Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensory and Consumer Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2020) | Viewed by 67218

Special Issue Editor

Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: wine microbiology; volatile acidity bio-reduction; food sensory evaluation; wine sensory evaluation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Background: Beverage quality in the beverage industry is heavily influenced by ingredient flavor quality. Complexity is a term widely used in beverage degustation and is considered a positive characteristic and desirable in wines, beers and even in non-alcoholic drinks. But what is really complexity? Some authors state that complexity is an associative perception of multiple elements, especially from the synergy of several individual compounds and it is possible to consider the number of flavor compounds that can be detected as a complexity indicative.

To evaluate a beverage's complexity it is possible to choose chemical analysis, for the identification of flavor compounds. It is also possible to evaluate the human perception of the synergy by sensory analyses. The relation between both analyses, chemical and sensory, in beverages, is an extensive research area in the beverages industry.

Aim and Scope: This Special Issue invites researchers in the relevant field to submit original research and systematic reviews to expand knowledge in the field of sensory and volatile flavor analysis of beverages from product development, beverage product design, beverage sensory evaluation, and data treatment, and also consumer sensory perception.

History: Historically, the evaluation of beverage flavor, both sensorially and chemically, focused on the presence or absence of defects (e.g., clarity, color, volatile acidity, etc.). This frequently involved the use of “expert” tasters who evaluated the appearance, color, odor, taste, and mouthfeel to arrive at an overall impression of the beverage “quality” based on the absence of defects and the overall “balance” of the sensory properties. Development of analytical methods in the 19th century linked the measurement of sensory defects to beverage composition and served as a basis for many early laws aimed at protecting beverages “quality”.

We are inviting papers on the following topics: Newly-developed technologies in flavor beverage chemical and sensory analysis to address consumers’ concerns and needs. Flavor perception and multisensory aspects. Innovative sensory data treatments. Consumer-driven product development and optimization; the role of sensory perception, and consumer preferences in beverage flavor product design; interdisciplinary papers in the area of culinary science, gastronomy, nutrition, that will also contribute to the growing body of knowledge in the area of sensory and volatile flavor analysis of beverage and product design.

Prof. Alice Vilela
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Method development of flavor analysis
  • Flavorants
  • Flavor innovation
  • Sensory perception
  • Sensory methodologies
  • Beverage flavor acceptance, preference, and consumer choice
  • New approaches of sensory data treatment
  • New approaches of chemometric tools for data treatment
  • Flavor and aroma fingerprint
  • Flavor and authenticity

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 183 KiB  
Editorial
Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages
by Alice Vilela
Foods 2021, 10(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010177 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
Humans have used their senses to evaluate food for several thousands of years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)

