New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2022) | Viewed by 27125

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, International Hellenic University, Alexander Campus, GR-57400 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: tailoring functional and chemical properties of cereal and alternative plant sources in view of developing specific healthy foods and ingredients; grain safety; bioactive compounds; by products valorization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The present Special Issue comprises Vol II of a previous successful issue, launched last year under the same title (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/foods/special_issues/cereals_foods). Therefore, it is expected that it will also address functional and health aspects of cereal grains and flours and also technological advances of the cereal industry as a sector that needs to operate under the principles of sustainability and circular economy.

It is widely known that cereals, mainly wheat, rice, and corn, are staple foods consumed worldwide and, therefore, play a decisive role both in agricultural production and in global population feeding. Cereal grains, intact or as debranned kernels or refined flours, are processed into a wide variety of foods, ranging from bread and confectionary goods to breakfast cereals and pasta. Furthermore, particular grain fractions or components can be incorporated into food recipes to improve their nutritional or functional properties. Dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals, partly digested or resistant cereal starches, and secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds are cereal constituents with well-established roles in human health and wellbeing.

Contributions pertaining to innovations in the cereal value chain, cereal safety and security, and health and wellness following consumption of cereal-based foods and ingredients are particularly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Maria Papageorgiou
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • milling
  • bread making
  • sourdough
  • biscuit, cake, noodles, pasta products
  • consumer perception of grain-based foods
  • cereal safety and security
  • wholegrains
  • pseudocereals and ancient grains
  • grain breeding
  • cereal bioactive compounds
  • gluten free
  • valorization of cereal bio-products

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 1138 KiB  
Article
Greek Landrace Flours Characteristics and Quality of Dough and Bread
by Adriana Skendi, Maria Papageorgiou, Maria Irakli and Stefanos Stefanou
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1618; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081618 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Besides organic growing, ancient wheats and landraces are attracting the attention of scientists who are reassessing the healthy and dietary properties attributed to them by popular tradition. A total of eleven wheat flours and whole meal samples were analyzed, of which, nine originated [...] Read more.
Besides organic growing, ancient wheats and landraces are attracting the attention of scientists who are reassessing the healthy and dietary properties attributed to them by popular tradition. A total of eleven wheat flours and whole meal samples were analyzed, of which, nine originated from the organic farming of five Greek landraces (one einkorn, one emmer, two durum, and one soft wheat) and a commercial organically grown emmer cultivar. Two commercial conventional flours of 70% and 100% extraction rate were examined for comparison purposes. Chemical composition, micronutrients, phenolic profile, and quantification, and antioxidant activity of all samples were determined. Moreover, dough rheology and breadmaking quality were studied; Flours from local landraces were higher in micronutrients, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity than the commercial samples. The 90% extraction flour of the landrace, besides the highest protein content (16.62%), exhibited the highest content of phenolic acids (19.14 μg/g of flour), whereas the commercial refined emmer flour was the lowest (5.92 μg/g of flour). The same milling of the einkorn landrace also showed a higher specific volume (1.9 mL/g vs. 1.7 mL/g) and lower bread crumb firmness than the whole meal commercial emmer sample (33.0 N vs. 44.9 N). The results of this study showed that the examined Greek wheat landraces could be considered as a possible source of microelements, phenolics, and antioxidants with a beneficial effect in human health, and by using an appropriate breadmaking procedure, they could produce high-quality breads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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20 pages, 2528 KiB  
Article
Effects of Amylopectins from Five Different Sources on Disulfide Bond Formation in Alkali-Soluble Glutenin
by Yu Zhou, Jinjin Zhao, Junjie Guo, Xijun Lian and Huaiwen Wang
Foods 2023, 12(2), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020414 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Wheat, maize, cassava, mung bean and sweet potato starches have often been added to dough systems to improve their hardness. However, inconsistent effects of these starches on the dough quality have been reported, especially in refrigerated dough. The disulfide bond contents of alkali-soluble [...] Read more.
