Essential Oils: Chemistry and Food Applications

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 10928

Special Issue Editors

Department of Chemistry, Universidade da Beira Interior, FibEnTech-UBI, UMR Rua Marques de Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: chromatographic techniques; sample preparation techniques; essential oils; plants extraction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira Interior (CICS-UBI), 6201-506 Covilhã, Portugal
2. Laboratório de Farmaco-Toxicologia, UBIMedical, Universidade da Beira Interior (CICS-UBI), 6201-506 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: chromatographic techniques; sample preparation techniques; bioanalysis; natural products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior (CICS-UBI), Covilhã, Portugal
2. Pharmaco-Toxicology Laboratory, UBIMedical, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
3. Centro Académico Clínico das Beiras (CACB)—Grupo de Problemas Relacionados com Toxicofilias, Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: toxicology; analytical method development; recreational drugs; natural psychoactive substances; therapeutic drug monitoring; sample preparation; alternative samples; miniaturized extraction procedures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Over the last years the crucial role played by essential oils in several areas (health, cosmetics, crops protection and food industries) has been demonstrated. Concerning food applications, food industries have been using extracts of aromatic plants and essential oils due to their abilities to control the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, and understanding the mechanisms behind said effects (antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal) and their interactions is essential. The various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. With this Special Issue, we aim to categorize the state-of-the-art concerning scientific research on essential oils, including their applications as compounds of added value in Food Industry.

Presenting a very broad scope, this Special Issue welcomes full papers, short communications, and review articles on the isolation, structure elucidation, and chemical characterization of essential oils for application in food industry; biological activities namely antimicrobial and antioxidant applications in food safety are also covered.

This issue should serve as a text for academia, or as a reference tool for researchers, particularly those working in the fields of phytochemistry, and food industry professionals as well.

Prof. Dr. Jesus Miguel Lopez Rodilla
Prof. Dr. Tiago Rosado
Prof. Dr. Eugenia Gallardo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • essential oils
  • chemistry
  • food application
  • biological activities
  • food preservation
  • interactions with food matrix components