Research

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15 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
Peanut Coffee: Enhancement of Nutritional, Physicochemical, and Sensory Characteristics in Coffee Brewed with Conventional and High-Oleic Peanut Extracts
by Jookyeong Lee, Seong Jun Hong, Jin-Ju Cho, Chang Guk Boo, Da-Som Kim and Eui-Cheol Shin
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111664 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4715
Abstract
This study investigated nutritional, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of coffee brewed with conventional and high-oleic peanut extracts. Compared to normal coffee, peanut coffee exhibited more diverse amino acids compositions. In constituent amino acids composition, peanut coffee exhibited increased proportions of glutamic and aspartic [...] Read more.
This study investigated nutritional, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of coffee brewed with conventional and high-oleic peanut extracts. Compared to normal coffee, peanut coffee exhibited more diverse amino acids compositions. In constituent amino acids composition, peanut coffee exhibited increased proportions of glutamic and aspartic acids but decreased phenylalanine. Peanut coffee had higher thiamin, niacin, and sugar contents, improved antioxidant capacity, and lower caffeine contents. In electronic tongue analysis, peanut coffee showed an increased intensity of sweetness and umami taste but decreased bitterness, corresponding to the result of amino acids compositions and caffeine and sugar contents. In volatile compounds analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with the sniffing test, peanut coffee had high concentrations of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,2′-methylenebis-furan, and furfuryl propionate, which were perceived as peanut and roasted odors in the sniffing test. This study will provide informative data in extending the application of peanut to coffee and developing novel coffee, with added peanut, that is nutritionally beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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12 pages, 22012 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Apple Juice Concentration on Cider Fermentation and Properties of the Final Product
by Julia Rosend, Aleksei Kaleda, Rain Kuldjärv, Georg Arju and Ildar Nisamedtinov
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101401 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7790
Abstract
European legislation overall agrees that apple juice concentrate is allowed to be used to some extent in cider production. However, no comprehensive research is available to date on the differences in suitability for fermentation between fresh apple juice and that of reconstituted apple [...] Read more.
European legislation overall agrees that apple juice concentrate is allowed to be used to some extent in cider production. However, no comprehensive research is available to date on the differences in suitability for fermentation between fresh apple juice and that of reconstituted apple juice concentrate. This study aimed to apply freshly pressed juice and juice concentrate made from the same apple cultivar as a substrate for cider fermentation. Differences in yeast performance in terms of fermentation kinetics and consumption of nutrients have been assessed. Fermented ciders were compared according to volatile ester composition and off-flavor formation related to hydrogen sulfide. Based on the results, in the samples fermented with the concentrate, the yeasts consumed less fructose. The formation of long-chain fatty acid esters increased with the use of reconstituted juice concentrate while the differences in off-flavor formation could not be determined. Overall, the use of the concentrate can be considered efficient enough for the purpose of cider fermentation. However, some nutritional supplementation might be required to support the vitality of yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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19 pages, 1708 KiB  
Article
Odor Characterization of White Wines Produced from Indigenous Greek Grape Varieties Using the Frequency of Attribute Citation Method with Trained Assessors
by Evangelia Nanou, Emorfili Mavridou, Fotios S. Milienos, Georgios Papadopoulos, Sophie Tempère and Yorgos Kotseridis
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101396 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4062
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory aroma profiles of white wines of the indigenous Greek grape varieties Assyrtiko, Malagousia, Moschofilero, and Roditis. Twenty-three panelists evaluated 17 wines of the aforementioned varieties using the frequency of attribute citation method. Three [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory aroma profiles of white wines of the indigenous Greek grape varieties Assyrtiko, Malagousia, Moschofilero, and Roditis. Twenty-three panelists evaluated 17 wines of the aforementioned varieties using the frequency of attribute citation method. Three indices were calculated to assess panel performance in terms of reproducibility. Correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were employed to investigate the sensory space of the wines. Samples of the Roditis variety were characterized mainly by Banana and Vanilla odors; Assyrtiko samples had Earthy, Mushroom, and Nutty odors, as well as Lemon and Honey for some of the samples. Malagousia wines were described as having Lemon, Grapefruit, and Citrus blossom character, and they shared some descriptors with Assyrtiko wines, such as Mushroom and Earthy, and some with Moschofilero samples, i.e., floral and citrus notes. All Moschofilero wines exhibited a floral odor profile: specifically, Rose, Jasmine, or more Citrus blossom-like. Moreover, some Moschofilero samples also revealed a Grapefruit, Lemon, and/or Earthy character, while others expressed Honey notes. In conclusion, despite common characteristics found within varieties, some samples of different varieties exhibited overlapping profiles, and in some cases, samples of the same variety were quite different from each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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19 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Creation and Acceptability of a Fragrance with a Characteristic Tawny Port Wine-Like Aroma