Wheat, maize, cassava, mung bean and sweet potato starches have often been added to dough systems to improve their hardness. However, inconsistent effects of these starches on the dough quality have been reported, especially in refrigerated dough. The disulfide bond contents of alkali-soluble glutenin (ASG) have direct effects on the hardness of dough. In this paper, the disulfide bond contents of ASG were determined. ASG was mixed and retrograded with five kinds of amylopectins from the above-mentioned botanical sources, and a possible pathway of disulfide bond formation in ASGs by amylopectin addition was proposed through molecular weight, chain length distribution, FT-IR, 13C solid-state NMR and XRD analyses. The results showed that when wheat, maize, cassava, mung bean and sweet potato amylopectins were mixed with ASG, the disulfide bond contents of alkali-soluble glutenin increased from 0.04 to 0.31, 0.24, 0.08, 0.18 and 0.29 μmol/g, respectively. However, after cold storage, they changed to 0.55, 0.16, 0.26, 0.07 and 0.19 μmol/g, respectively. The addition of wheat amylopectin promoted the most significant disulfide bond formation of ASG. Hydroxyproline only existed in the wheat amylopectin, indicating that it had an important effect on the disulfide bond formation of ASG. Glutathione disulfides were present, as mung bean and sweet potato amylopectin were mixed with ASG, and they were reduced during cold storage. Positive/negative correlations between the peak intensity of the angles at 2θ = 20°/23° and the disulfide bond contents of ASG existed. The high content of hydroxyproline could be used as a marker for breeding high-quality wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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26 pages, 3439 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Farming Systems, Genotype and Their Interaction on Bioactive Compound, Protein and Starch Content of Bread and Spelt Wheat
by Verica Takač, Viola Tóth, Marianna Rakszegi, Péter Mikó, Sanja Mikić and Milan Mirosavljević
Foods 2022, 11(24), 4028; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11244028 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
An increase in the production and consumption of spelt products can be associated with positive effects on human health, which are attributed to bioactive compounds present in the grain. The basic success of spelt wheat in organic farming might be explained by the [...] Read more.
An increase in the production and consumption of spelt products can be associated with positive effects on human health, which are attributed to bioactive compounds present in the grain. The basic success of spelt wheat in organic farming might be explained by the fact that spelt wheat belongs to the group of hulled wheat where the presence of a husk protects the seed from abiotic and biotic stress factors, thus demanding less chemical protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the variations in the bioactive compound (alkylresorcinol, arabinoxylan, β-glucan), protein, starch and fructan content of bread and spelt wheat under different farming systems (conventional and organic). The results showed higher protein and alkylresorcinol but lower fructan content in spelt wheat. Organic spelt had significantly higher starch, fiber and alkylresorcinol content but lower β-glucan and protein content than conventionally grown spelt. The spelt variety ‘Oberkulmer-Rotkorn’ was characterized by the highest values for the majority of analyzed traits under both farming systems. Overall, the environmental conditions (Hungary and Serbia), farming systems (conventional and organic) and wheat species (bread and spelt) contributed to the variations of the compositional traits in different manners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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16 pages, 1556 KiB  
Article
Effects of Germinated Lentil Flour on Dough Rheological Behavior and Bread Quality
by Denisa Atudorei, Silvia Mironeasa and Georgiana Gabriela Codină
Foods 2022, 11(19), 2982; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11192982 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
The present study analyzed the effects of germinated lentil flour (LGF) addition at different levels in wheat flour (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%), on dough rheological behavior, dough microstructure, and bread quality. Creep-recovery tests showed that the dough samples with high levels of [...] Read more.