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2444 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Green Anti-Staphylococcus aureus Inclusion Complexes Containing Hinoki Essential Oil
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3104; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163104 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
This study aimed to prepare anti-Staphylococcus aureus inclusion complexes (ICs) of Hinoki essential oil (HEO) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HP-β-CD). An ultrasound-assisted kneading method was applied for the complexation for the first time. The recovery yield, embedding fraction and loading capacity [...] Read more.
This study aimed to prepare anti-Staphylococcus aureus inclusion complexes (ICs) of Hinoki essential oil (HEO) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HP-β-CD). An ultrasound-assisted kneading method was applied for the complexation for the first time. The recovery yield, embedding fraction and loading capacity of the HEO/β-CD ICs were 92.5%, 78.0% and 11.9%, respectively, while the corresponding values were 80.8%, 73.7% and 12.9% for the HEO/2-HP-β-CD ICs. As well, a comparative study confirmed the efficiency of the ultrasound-assisted kneading method was higher than the traditional kneading method. The results of SEM, XRD, GC-MS and FT-IR suggested the successful formation of ICs. A significant anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of the fabricated ICs was demonstrated using a colony counting method. Notably, when the dose in liquid culture medium was 20 g L−1, inhibitory rates of 99.8% for HEO/β-CD ICs and 100% for HEO/2-HP-β-CD ICs were achieved. Furthermore, the hydrophilic property of the ICs was proved by water contact angle measurements, implying they have the potential to act as anti-Staphylococcus aureus agents for blending with hydrophilic biodegradable materials for diverse food packaging utilizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Food Applications)
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20 pages, 6084 KiB  
Article
Production and Characterization of k-Carrageenan Films Incorporating Cymbopogon winterianus Essential Oil as New Food Packaging Materials
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112169 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
The global production of synthetic plastics from petroleum-based raw ingredients exceeds 150 million metric tons. The environment is threatened by tons of plastic waste, thus endangering wildlife and the public’s health. These consequences increased the interest in biodegradable polymers as potential substitutes for [...] Read more.
The global production of synthetic plastics from petroleum-based raw ingredients exceeds 150 million metric tons. The environment is threatened by tons of plastic waste, thus endangering wildlife and the public’s health. These consequences increased the interest in biodegradable polymers as potential substitutes for traditional packaging materials. This study aimed to produce and characterize k-carrageenan films incorporating Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil, in which citronellal was determined to be the major compound (41.12%). This essential oil presented remarkable antioxidant activity, as measured through DPPH (IC50 = 0.06 ± 0.01%, v/v; AAI = 85.60 ± 13.42) and β-carotene bleaching (IC50 = 3.16 ± 0.48%, v/v) methods. The essential oil also showed antibacterial properties against Listeria monocytogenes LMG 16779 (diameter of inhibition zone = 31.67 ± 5.16 mm and MIC = 8 µL/mL), which were also observed when incorporated in the k-carrageenan films. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy showed the reduction of the biofilms of this bacterium, and even its inactivation, due to visible destruction and loss of integrity when the biofilms were created directly on the developed k-carrageenan films. This study also revealed the quorum sensing inhibition potential of Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (diameter of violacein production inhibition = 10.93 ± 0.81 mm), where it could impede intercellular communication and, hence, lower violacein synthesis. The produced k-carrageenan films were transparent (>90%) and slightly hydrophobic (water contact angle > 90°). This work demonstrated the viability of using Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil to produce k-carrageenan bioactive films as new food packaging materials. Future work should focus on the scale-up production of these films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Food Applications)
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13 pages, 1795 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil Obtained from Chincho (Tagetes elliptica Sm) Leaves Grown in the Peruvian Andes
Foods 2023, 12(4), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040894 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2236
Abstract
The chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the essential oil from the leaves of Tagetes elliptica Sm., grown in Peru, were studied. The EO was extracted using steam distillation, and its chemical composition was analyzed using GC-MS, while the antioxidant activity was [...] Read more.
The chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the essential oil from the leaves of Tagetes elliptica Sm., grown in Peru, were studied. The EO was extracted using steam distillation, and its chemical composition was analyzed using GC-MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated using the radical, scavenging capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, ferrous ion chelating (FIC) activity, and the Rancimat test. The antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella infantis was studied using the agar well diffusion method. Twenty-seven compounds were identified in the essential oil, and the major components were cis-tagetenone (37.27%), trans-tagetenone (18.84%), dihydrotagetone (14.38%), and trans-tagetone (5.15%). With regard to antioxidant properties, the IC50 values obtained for the DPPH, ABTS, and FIC assays were 53.37, 46.38, and 22.65 mg/mL, respectively. These values were lower than those obtained for standard butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid. In the Rancimat test, antioxidant activity was achieved only at high concentration. T. elliptica essential oil showed a marked antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains at all concentrations assayed. This study demonstrated that T. elliptica essential oil could be considered as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobial agents in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Food Applications)
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20 pages, 4728 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Cymbopogon khasiana × Cymbopogon pendulus Essential Oil (CKP-25) in Chitosan Nanoemulsion as a Green and Novel Strategy for Mitigation of Fungal Association and Aflatoxin B1 Contamination in Food System
Foods 2023, 12(4), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040722 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
The present study deals with the encapsulation of Cymbopogon khasiana × Cymbopogon pendulus essential oil (CKP-25-EO) into a chitosan nanoemulsion and efficacy assessment for inhibition of fungal inhabitation and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in Syzygium cumini seeds with emphasis on [...] Read more.
The present study deals with the encapsulation of Cymbopogon khasiana × Cymbopogon pendulus essential oil (CKP-25-EO) into a chitosan nanoemulsion and efficacy assessment for inhibition of fungal inhabitation and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in Syzygium cumini seeds with emphasis on cellular and molecular mechanism of action. DLS, AFM, SEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses revealed the encapsulation of CKP-25-EO in chitosan with controlled delivery. The CKP-25-Ne displayed enhanced antifungal (0.08 µL/mL), antiaflatoxigenic (0.07 µL/mL), and antioxidant activities (IC50 DPPH = 6.94 µL/mL, IC50 ABTS = 5.40 µL/mL) in comparison to the free EO. Impediment in cellular ergosterol, methylglyoxal biosynthesis, and in silico molecular modeling of CKP-25-Ne validated the cellular and molecular mechanism of antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity. The CKP-25-Ne showed in situ efficacy for inhibition of lipid peroxidation and AFB1 secretion in stored S. cumini seeds without altering the sensory profile. Moreover, the higher mammalian safety profile strengthens the application of CKP-25-Ne as a safe green nano-preservative against fungal association, and hazardous AFB1 contamination in food, agriculture, and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Food Applications)
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23 pages, 2180 KiB  
Article
Effect of Edible Coating Enriched with Natural Antioxidant Extract and Bergamot Essential Oil on the Shelf Life of Strawberries
Foods 2023, 12(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030488 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
In this study, the effects of the application of edible coatings on the shelf life of the strawberry were evaluated, with the aim of extending the fruit’s availability and shelf life while preserving its qualitative characteristics. In particular, the application of edible coatings [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of the application of edible coatings on the shelf life of the strawberry were evaluated, with the aim of extending the fruit’s availability and shelf life while preserving its qualitative characteristics. In particular, the application of edible coatings enriched with a natural antioxidant to strawberries was evaluated for their physicochemical, microbial, and structural properties, during a storage period (up to 14 days) at refrigerated temperature. The experimental plan provided the formulation for edible coatings enriched with different concentrations of a natural antioxidant extract obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) pomace (1, 2.5, and 5%), bergamot essential oil (0.1% v/v and 0.2% v/v), and a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 100 ppm). Moreover, a control test with untreated strawberries was considered. The enriched gum Arabic coatings provided good results related to the preservation of the qualitative parameters of the strawberries. The samples coated with the antioxidant extract (2.5%, sample D) and bergamot essential oil (0.1%, sample F) showed the best maintenance of the qualitative parameters after 14 days, showing lower decay rates (36% D and 27% F), good acceptability by consumers (between 5 and 6), and good retention of ascorbic acid (>30 mg 100 g−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Food Applications)
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