by Alice Vilela, Rita Ferreira, Fernando Nunes and Elisete Correia
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091244 - 06 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3873
Abstract
Port wine, the ultimate expression of the Demarcated Douro Region’s (DDR’s) history, cultural heritage experience, and art, was born on the slopes of the Douro river valley. One of the categories of port wine that is much appreciated by consumers is tawny port [...] Read more.
Port wine, the ultimate expression of the Demarcated Douro Region’s (DDR’s) history, cultural heritage experience, and art, was born on the slopes of the Douro river valley. One of the categories of port wine that is much appreciated by consumers is tawny port wine. This category of wine is aged in oak barrels and is characterized by oxidative aromas. Thus, the objective of the present work was to develop a tawny port wine-like fragrance, the first according to the literature. First, a group of 50 consumers in an informal environment and using two samples of tawny port wine (13 and over 40 years of aging in wood, respectively) was asked about the pleasantness of the aromas and the possible use of a tawny port wine-like fragrance. More than 80% of the group stated that they would use the fragrance as an air freshener (scent marketing in restaurants) or even in personal-use products. Then, a sensory panel of 12 participants (3 men and 9 women) was trained, and using tawny port wines of various brands and ages, the panel selected six descriptors to aromatically describe this type of wine. For the descriptors, seven aromatic chemical compounds were appointed and fragrances were developed with contributions from the panel. After several sessions with the sensory panel, three fragrances were selected, created with only three of the aromatic compounds initially used: benzaldehyde, sotolon, and vanillin. Afterward, the levels of consumer acceptability (150 individuals) for the three developed fragrances were studied and the optimization of their sensory characteristics was evaluated using a “just about right” (JAR) scale. It was found that male individuals assigned higher ratings and preferred fragrance 5.1, which was a statistically significant result (p < 0.001). Regarding age, Tukey’s test showed significant differences in responses to fragrance 5.3 between young adults and middle-aged adults (p = 0.018). Young adults gave higher scores for this fragrance. Additionally, consumers considered that the intensity of the tawny port wine aroma was ideal in the three fragrances, however, the fragrance color was not very intense. The use of the three compounds (benzaldehyde, sotolon, and vanillin) seems to be enough to obtain a tawny port wine-like fragrance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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16 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Study of Australian Pinot Noir Wines by Colour and Volatile Analyses, and the Pivot© Profile Method Using Wine Professionals
by Rocco Longo, Wes Pearson, Angela Merry, Mark Solomon, Luca Nicolotti, Hanna Westmore, Robert Dambergs and Fiona Kerslake
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091142 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
The aim of this preliminary study was to identify potential colour components, volatile and sensory attributes that could discriminate Pinot noir wines from five Australian winegrowing regions (Adelaide Hills, Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula, Northern and Southern Tasmania). The sensory analysis consisted of the [...] Read more.
The aim of this preliminary study was to identify potential colour components, volatile and sensory attributes that could discriminate Pinot noir wines from five Australian winegrowing regions (Adelaide Hills, Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula, Northern and Southern Tasmania). The sensory analysis consisted of the Pivot© Profile method that was performed by wine professionals. A headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used to quantify multiple volatile compounds, while the Modified Somers method was used for colour characterisation. Analysis of data suggested ethyl decanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, in addition to decanoic acid as important contributors to the discrimination between regions. Similarly, wine hue, chemical age indices, total anthocyanin, and (%) non-bleachable pigment also discriminated wines between regions. The sensory analysis showed that wines from Mornington Peninsula were associated with the ‘red fruits’ aroma, ‘acidic’, and ‘astringency’ palate descriptors, while those from Adelaide Hills were associated with the ‘brown’ colour attribute. This study indicates regionality is a strong driver of aroma typicity of wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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24 pages, 2379 KiB  
Article
Major Sensory Attributes and Volatile Compounds of Korean Rice Liquor (yakju) Affecting Overall Acceptance by Young Consumers
by JeongAe Heo, Han Sub Kwak, Miran Kim, Jae-Ho Kim, Hyung Hee Baek, Hyukjin Shin, Young-seung Lee, Sanghyeok Lee and Sang Sook Kim
Foods 2020, 9(6), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060722 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3027
Abstract