The present study analyzed the effects of germinated lentil flour (LGF) addition at different levels in wheat flour (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%), on dough rheological behavior, dough microstructure, and bread quality. Creep-recovery tests showed that the dough samples with high levels of LGF addition presented a higher resistance to flow deformability of the dough. Dough microstructure as analyzed using EFLM showed an increase in the protein area (red color) and a decrease in the starch (green color) amount with the increased level of LGF addition in the wheat flour. It was found that the LGF addition led to the improvement of the porosity, specific volume, and elasticity of the bread samples. The breads with LGF addition were darker and had a slightly reddish and yellowish tint. The bread textural parameters highlighted significant (p < 0.05) higher values for firmness and gumminess and significant (p < 0.05) lower ones for cohesiveness and resilience for the bread with LGF addition when compared with the control. The bread samples with a 2.5% and 5% addition had a more dense structure of the crumb pores. Regarding sensory evaluation, the bread samples with LGF addition in the wheat flour were well appreciated by the consumers. The addition also was desirable due to the fact that it supplemented bread with a greater amount of protein and minerals due to the composition of lentil grains. Therefore, LGF could be successfully used as an ingredient for bread making in order to obtain bread with an improved quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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14 pages, 2612 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Protein and Carbohydrate Related Quality Traits of a Large Set of Spelt Wheat Genotypes
by Viola Tóth, László Láng, Gyula Vida, Péter Mikó and Marianna Rakszegi
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142061 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta L.) is an underexploited hexaploid wheat species that has become an increasingly fashionable raw material of bakery products in the last decades, partly because of its ability to grow under organic agricultural conditions and partly because [...] Read more.
Spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta L.) is an underexploited hexaploid wheat species that has become an increasingly fashionable raw material of bakery products in the last decades, partly because of its ability to grow under organic agricultural conditions and partly because of the growing number of people following the trend of having a healthy diet. However, due to its difficult threshing, most research on spelt seed is based on a very limited number of genotypes. Therefore, we determined the physical, compositional, and breadmaking quality traits of 90 spelt genotypes in order to highlight the variation of these properties and to identify possible genetic resources for spelt improvement. The thousand kernel weight of the spelt genotypes ranged between 23.2 and 49.7 g, the protein content between 12.1% and 22.2%, the gluten index between 0.7 and 98.8, the dough stability between 0.0 and 19.6 min, and the starch damage between 6.3 and 19.4 UCD value. The average values showed that spelt has higher protein and gluten contents but weaker dough strength and stability than common bread wheat. The starch pasting temperature was also higher in spelt, but the starch damage was lower, resulting in lower water absorption. Some genebank accessions (MVGB142, 145, 353, and 525) and internationally available cultivars (Bohemia, Bodensonne, Black-Bearded, and White-Beardless) were identified as good genetic resources for improving the breadmaking-quality traits of spelt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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16 pages, 2625 KiB  
Article
The Improvement of Sensory and Bioactive Properties of Yogurt with the Introduction of Tartary Buckwheat
by Yuanyuan Ye, Pei Li, Jiaojiao Zhou, Jiangling He and Jie Cai
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121774 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
The incorporation of cereals in yogurt has recently gained increasing consumer approval, for its high nutritional value and health benefits, all over the world. Following this emerging trend, Tartary buckwheat (TB) was supplemented into yogurt as a natural functional ingredient in order to [...] Read more.
The incorporation of cereals in yogurt has recently gained increasing consumer approval, for its high nutritional value and health benefits, all over the world. Following this emerging trend, Tartary buckwheat (TB) was supplemented into yogurt as a natural functional ingredient in order to develop a yogurt with enhanced product characteristics and consumer acceptability. The impact of TB addition on physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, apparent viscosity, etc.) and the viability of lactic acid bacteria in yogurt was investigated. It is found that the TB introduction can reduce the pH, increase the acidity and apparent viscosity, and also greatly boost the bioactivities of yogurt. Response surface analysis demonstrated that yogurt with 8 g of TB, 10 g of sugar, and a fermentation duration of 5 h had the highest overall acceptability, and these cultural conditions were chosen as the best. Furthermore, the TB-added yogurt had not only a better sensory and aroma profile, but also good prospective health advantages when compared to regular yogurt. Our research shows that adding TB to yogurt has a significant positive impact on both overall quality and sensory characteristics, making a compelling case for using TB yogurt and developing new fermented dairy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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14 pages, 2213 KiB  
Article
Variation in the Content and Composition of Tocols in a Wheat Population
by Karolina Tremmel-Bede, Marietta Szentmiklóssy, Anna-Maija Lampi, Vieno Piironen, Peter R. Shewry, Gyula Vida, Sándor Tömösközi, Ildikó Karsai, László Láng, Zoltán Bedő and Marianna Rakszegi
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091343 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1862
Abstract
Wheat is a well-known source of B vitamins but also contains significant amounts of vitamin E and related tocols, which have a number of positive health benefits. However, there are no reports on increasing the tocol content of wheat. A prerequisite for increasing [...] Read more.
