blocks were processed using three different cooking methods, and the analyses were performed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that cooking methods, time and food matrices were the main factors influencing the changes in amphenicols and metabolites residues in livestock and poultry meat. With the increase in cooking time, boiling processing was the most effective in reducing the four drug residues in livestock and poultry meat matrices, followed by deep-frying, while microwaving caused an increase in drug residue concentrations. Although boiling and frying processes are effective strategies to reduce amphenicols and metabolites residues in meat, it cannot be assumed that these residues can always decrease to levels that are safe for consumer health, especially when the drug residue concentrations in raw meat are above the maximum residue limits (MRLs). Therefore, it is not reliable to remove residues of amphenicols and metabolites from food by cooking. The solution to the food safety problem of veterinary drug residues must start from the breeding source and accelerate the implementation of antibiotic reduction, antibiotic substitution and antibiotic-free farming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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10 pages, 3119 KiB  
Article
A Novel Metabolite as a Hapten to Prepare Monoclonal Antibodies for Rapid Screening of Quinoxaline Drug Residues
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203305 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Quinoxalines (Qx) are chemically synthesized antibacterial drugs with strong antibacterial and growth-promoting effects. Qx is heavily abused by farmers, resulting in large residues in animal-derived foods, which pose a serious threat to human health. Desoxyquinoxalines (DQx), which have the highest residue levels, have [...] Read more.
Quinoxalines (Qx) are chemically synthesized antibacterial drugs with strong antibacterial and growth-promoting effects. Qx is heavily abused by farmers, resulting in large residues in animal-derived foods, which pose a serious threat to human health. Desoxyquinoxalines (DQx), which have the highest residue levels, have been identified as the major toxicant and have become a new generation of residue markers. In this study, we prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAb) based on a new generation metabolite (desoxymequindox, DMEQ) and establish an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) for the rapid determination of Qx residues in food. The mAb exhibited high sensitivity with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and a linear range of 2.84 µg/L and 0.8–12.8 µg/L, respectively. Additionally, the cross-reactivity (CR) of the mAb showed that it recognized multiple DQx to varying levels. The limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), and recoveries for the ic-ELISA assay of pork, swine liver, swine kidney, chicken, and chicken liver were 0.48–0.58 µg/kg, 0.61–0.90 µg/kg, and 73.7–107.8%, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were less than 11%. The results of the ic-ELISA showed a good correlation with LC–MS/MS in animal-derived foods. This suggests that this analytical method can be used for the rapid screening of QX residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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11 pages, 1086 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody against Pyrene and Benzo [a]pyrene and Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Fish, Shrimp and Crab Samples
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3220; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203220 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are significant environmental and food pollutants that can cause cancer. In this work, a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to identify pyrene (PYR) and benzo [a]pyrene (BaP) was prepared, and an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (ic-ELISA) was established to detect [...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are significant environmental and food pollutants that can cause cancer. In this work, a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to identify pyrene (PYR) and benzo [a]pyrene (BaP) was prepared, and an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (ic-ELISA) was established to detect PYR and BaP residues in living aquatic products for the first time. The effects of complete antigens with different coupling ratios on the production of high-sensitivity mAb was explored. Under the optimal conditions, the IC50 value was 3.73 ± 0.43 µg/L (n = 5). The limits of detection (LODs) for PYR and BaP in fish, shrimp, and crab ranged from 0.43 to 0.98 µg/L. The average recoveries of the spiked samples ranged from 81.5–101.9%, and the coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 11.7%. The validation of the HPLC-FLD method indicated that the ELISA method set up in this experiment provided a trustworthy tool for PAHs residues detection in aquatic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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16 pages, 1459 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of (Herbal) Teas Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) Based on Margin of Exposure Approach and Relative Potency (REP) Factors
Foods 2022, 11(19), 2946; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11192946 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) present distinct toxicity potencies depending on their metabolites and in vivo toxicokinetics. To represent the potency differences of various PAs, the interim relative potency (REP) factors have been derived. However, little is known about the risk assessment for (herbal) teas [...] Read more.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) present distinct toxicity potencies depending on their metabolites and in vivo toxicokinetics. To represent the potency differences of various PAs, the interim relative potency (REP) factors have been derived. However, little is known about the risk assessment for (herbal) teas when taking REP factors into account. In this study, a set of 68 individual 1,2-unsaturated PA in 21 types of (herbal) teas was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The REP factors for these PAs were applied on the PA levels. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was employed to assess the risks of the exposure to PAs due to consumption of (herbal) teas. The results show that the total PA levels ranged from 13.4 to 286,682.2 μg/kg d.m., which were decreased by REP correction in most of the teas. The MOE values for tephroseris, borage and lemon balm (melissa) tea based on REP-corrected PA levels were below 10,000, assuming daily consumption of one cup of tea during a lifetime, indicating that consuming these teas may raise a concern. Our study also indicates a priority for risk management for tephroseris tea, as having nephrosis tea for more than 11.2 weeks during a 75-year lifetime would result in an MOE of 10,000. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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21 pages, 2301 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Different Washing Strategies on Pesticide Residue Removal: The First Comparative Study on Leafy Vegetables
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2916; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182916 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4988
Abstract
Leafy vegetables are used in various cuisines worldwide; however, as they cannot be peeled and their leaf surface area is large, the risk of retaining pesticide residues on these vegetables is relatively higher than on others. To our knowledge, this is the first [...] Read more.
