New Aspect on Wine Fermentation

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 16885

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CQ-VR, Chemistry Research Centre, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, School of Life Sciences and Environment, Department of Biology and Environment, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: cell culture; biotechnology; fermentation; cell biology; food chemistry; food microbiology; food analysis; food science and technology; food quality; food processing, food sensory evaluation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world is changing, and the COVID pandemic is showing that we must take care of ourselves and, not less important, of the environment.

Wine consumers worldwide are also changing their behaviour when deciding which wine to purchase. This change includes consumers’ purchasing decisions based upon how well product satisfy their needs, in terms of pleasantness, health, and nutritional value, as well as how these products affect the environment.

Modern winemakers must promote fermentation that can produce high levels of polyphenols, and other health-promoting compounds, but, at the same time, to minimize concentrations of risky wine ingredients such as sulfites, biogenic amines, heavy metals, mycotoxins, or proteins with allergenic potential.

So, winemakers have been facing additional challenges due to current market demands.

Moreover, they must design wines exhibiting more individual flavours when working with grapes grown under stressful conditions due to distinct climate changes. Innovative winemaking techniques and new yeast strains contribute to solving some of these problems including, the increased sugar concentration of grapes at grape maturity and stuck fermentations that may occur under nitrogen limitations.

The current advances in “omics” technologies and analytical techniques have permitted us to understand better the grape/wine microbial ecosystem and have revealed new perceptions into wine microbiology. It is well known that non-conventional Saccharomyces species considered as spoiling microorganisms in the past are valued beneficial today, as they improve the wine aroma profile when grown in controlled mixed starter fermentations together with S. cerevisiae. Also, current biological approaches are in progress for wine deacidification using Saccharomyces yeasts in addition to the traditional lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oenii or Lactobacillus plantarum.

The advance in molecular techniques has allowed the construction of yeast species, already with the status of ‘Generally Regarded As Safe’ (GRAS) from the FDA and, therefore, able to be commercialized. The ML01, a Prise de Mousse strain that contains the malate transport gene (mae1), and the 522EC- urea-degrading yeast, able to reduce the production of ethyl carbamate in wine are genetic manipulated yeasts already available in the market.

Notwithstanding these advances, we are still far behind in knowing all about the diverse and vital roles of different microbial species, namely yeasts and bacteria, in wine production, quality, and safety. Several questions regarding the role of individual microorganisms or possible microbial interactions during wine production remain to be clear, including microorganisms that may affect, negatively, wine quality.

This Special Issue includes innovative studies aiming to address wine consumer´s challenges not only in terms of product quality but, also, environmental consciousness.

Prof. Dr. Alice Vilela
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wine aroma and flavour
  • starter cultures
  • mixed fermentations
  • stuck fermentations
  • yeast hybrids
  • Genetically modified microorganisms
  • microbial ecology
  • enzymes
  • malolactic fermentation
  • human health