Wheat is a well-known source of B vitamins but also contains significant amounts of vitamin E and related tocols, which have a number of positive health benefits. However, there are no reports on increasing the tocol content of wheat. A prerequisite for increasing the tocol content is the identification of variation in its amount within wheat and related cereals. We therefore determined the tocol content and composition in the grain of 230 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of a diverse biparental wheat population (Mv Toborzó/Tommi), showing variation in the total content from 13.69 to 45.18 μg/g d.m. The total content also showed transgressive segregation in the population. The effect of the genotype on the variance components of tocols was studied, and the broad-sense heritability was calculated to be 0.71. The lines were also grouped based on their tocol content and analyzed for their chemical composition and breadmaking quality. The high heritability value and the wide variation found in the total amount indicate that increasing the content of tocols is a possible breeding strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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12 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Wheat Germ Fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum: Process Optimization for Enhanced Composition and Antioxidant Properties In Vitro
by Elnaz Bayat, Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Mahboubeh Fazaeli, Marjan Majdinasab, Armin Mirzapour-Kouhdasht and Marco Garcia-Vaquero
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081125 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4183
Abstract
Wheat germ, a by-product of the flour milling industry, is currently commercialized mainly for animal feed applications. This study aims to explore and optimize the process of wheat germ fermentation to achieve products with enhanced nutritional composition and biological properties and further characterize [...] Read more.
Wheat germ, a by-product of the flour milling industry, is currently commercialized mainly for animal feed applications. This study aims to explore and optimize the process of wheat germ fermentation to achieve products with enhanced nutritional composition and biological properties and further characterize the fermented products generated using these optimum conditions. The type of microorganism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5022 (yeast) and Lactobacillus plantarum strain 299v (bacteria)), pH (4.5, 6, and 7.5) and fermentation time (24, 48, and 72 h) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) aiming to achieve fermented products with high total phenol content (TPC), dimethoxy benzoquinone (DMBQ) and antioxidant activities. Optimum fermentation conditions were achieved using L. plantarum, pH 6, 48 h, generating extracts containing TPC (3.33 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), DMBQ (0.56 mg DMBQ/g), and DPPH radical scavenging (86.49%). These optimally fermented products had higher peptide concentrations (607 μg/mL), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (19,983.88 mg/kg) contents compared to non-fermented or yeast-fermented products. These findings highlight the influence of fermentation conditions of wheat germ and the promising industrial application of wheat germ fermentation for developing food products with enhanced biological properties promising for their commercialization as functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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15 pages, 3359 KiB  
Article
Specific Avenin Cross-Reactivity with G12 Antibody in a Wide Range of Current Oat Cultivars
by Václav Dvořáček, Anna Kotrbová-Kozak, Jana Kozová-Doležalová, Michal Jágr, Petra Hlásná Čepková, Pavel Vítámvás and Klára Kosová
Foods 2022, 11(4), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040567 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Current clinical studies confirm that the consumption of oats for people suffering from celiac disease is safe. Some studies have confirmed different levels of immunoreactive gluten epitopes of oats in different cultivars, while others explain these differences due to contamination with gluten-rich species [...] Read more.