Leafy vegetables are used in various cuisines worldwide; however, as they cannot be peeled and their leaf surface area is large, the risk of retaining pesticide residues on these vegetables is relatively higher than on others. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study to reveal the effect of removing pesticide residues from five artificially contaminated leafy vegetables (lettuce, perilla leaves, spinach, crown daisy, and ssamchoo (Brassica lee ssp. namai)) using different removal methods. The percent reduction range for each method was 43.7–77.0%, and the reduction range for the five leafy vegetables was 40.6–67.4%. Lettuce had the highest reduction (67.4 ± 7.3%), whereas ssamchoo had the lowest reduction (40.6 ± 12.9%). Spinach and crown daisy showed no significant difference in their reductions. Based on reduction by method, running water (77.0 ± 18.0%) and boiling (59.5 ± 31.2%) led to the highest reduction, whereas detergent (43.7 ± 14.5%) led to the lowest reduction. The reductions of chlorfenapyr, diniconazole, indoxacarb, fludioxonil, pyraclostrobin, and lufenuron in the leafy vegetables were lower with blanching and boiling than with other methods (p < 0.05). These results highlight the importance of thoroughly washing leafy vegetables to lower the intake of pesticide residues before cooking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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10 pages, 1087 KiB  
Article
Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Gelsemium Alkaloids in Honey
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2891; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182891 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Toxic Chinese medicine residues in honey pose a serious threat to consumer health. Gelsemium is one of the nine ancient poisons, making the whole plant virulent. The residue of Gelsemium alkaloid in honey causes poisoning from time to time. Therefore, it is very [...] Read more.
Toxic Chinese medicine residues in honey pose a serious threat to consumer health. Gelsemium is one of the nine ancient poisons, making the whole plant virulent. The residue of Gelsemium alkaloid in honey causes poisoning from time to time. Therefore, it is very important to establish a method for the detection of Gelsemium alkaloids in honey. In this study, a method of solid phase extraction (SPE) with two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) was developed for the first time for the simultaneous determination of Gelsemium alkaloids in honey, including gelsemine, koumine and humantenmine. First, the honey samples were purified by a PRS cation exchange column and extracted with 5% ammoniated methanol. Then, we verified the methodological indicators, which were in line with the Codex Guideline requirements. The verification results are as follows: matrix-matched calibrations indicated that the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.998. The recovery was in the range of 81%–94.2% with an intraday precision (RSD) of ≤5.0% and interday RSD of ≤3.8%. The limit of detection for the three alkaloids was 2 ng/g. The limits of quantification for gelsemine and koumine were 5 ng/g, and humantenmine was 20 ng/g. This method can be applied to the monitoring of Gelsemium alkaloids in honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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14 pages, 2777 KiB  
Article
PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and Its Farming Environment in Shanghai, China
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2556; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172556 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
Most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in the human body are acquired from dietary intake. The chronic exposure of humans to PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs is a major health concern, and these compounds are strictly controlled in many areas. [...] Read more.
Most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in the human body are acquired from dietary intake. The chronic exposure of humans to PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs is a major health concern, and these compounds are strictly controlled in many areas. This study measured the levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) farms in Shanghai and determined potential sources. The mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in the studied crab samples were 264.20 ± 260.14 and 506.25 ± 226.80 pg/g ww (wet weight), respectively. The range of the toxic equivalent (TEQ) for the total PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in the crab samples was 1.20–29.04 pg TEQ/g ww. Further analysis revealed that the TEQ input to crabs in aquacultural water was 1.6 times higher than the TEQ in edible crab parts. Aquatic plants, shore plants, and feed contributed about 0.05% of the total TEQ input to crabs. The TEQ contribution from sediment was 317 times that found in edible crab parts, and sediment may be the most prevalent source of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in farm crabs. The evaluation of the Shanghai market crab revealed different levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The TEQs for the mean PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were 1.55 ± 1.96 and 1.05 ± 0.55 pg TEQ/g ww, respectively. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels of adults and children were lower than the prescribed range (1–4 pg TEQ/kg (weight)·d), indicating no significant chronic or acute ingestion risk for adults and children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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11 pages, 2552 KiB  
Article
Effect of Radiant Catalytic Ionization and Ozonation on Salmonella spp. on Eggshells
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162452 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Three Salmonella enterica strains were used in the study (serovars: S. enteritidis, S. typhimurim and S. virchow). This study evaluated the efficacy of radiant catalytic ionization (RCI) and ozonation against Salmonella spp. on eggshell (expressed as log CFU/egg). The egg surface [...] Read more.