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 923 KiB  
Article
Wine Microbial Consortium: Seasonal Sources and Vectors Linking Vineyard and Winery Environments
by Sofia Camilo, Mahesh Chandra, Patrícia Branco and Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070324 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Winemaking involves a wide diversity of microorganisms with different roles in the process. The wine microbial consortium (WMC) includes yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria with different implications regarding wine quality. Despite this technological importance, their origin, prevalence, and routes of [...] Read more.
Winemaking involves a wide diversity of microorganisms with different roles in the process. The wine microbial consortium (WMC) includes yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria with different implications regarding wine quality. Despite this technological importance, their origin, prevalence, and routes of dissemination from the environment into the winery have not yet been fully unraveled. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the WMC diversity and incidence associated with vineyard environments to understand how wine microorganisms overwinter and enter the winery during harvest. Soils, tree and vine barks, insects, vine leaves, grapes, grape musts, and winery equipment were sampled along four seasons. The isolation protocol included: (a) culture-dependent microbial recovery; (b) phenotypical screening to select fermenting yeasts, lactic acid, and acetic acid bacteria; and (c) molecular identification. The results showed that during all seasons, only 11.4% of the 1424 isolates presumably belonged to the WMC. The increase in WMC recovery along the year was mostly due to an increase in the number of sampled sources. Acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter spp., Gluconobacter spp., Gluconoacetobacter spp.) were mostly recovered from soils during winter while spoilage lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus kunkeii) were only recovered from insects during véraison and harvest. The fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was only isolated from fermented juice and winery equipment. The spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was only recovered from fermented juice. The single species bridging both vineyard and winery environments was the yeast Hanseniaspora uvarum, isolated from insects, rot grapes and grape juice during harvest. Therefore, this species appears to be the best surrogate to study the dissemination of the WMC from vineyard into the winery. Moreover, the obtained results do not evidence the hypothesis of a perennial terroir-dependent WMC given the scarcity of their constituents in the vineyard environment along the year and the importance of insect dissemination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspect on Wine Fermentation)
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9 pages, 1052 KiB  
Article
Inactivation of Endogenous Pectin Methylesterases by Radio Frequency Heating during the Fermentation of Fruit Wines
by Yan Zhao, Xiaobin Yu, Wei Zhao, Gen Li, Guangpeng Liu, Yanrui Ma, Le Chu, Yinfei Ma, Ying Zhang, Yao Lu, Fatao He and Xiaobo Liu
Fermentation 2022, 8(6), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8060265 - 06 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
Pectin methylesterase (PME) is a methyl ester group hydrolytic enzyme of either plant or microbial origin. Importantly, endogenous PMEs in fruits can catalyze the demethoxylation of pectin with a bulk release of methanol, largely impacting the fruit juice and wine industries. Here, we [...] Read more.
Pectin methylesterase (PME) is a methyl ester group hydrolytic enzyme of either plant or microbial origin. Importantly, endogenous PMEs in fruits can catalyze the demethoxylation of pectin with a bulk release of methanol, largely impacting the fruit juice and wine industries. Here, we demonstrated radio frequency (RF) heating for inactivation of endogenous PMEs and investigated the relevant mechanisms underpinning enzymatic inactivation. The RF heating curve indicated that the optimal heating rate was achieved at an electrode gap of 90 mm (compared to 100 mm and 110 mm) and that the inactivation rate of the enzyme increases with heating time. RF heating exhibited better effects on enzymatic inactivation than traditional water heating, mainly by changing the secondary structures of PMEs, including α-helix, β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy indicated changes in the tertiary structure with a significant increase in fluorescence intensity. Significantly, application of RF heating for inactivation of PMEs resulted in a 1.5-fold decrease in methanol during the fermentation of jujube wine. Collectively, our findings demonstrated an effective approach for inactivating endogenous PMEs during the bioprocesses of fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspect on Wine Fermentation)
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11 pages, 1566 KiB  
Article
Observation of Residues Content after Application of a Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Mixture at the End of Alcoholic Fermentation
by Josef Licek, Mojmir Baron, Jiri Sochor, Michal Kumsta and Jiri Mlcek
Fermentation 2022, 8(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8030105 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
This study focused on applying a patented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) mixture at the end of alcoholic fermentation and monitoring its residues. MCFAs are a promising agent that has the potential to increase the efficiency of sulfur dioxide and ultimately minimize its doses, [...] Read more.
This study focused on applying a patented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) mixture at the end of alcoholic fermentation and monitoring its residues. MCFAs are a promising agent that has the potential to increase the efficiency of sulfur dioxide and ultimately minimize its doses, which is one of the important goals of wine research today. Detailed octanoic, decanoic, and dodecanoic acid contents were observed during the experiment. The MCFA mixture was applied at doses of 0, 10, 20, and 60 mg/L. GC–MS determined the content of individual fatty acids. The results showed that the use of the investigated mixture of fatty acids at doses of 10 and 20 mg/L did not cause an increase in the content of individual fatty acids residues. The octanoic acid content after application of the 20 mg/L MCFA mixture was 8.24 mg/L after 744 h, while the untreated control variant showed a value of 7.71 mg/L. The performed sensory analysis also did not show a negative effect of MCFA application on the sensory properties of wine. Therefore, applying an MCFA mixture at 10 and 20 mg/L can be recommended as a safe alternative following alcoholic fermentation. However, the results obtained can also serve as a valuable basis for permitting the use of MCFA in the proceeding OIV approval process. The research thus opens the possibility of expanding a new oenological agent capable of reducing SO2 doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspect on Wine Fermentation)
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20 pages, 1183 KiB  
Article
Oenological Characterization of Native Hanseniaspora uvarum Strains
by Stojan Mančić, Sandra Stamenković Stojanović, Bojana Danilović, Natalija Djordjević, Marko Malićanin, Miodrag Lazić and Ivana Karabegović
Fermentation 2022, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8030092 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2604
Abstract
The utilization of native yeast strains associated with a distinct terroir for autochthonous grape types represents a novel trend in winemaking, contributing to the production of unique wines with regional character. Hence, this study aimed to isolate native strains of the yeast H. [...] Read more.
The utilization of native yeast strains associated with a distinct terroir for autochthonous grape types represents a novel trend in winemaking, contributing to the production of unique wines with regional character. Hence, this study aimed to isolate native strains of the yeast H. uvarum from the surface of various fruits and to characterize its fermentation capability in Prokupac grape must. Out of 31 yeasts, 8 isolates were identified as H. uvarum. The isolates were able to grow at low (4 °C) temperatures, SO2 concentrations up to 300 ppm and ethanol concentrations up to 5%. Additionally, they provided a good profile of organic acids during the microvinification of sterile grape must. Although the content of acetic acid (0.54–0.63 g/L) was relatively high, the sniffing test proved that the yeast isolates developed a pleasant aroma characterized as fruity. All H. uvarum isolates produced twice the concentration of glycerol compared to commercial wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contributing to the fullness and sweetness of the wine. The results for pure and sequential fermentation protocols confirmed that the selected S-2 isolate has good oenological characteristics, the capability to reduce the ethanol content (up to 1% v/v) and a potential to give a distinctive note to Prokupac-grape wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspect on Wine Fermentation)
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12 pages, 1171 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Commercial Starter Culture Development in Presence of Red Grape Pomace Powder to Produce Polyphenol-Enriched Fresh Ovine Cheeses at Industrial Scale Level
by Pietro Barbaccia, Gabriele Busetta, Michele Matraxia, Anna Maria Sutera, Valentina Craparo, Giancarlo Moschetti, Nicola Francesca, Luca Settanni and Raimondo Gaglio
Fermentation 2021, 7(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7010035 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2676
Abstract
Red grape Nero d’Avola cultivar grape pomace powder (GPP) was applied during fresh ovine cheese production in order to increase polyphenol content. Before cheeses were produced, the bacteria of a freeze-dried commercial starter culture were isolated and tested in vitro against GPP. Two [...] Read more.
Red grape Nero d’Avola cultivar grape pomace powder (GPP) was applied during fresh ovine cheese production in order to increase polyphenol content. Before cheeses were produced, the bacteria of a freeze-dried commercial starter culture were isolated and tested in vitro against GPP. Two dominant strains, both resistant to GPP, were identified. Thestarter culture was inoculated in pasteurized ewe’s milk and the curd was divided into two bulks, one added with 1% (w/w) GPP and another one GPP-free. GPP did not influence the starter culture development, since lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts were 109 CFU/g in both cheeses at 30 d. To exclude the interference of indigenous LAB, the pasteurized milk was analyzed, and several colonies of presumptive LAB were isolated, purified and typed. Four strains were allotted into Enterococcus and Lacticaseibacillus genera. The direct comparison of the polymorphic profiles of cheese bacteria evidenced the dominance of the starter culture over milk LAB. The addition of GPP increased cheese total phenolic compounds by 0.42 g GAE/kg. Sensory evaluation indicated that GPP-enriched cheese was well appreciated by the judges, providing evidence that GPP is a suitable substrate to increase the availability of total phenolic content in fresh ovine cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspect on Wine Fermentation)
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Review