Current clinical studies confirm that the consumption of oats for people suffering from celiac disease is safe. Some studies have confirmed different levels of immunoreactive gluten epitopes of oats in different cultivars, while others explain these differences due to contamination with gluten-rich species or as random cross-reactivity ELISA of homologous oat epitopes with anti-wheat gliadin antibodies. The aim of our two-year study was therefore to map cross-reactive oat epitopes in a set of 132 oat cultivars using a G12-based ELISA kit. The results were focused on the varietal and annual level of cross-reactivity (interference) of avenin epitopes with the G12 antibody on the identification of potential cultivars with significantly different interferences and assessing the degree of risk of possible false-contamination with external gluten. Although repeated evaluations confirmed high year-to-year variability (RSD ≥ 30%) in approximately 2/3 of the cultivars, the content of interfering avenin epitopes with G12 did not exceed the considered safe limit (20 mg·kg−1) for celiacs. At the same time, not only annual but, above all, significant cultivar dependences in the interference of avenins to the G12 antibody were demonstrated. Genetic dependence was further confirmed in connection with the proven avenin polymorphism as well as immunoblotting with the identification of interfering peptides with the G12 antibody in the 25 and 30 kDa regions. It was the occurrence of two bands around 30 kDa that predominantly occurred in oat cultivars with a relatively higher content of cross-reactive avenins (12–16 mg·kg−1). Due to the fact that the contents of interfering avenins ranged in several cultivars even over 16 mg·kg−1, the choice of a suitable oat cultivar may be crucial for gluten-free food producers, as it reduces the risk of a possible false-response of the commercial ELISA kits when checking the real-gluten contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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18 pages, 756 KiB  
Article
Effect of Tempering Conditions on White Sorghum Milling, Flour, and Bread Properties
by Mohana Yoganandan, Scott R. Bean, Rebecca Miller-Regan, Hulya Dogan, Manoj Kumar Pulivarthi and Kaliramesh Siliveru
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081947 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2880
Abstract
The effects of room temperature water, hot water, and steam tempering methods were investigated on sorghum kernel physical properties, milling, flour, and bread-making properties. Overall tempering condition and tempering moisture content were found to have a significant effect on the physical properties. Milling [...] Read more.
The effects of room temperature water, hot water, and steam tempering methods were investigated on sorghum kernel physical properties, milling, flour, and bread-making properties. Overall tempering condition and tempering moisture content were found to have a significant effect on the physical properties. Milling properties were evaluated using a laboratory-scale roller milling flowsheet consisting of four break rolls and eight reduction rolls. Room temperature tempering (18% moisture for 24 h) led to better separation of bran and endosperm without negatively impacting flour quality characteristics i.e., particle size distribution, flour yield, protein, ash, damaged starch, and moisture content. Bread produced from the flour obtained from milling sorghum kernels tempered with room temperature water (18% m.c for 24 h) and hot water (16% m.c at 60 °C for 18 h) displayed better bread-making properties i.e., high firmness, resilience, volume index, higher number of cells, and thinner cell walls when compared to other tempering conditions. Room temperature water tempering treatment (18% m.c for 24 h) could be a better pretreatment process for milling white sorghum kernels without negatively impacting the flour and bread-making quality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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Review

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21 pages, 3426 KiB  
Review
Toward Sourdough Microbiome Data: A Review of Science and Patents
by Gabriel Albagli, Priscilla V. Finotelli, Tatiana Felix Ferreira and Priscilla F. F. Amaral
Foods 2023, 12(2), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020420 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2745
Abstract
Technological prospecting was performed on documents related to sourdough microbiota using SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Espacenet and Patent Inspiration databases. Scientific articles and patents were analyzed based on three different perspectives: macro (year of publication, country, and institutions), meso (categorization as [...] Read more.
Technological prospecting was performed on documents related to sourdough microbiota using SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Espacenet and Patent Inspiration databases. Scientific articles and patents were analyzed based on three different perspectives: macro (year of publication, country, and institutions), meso (categorization as different taxonomies according to the subject evaluated), and micro (in-depth analysis of the main taxonomies, gathering the documents in subcategories). The main subject addressed in patents was the starter and product preparation, while 58.8% of the scientific publications focused on sourdough starter microbiota (identification and selection of microorganisms). Most patents were granted to companies (45.9%), followed by independent inventors (26.4%) and universities (21.8%). Sourdough products are in the spotlight when the subject is the bakery market; however, a closer integration between academia and industry is needed. Such a collaboration could generate a positive impact on the sourdough market in terms of innovation, providing a bread with a better nutritional and sensory quality for all consumers. Moreover, sourdough creates a new magnitude of flavor and texture in gastronomy, providing new functional products or increasing the quality of traditional ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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