Edible Oils: Structure, Composition, Processing and Nutritional Properties

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2024 | Viewed by 6888

Special Issue Editors

Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, LEAF, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: lipid technology; enzyme technology; vegetable oils; structured lipids; sensory evaluation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Life and Food Science, Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, 6001-909 Castelo Branco, Portugal
Interests: olive oil technology; lipid chemistry; bioactive compounds; sensory evaluation; contaminants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Wilmar (Shanghai) Biotechnology Research and Development Center Ltd., Shanghai, China
Interests: lipid technology; enzyme technology; food functionality; food safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Edible oils together with carbohydrates and proteins are the major components in food. Other than supplying energy, edible oils offer food processing and application functionalities such as heating medium, flavor, texture, and taste, as well as supplying other nutritional elements such as essential fatty acids, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds. Aside from the positive effects of edible oils, some negative factors related to their uses have been reported, such as trans fatty acids, saturated fats, and contaminants, which are responsible for some lipid-related diseases. Recently, edible oils have received huge attention with regards food safety and food nutrition.

In this Special Issue, we intend to cover a broad scope, as demonstrated by the title. Not only are fatty acids and acylglycerols central components, but the issue also covers all edible oil-related minor components. In particular, we are looking for papers that address structure/composition–function relationships. We are also looking for papers regarding technology progress in terms of processing and its influence on edible oil quality. The safety and nutrition of edible oils has been a hot topic for many years and will be for many years to come, and new understanding of this topic develops quickly. We welcome all manuscript types to update the progress in this field.

Prof. Dr. Suzana Ferreira-Dias
Prof. Dr. Fatima Peres
Prof. Dr. Xuebing Xu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • edible oils
  • extraction
  • enzymes
  • functional lipids
  • green extraction
  • green technology
  • nutraceutical
  • nutrition
  • oil processing
  • safety