The sensory characteristics and volatile compounds that affect consumers’ acceptance of rice liquors were investigated. A total of 80 consumers evaluated 12 yakju samples and descriptive analysis by 11 trained panelists was conducted. Solvent-assisted flavor evaporation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis also was conducted revealing [...] Read more.
The sensory characteristics and volatile compounds that affect consumers’ acceptance of rice liquors were investigated. A total of 80 consumers evaluated 12 yakju samples and descriptive analysis by 11 trained panelists was conducted. Solvent-assisted flavor evaporation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis also was conducted revealing 120 volatile compounds in the yakju samples. Sensory attributes (n = 31) except appearance attributes were used for principal component analysis (PCA). As results, fruit odor (apple, hawthorn, omija, and pineapple odor) and flower odor (chrysanthemum, pine, and peppermint odor) were placed on the positive side of PC1 whereas persimmon vinegar odor, bitter taste, alcohol flavor, stinging and coating mouthfeel were located on the negative side of PC1. The yakju samples were mainly characterized by their alcohol content and supplementary ingredients. Sensory descriptors (n = 31; except appearance attributes and p > 0.05) and volatile compounds (n = 30; p > 0.5 correlation coefficient with overall acceptance) were chosen for multiple factor analysis (MFA). The MFA correlation map showed that ethyl propanoate, ethyl-2-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoate, methyl 2-furoate, γ-butyrolactone, 4-ethoxycarbonyl-γ-butyrolactone, hawthorn odor, apple flavor, grape flavor, and sweet taste were positively correlated with young consumers’ overall acceptance. Additionally, negative correlation with overall acceptance was found in 1,3-butanediol, 2,3-butanediol, and 1,1-diethoxy-3-methylbutane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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21 pages, 1485 KiB  
Article
Pinot Blanc: Impact of the Winemaking Variables on the Evolution of the Phenolic, Volatile and Sensory Profiles
by Amanda Dupas de Matos, Edoardo Longo, Danila Chiotti, Ulrich Pedri, Daniela Eisenstecken, Christof Sanoll, Peter Robatscher and Emanuele Boselli
Foods 2020, 9(4), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040499 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4046
Abstract
The impact of two different winemaking practices on the chemical and sensory complexity of Pinot Blanc wines from South Tyrol (Italy), from grape pressing to the bottled wine stored for nine months, was studied. New chemical markers of Pinot blanc were identified: astilbin [...] Read more.
The impact of two different winemaking practices on the chemical and sensory complexity of Pinot Blanc wines from South Tyrol (Italy), from grape pressing to the bottled wine stored for nine months, was studied. New chemical markers of Pinot blanc were identified: astilbin and trans-caftaric acid differentiated the wines according to the vinification; S-glutathionylcaftaric acid correlated with the temporal trends. Fluorescence analysis displayed strong time-evolution and differentiation of the two wines for gallocatechin and epigallocatechin, respectively. After nine months of storage in bottle, the control wine showed higher amounts of most ethyl esters, acetate esters and octanoic acid, whereas higher alcohols characterized instead the wine obtained with prefermentative cold maceration. The sensory panel found notes of apple and tropical fruit in the control wine and attributed a higher overall quality judgement to it, whereas the cold-macerated wine was described by olfactory intensity, spicy and pear attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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17 pages, 1427 KiB  
Article
Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Compounds of Herbal Teas and Mixtures of Bush Tea with Other Selected Herbal Teas of South Africa
by Florence Malongane, Lyndy Joy McGaw, Legesse Kassa Debusho and Fhatuwani Nixwell Mudau
Foods 2020, 9(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040496 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4975
Abstract
South Africa has a traditional heritage of using indigenous herbal teas, and the demand for herbal teas motivated by the functional health benefits has far exceeded global supply. This has led to worldwide interest in the sensory characteristics and volatile compound characterisation of [...] Read more.
South Africa has a traditional heritage of using indigenous herbal teas, and the demand for herbal teas motivated by the functional health benefits has far exceeded global supply. This has led to worldwide interest in the sensory characteristics and volatile compound characterisation of herbal drink formulations. The objective of this study was to investigate the descriptive sensory analysis and volatile compounds of bush, special, honeybush and rooibos tea and the blend of bush tea with special, honeybush and rooibos, respectively. The trained sensory panel scored each tea sample for aroma, taste, aftertaste and mouthfeel attributes using sensory evaluation practices. Compound identification was performed by gas chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results of the study demonstrated that rooibos and honeybush tea had an overall sweet-caramel, honey-sweet, perfume floral and woody aroma while bush tea and special tea depicted green-cut grass, dry green herbal and astringent/dry mouth feel. The GC-MS analyses depicted the following compounds 2-furanmethanol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, D-limonene, dihydroactinidolide, linalool, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, and phytol. The blending of bush tea with rooibos and honeybush tea toned down its astringent mouth feel. Compounds identified in this study may be useful markers for potential herbal tea sensory characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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16 pages, 1759 KiB  