Three Salmonella enterica strains were used in the study (serovars: S. enteritidis, S. typhimurim and S. virchow). This study evaluated the efficacy of radiant catalytic ionization (RCI) and ozonation against Salmonella spp. on eggshell (expressed as log CFU/egg). The egg surface was contaminated three different bacterial suspension (103 CFU/mL, 105 CFU/mL and 108 CFU/mL) with or without poultry manure. Experiments were conducted at 4 °C and 20 °C in three different time period: 30 min, 60 min and 120 min. Treatment with RCI reduced Salmonella numbers from 0.26 log CFU/egg in bacterial suspension 108 CFU/mL, 4 °C and 20 °C, with manure for 30 min to level decrease in bacteria number below the detection limit (BDL) in bacterial suspension 105 CFU/mL, 20 °C, with or without manure for 120 min. The populations of Salmonella spp. on eggs treated by ozonizer ranged from 0.20 log CFU/egg in bacteria suspension 108 CFU/mL, 20 °C, with manure for 30 min to 2.73 log CFU/egg in bacterial suspension 105 CFU/mL, 20 °C, with manure for 120 min. In all treatment conditions contamination with poultry manure decrease effectiveness the RCI and ozonation. In summary, RCI technology shows similar effectiveness to the ozonation, but it is safer for poultry plant workers and consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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15 pages, 1206 KiB  
Article
Residues of Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Polish Varietal Honey
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152362 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
The levels of chemical pollutants were determined in 30 samples of varietal honey from southeastern Poland, including 223 pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, acaricides, plant growth regulators, and veterinary drugs) and 5 heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, and Zn). In 10% of the [...] Read more.
The levels of chemical pollutants were determined in 30 samples of varietal honey from southeastern Poland, including 223 pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, acaricides, plant growth regulators, and veterinary drugs) and 5 heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, and Zn). In 10% of the samples, no pesticide residues were found. The most frequently identified pesticides were thiacloprid (90% of the samples, max 0.337 mg/kg), acetamiprid (86.6%, max 0.061 mg/kg), carbendazim (60%, max 0.049 mg/kg), DMF (56.6%, max 0.038 mg/kg), total amitraz (53.3%, max 0.075 mg/kg), thiamethoxam (26.6%, max 0.004 mg/kg), thiacloprid-amide (13.3%, max 0.012 mg/kg), dimethoate (10%, max 0.003 mg/kg), azoxystrobin (10%, max 0.002 mg/kg), tebuconazole (6.66%, max 0.002 mg/kg), and boscalid (3.33%, max 0.001 mg/kg). The acceptable limits for the compounds were not exceeded in any sample. The Pb content ranged between 0.044 and 0.081 mg/kg. The concentration of Hg and Cd did not exceed 5.0 µg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. The honey variety significantly (p < 0.01) influenced the content of Cu, which ranged from 0.504 (rapeseed honey) to 1.201 mg/kg (buckwheat). A similar tendency (p > 0.05) was observed for the Zn content, which ranged from 0.657 mg/kg (linden) to 2.694 mg/kg (buckwheat). Honey produced in southeastern Poland was shown to be safe for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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14 pages, 696 KiB  
Article
Mitigation of Acrylamide Content in Biscuits through Combined Physical and Chemical Strategies
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152343 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Acrylamide in biscuits represents a major concern. This research work was aimed at modifying the current formulation of biscuits to reduce the acrylamide content while maintaining the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of the original product. A strategy based on the FoodDrinkEurope Acrylamide [...] Read more.