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1210 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Efficacy of Rosemary Extract in Improving the Oxidative Stability of Rapeseed Oil during Storage
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3583; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193583 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Rapeseed oil is an important source of edible oil in the human diet and is also highly susceptible to oxidative deterioration. It has been demonstrated that rosemary extract (RE) can increase the oxidative stability of oils. In this work, the antioxidant capacity of [...] Read more.
Rapeseed oil is an important source of edible oil in the human diet and is also highly susceptible to oxidative deterioration. It has been demonstrated that rosemary extract (RE) can increase the oxidative stability of oils. In this work, the antioxidant capacity of rapeseed oil after the addition of RE during storage and the optimum addition of RE in rapeseed oil were investigated. Oxidative stability evaluation results demonstrate that the shelf life of rapeseed oil with the incorporation of 100 mg/kg of RE was equivalent to that with the addition of 50 mg/kg of tert-butyl hydroxyquinone (TBHQ). Storage test analysis results show that RE remarkably delayed the oxidation of rapeseed oil when the storage container was unsealed. The optimum amount of RE as an addition was 50–200 mg/kg under room temperature storage, while it was 150 mg/kg under Schaal oven storage. The antioxidant capacity of rapeseed oil with 50 mg/kg of RE added was remarkably higher than that with 50 mg/kg of TBHQ added after 20 d of storage, according to the Schaal oven test. Additionally, the addition of RE delayed the degradation of endogenous α-tocopherol in rapeseed oil. This study comprehensively evaluated the antioxidant properties of rapeseed oil when RE was added and it provides a new strategy for establishing healthy, nutritious, and safe oil preservation measures. Full article
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13 pages, 4644 KiB  
Article
A New Strategy for Consumption of Functional Lipids from Ericerus pela (Chavannes): Study on Microcapsules and Effervescent Tablets Containing Insect Wax–Derived Policosanol
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3567; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193567 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 876
Abstract
In this study, we addressed various challenges associated with the consumption of functional lipids from the Ericerus pela (Chavannes), including unfavorable taste, insolubility in water, difficulty in oral intake, low bioavailability, and low psychological acceptance. Our study focused on the microencapsulation of policosanol, [...] Read more.
In this study, we addressed various challenges associated with the consumption of functional lipids from the Ericerus pela (Chavannes), including unfavorable taste, insolubility in water, difficulty in oral intake, low bioavailability, and low psychological acceptance. Our study focused on the microencapsulation of policosanol, the key active component of insect wax, which is a mixture of functional lipids secreted by the Ericerus pela (Chavannes). We developed two innovative policosanol products, microcapsules, and effervescent tablets, and optimized their preparation conditions. We successfully prepared microcapsules containing insect wax–derived policosanol using the spray-drying method. We achieved 92.09% microencapsulation efficiency and 61.67% powder yield under the following conditions: maltodextrin, starch sodium octenyl succinate, and (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) at a ratio of 1:1:1, core-to-wall materials at a ratio of 1:10, 15% solid content, spray dryer feed temperature at 60 °C, inlet air temperature at 140 °C, and hot-air flow rate at 0.5 m3/min. The microcapsules exhibited a regular spherical shape with a minimal water content (1.82%) and rapid dispersion in water (within 143.5 s). These microcapsules released policosanol rapidly in simulated stomach fluid. Moreover, effervescent tablets were prepared using the policosanol-containing microcapsules. The tablets showed low friability (0.32%), quick disintegration in water (within 99.5 s), and high bubble volume. The microcapsules and effervescent tablets developed in this study presented effective solutions to the insolubility of policosanol in water. These products were portable and offered customizable tastes to address the psychological discomfort related to insect-based foods, thus providing a novel strategy for the consumption and secondary processing of insect lipids. Full article
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17 pages, 6714 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Novel Food-Grade Bigels Based on Interfacial and Bulk Stabilization
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2546; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132546 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Novel food-grade bigels were fabricated using zein nanoparticles for interfacial stabilization and non-surfactant gelators (beeswax and tapioca) for bulk stabilization. The present study demonstrated the importance of interfacial stability for biphasic gels and sheds light on the roles of the gelation mechanism and [...] Read more.
Novel food-grade bigels were fabricated using zein nanoparticles for interfacial stabilization and non-surfactant gelators (beeswax and tapioca) for bulk stabilization. The present study demonstrated the importance of interfacial stability for biphasic gels and sheds light on the roles of the gelation mechanism and the oil/water ratio of a bigel on its microstructure, physical properties, and digestion behaviors. The results indicated that it is not an easy task to realize homogenization and subsequent gelation in beeswax–tapioca biphasic systems, as no amphiphilic components existed. However, applying the binding of zein nanoparticles at the oil–water interface allowed us to produce a homogeneous and stable bigel (oil fraction reach 40%), which exhibited enhanced structural and functional properties. Oleogel structures play a crucial role in determining the deformation response of bigel systems. As the oil content increased, the mechanical strength and elastic properties of bigels were enhanced. In the meantime, clear bigel-type transitions were observed. In addition, the fabricated bigels were shown to be beneficial for delayed digestion, and the lowest degree of lipolysis could be found in bigel with 50% oleogel. Full article
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18 pages, 2045 KiB  
Article
Sunflower Oil Winterization Using the Cellulose-Based Filtration Aid—Investigation of Oil Quality during Industrial Filtration Probe
Foods 2023, 12(12), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12122291 - 07 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3125
Abstract
Waxes, phospholipids, free fatty acids, peroxides, aldehydes, soap, trace metals and moisture present in crude sunflower oil have a negative effect on the oil quality and are, therefore, removed during the refining process. Waxes crystallizing at low temperatures are removed during winterization by [...] Read more.
Waxes, phospholipids, free fatty acids, peroxides, aldehydes, soap, trace metals and moisture present in crude sunflower oil have a negative effect on the oil quality and are, therefore, removed during the refining process. Waxes crystallizing at low temperatures are removed during winterization by cooling and filtration. Waxes have poor filtration characteristics and an industrial filtration process must be enhanced by the use of filtration aids, which improve filter cake structure and properties, and consequently prolong the filtration cycle. Today, traditional filtration aids (diatomite, perlite, etc.) being used in the industry are frequently replaced by cellulose-based aids. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of oil filtration assisted by two cellulose-based filtration aids on the chemical parameters (wax, moisture, phospholipids, soaps, and fatty acids), oil transparency, carotenoids, and Fe and Cu content of sunflower oil obtained in an industrial horizontal pressure leaf filter. In order to investigate the mentioned parameters, the following techniques were used: gravimetric (waxes and moisture content), spectrophotometric (phospholipids and carotenoid content and oil transparency), volumetric (soaps and free fatty acids content) as well as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for Fe and Cu content. An artificial neural network model (ANN) was employed for the prediction of removal efficiency based on the chemical quality, oil transparency, Fe and Cu content in oils before filtration, as well as filtration aid quantity and filtration time. Cellulose-based filtration aids had multiple beneficial effects; on average, 99.20% of waxes, 74.88% of phospholipids, 100% of soap, 7.99% of carotenoids, 16.39% of Fe and 18.33% of Cu were removed. Full article
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