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20 pages, 1893 KiB  
Review
Sulfane Sulfur Compounds as Source of Reappearance of Reductive Off-Odors in Wine
by Nikolaus Müller, Doris Rauhut and Andrii Tarasov
Fermentation 2022, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8020053 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5111
Abstract
Reactive compounds with one or more sulfane sulfur atoms can be an important source of reductive off-odors in wine. These substances contain labile sulfur, which can participate in microbiological (enzymatic) and chemical transformations (including in the post-bottling period), releasing malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H [...] Read more.
Reactive compounds with one or more sulfane sulfur atoms can be an important source of reductive off-odors in wine. These substances contain labile sulfur, which can participate in microbiological (enzymatic) and chemical transformations (including in the post-bottling period), releasing malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its derivatives (MeSH, EtSH, etc.). The following sulfane sulfur compounds were considered in this review as important precursors in the wine chemistry of reductive aromas: elemental sulfur (S8), persulfides (R-S-S-H), polysulfanes (R-Sn-R()), polythionates (O3S-Sn-SO3), thiosulfate (S2O32−) and derivatives of (poly)sulfane monosulfonic acids (R-Sn-SO3H). This review discusses the formation of these compounds, their reactivity and chemical transformations in wine, including reactions of nucleophilic substitution. In particular, the reactions of thiolysis, thiosulfatolysis and sulfitolysis of sulfane sulfur compounds are described, which lead in the end to reductive aroma compounds. In this way, the review attempts to shed light on some of the mysteries in the field of sulfur chemistry in wine and the reappearance of reductive off-odors after bottling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspect on Wine Fermentation)
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