Acrylamide in biscuits represents a major concern. This research work was aimed at modifying the current formulation of biscuits to reduce the acrylamide content while maintaining the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of the original product. A strategy based on the FoodDrinkEurope Acrylamide Toolbox was adopted. The content of the leavening agent ammonium bicarbonate, the baking temperature program, and the time duration of steam released during the baking process were the three factors evaluated through a factorial design of experiment. The partial replacement of ammonium bicarbonate (from 9.0 g to 1.5 g per 500 g of flour) with sodium bicarbonate (from 4.5 g to 12.48 g), lowering of the temperature in the central phase of the baking process (from 170 °C to 150 °C), and the release of steam for 3 min resulted in an 87.2% reduction in acrylamide concentration compared to biscuits of reference. CIELab color indices and aw were the parameters that showed the most significant correlation with acrylamide concentration in biscuits and could, therefore, become markers to predict the acrylamide content along production lines for an instant evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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12 pages, 2892 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Fungal Microbiomes in Edible Medicinal Morindae Officinalis Radix and Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus Using DNA Metabarcoding
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121748 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Morindae Officinalis Radix (MOR) and Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) have been widely used as dietary supplements and traditional herbal medicines for centuries. Fungal and mycotoxin contamination in MOR and AOF has been reported recently. In this study, fungi in MOR and AOF are [...] Read more.
Morindae Officinalis Radix (MOR) and Alpiniae Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) have been widely used as dietary supplements and traditional herbal medicines for centuries. Fungal and mycotoxin contamination in MOR and AOF has been reported recently. In this study, fungi in MOR and AOF are first investigated using DNA metabarcoding, and the differences in fungal microbiome between moldy and non−moldy samples are analyzed. The results show that Ascomycota is the most prevailing fungus at the phylum level in MOR and AOF with relative abundances of 49.53–94.32% and 14.81–81.85%, respectively. Penicillium (1.86–76.14%), Cladosporium (1.82–56.65%), and Trichoderma (0.12–19.71%) are the dominant genera in MOR. Penicillium (0.27–56.06%), Papiliotrema (0.04–51.71%), and Cladosporium (3.08–44.41%) are the dominant genera in AOF. Two potential toxigenic fungi were detected, namely, Trichoderma atroviride and Fusarium equiseti. Moreover, the differences in fungal communities between moldy and non−moldy samples were monitored. In conclusion, DNA metabarcoding can be used to assess the fungal microbiome in edible medicinal herbs, thereby providing a basis for ensuring food safety and drug efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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Review

Jump to: Research

46 pages, 1105 KiB  
Review
Single, Subsequent, or Simultaneous Treatments to Mitigate Mycotoxins in Solid Foods and Feeds: A Critical Review
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3304; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203304 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
Mycotoxins in solid foods and feeds jeopardize the public health of humans and animals and cause food security issues. The inefficacy of most preventive measures to control the production of fungi in foods and feeds during the pre-harvest and post-harvest stages incited interest [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins in solid foods and feeds jeopardize the public health of humans and animals and cause food security issues. The inefficacy of most preventive measures to control the production of fungi in foods and feeds during the pre-harvest and post-harvest stages incited interest in the mitigation of these mycotoxins that can be conducted by the application of various chemical, physical, and/or biological treatments. These treatments are implemented separately or through a combination of two or more treatments simultaneously or subsequently. The reduction rates of the methods differ greatly, as do their effect on the organoleptic attributes, nutritional quality, and the environment. This critical review aims at summarizing the latest studies related to the mitigation of mycotoxins in solid foods and feeds. It discusses and evaluates the single and combined mycotoxin reduction treatments, compares their efficiency, elaborates on their advantages and disadvantages, and sheds light on the treated foods or feeds, as well as on their environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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22 pages, 3625 KiB  
Review
Application of Nanomaterial Modified Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Sensor in Detection of Heavy Metal Ions
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101404 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3185
Abstract
Heavy metal pollution resulting from significant heavy metal waste discharge is increasingly serious. Traditional methods for the detection of heavy metal ions have high requirements on external conditions, so developing a sensitive, simple, and reproducible detection method is becoming an urgent need. The [...] Read more.
Heavy metal pollution resulting from significant heavy metal waste discharge is increasingly serious. Traditional methods for the detection of heavy metal ions have high requirements on external conditions, so developing a sensitive, simple, and reproducible detection method is becoming an urgent need. The aptamer, as a new kind of artificial probe, has received more attention in recent years for its high sensitivity, easy acquisition, wide target range, and wide use in the detection of various harmful substances. The detection platform that an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor (E-apt sensor) provides is a new approach for the detection of heavy metal ions. Nanomaterials are particularly important in the construction of E-apt sensors, as they can be used as aptamer carriers or sensitizers to stimulate or inhibit electrochemical signals, thus significantly improving the detection sensitivity. This review summarizes the application of different types of nanomaterials in E-apt sensors. The construction methods and research progress of the E-apt sensor based on different working principles are systematically introduced. Moreover, the advantages and challenges of the E-apt sensor in heavy metal ion detection are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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