Article
Consumers Associate High-Quality (Fine) Wines with Complexity, Persistence, and Unpleasant Emotional Responses
by Maria Souza-Coutinho, Renato Brasil, Clarisse Souza, Paulo Sousa and Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira
Foods 2020, 9(4), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040452 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3092
Abstract
The conventional method for the sensory evaluation of wine is based on visual, olfactory and gustatory perceptions described by a domain-specific language. This is a complex task, requiring extensive training, which is not feasible from a consumer perspective. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
The conventional method for the sensory evaluation of wine is based on visual, olfactory and gustatory perceptions described by a domain-specific language. This is a complex task, requiring extensive training, which is not feasible from a consumer perspective. The objective of this study was to apply a wine tasting sheet, including sensory and emotional responses, to simplify the recognition of fine white wines by consumers. First, a panel of 15 semi-trained judges evaluated eight sensory attributes through Optimized Descriptive Profile (ODP) methodology. Then, a group of 104 consumers evaluated five white wines with different sensory characteristics using an improved emotional wine tasting sheet. The emotions and sensations most frequently associated with white wines were obtained through the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) approach. The eight sensory attributes were significant (p-value < 0.05) in the distinction of wines by the ODP. Likewise, the distinction of the wines also provided significant differences in all the emotional and sensory attributes (p-value < 0.05). The different wine styles could be distinguished by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using the semi-trained judges or the consumer responses. The highest score in the “global evaluation” was given to two young, fruity wines characterized by high aromatic “initial impression”. The two fine wines, including a 2004 Burgundy Pouilly-Fuissé, were the lowest rated in “initial impression” and “global evaluation”, although they were considered by the consumers among the most complex and persistent. These wines were also most frequently associated with unpleasant emotions by the CATA test. The recognition of these fine wine attributes and their incongruity with emotional responses can be used in a rapid way by professionals to explain the different wine styles to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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13 pages, 1215 KiB  
Article
Ternary Cross-Modal Interactions between Sweetness, Aroma, and Viscosity in Different Beverage Matrices
by Anne Sjoerup Bertelsen, Line Ahm Mielby, Derek Victor Byrne and Ulla Kidmose
Foods 2020, 9(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040395 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3833
Abstract
Sugar reduction in food and beverage products involves several challenges. Non-nutritive sweeteners may give unwanted off-flavors, while sugar-reduced products often lack mouthfeel. To overcome this, the addition of aroma to increase sweetness through cross-modal interactions, and the addition of hydrocolloids such as pectin [...] Read more.
Sugar reduction in food and beverage products involves several challenges. Non-nutritive sweeteners may give unwanted off-flavors, while sugar-reduced products often lack mouthfeel. To overcome this, the addition of aroma to increase sweetness through cross-modal interactions, and the addition of hydrocolloids such as pectin to increase viscosity, have been suggested as strategies to aid sugar reduction. However, viscosity has been shown to decrease both taste and aroma intensities. An increase in viscosity may thereby affect the use of aromas as sweetness enhancers. Additionally, the effects of aromas and hydrocolloids on sweetness intensity and mouthfeel depend on the food matrix involved. The present study investigated cross-modal aroma–sweetness–viscosity interactions in two beverage matrices: water and apple nectar. The perceptual effects of vanilla aroma (0–1 mL/kg), sucrose (2.5%–7.5% w/w) and pectin (0%–0.3% w/w) were studied in both matrices. For each matrix, cross-modal interactions were analyzed with descriptive analysis using a trained sensory panel. The effect of vanilla aroma on sweetness intensity was found to be higher in apple nectar compared to in water. Furthermore, pectin affected neither taste, aroma, nor the cross-modal effects of aroma on taste in either of the matrices. These results indicate that pectin, in the studied range of concentrations, may be used to improve mouthfeel in sugar-reduced beverages, without compromising taste or aroma perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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13 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
Off-Flavours and Unpleasantness Are Cues for the Recognition and Valorization of Organic Wines by Experienced Tasters
by Mylena Romano, Mahesh Chandra, Mkrtich Harutunyan, Taciana Savian, Cristian Villegas, Valéria Minim and Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira
Foods 2020, 9(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010105 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4085
Abstract
The drivers of consumer acceptance concerning organic wines are not well understood. In particular, among wine professionals, there are anecdotal evidences claiming that consumers accept off-flavours that would not be tolerated if the wines were conventionally produced. Therefore, the aim of this study [...] Read more.
The drivers of consumer acceptance concerning organic wines are not well understood. In particular, among wine professionals, there are anecdotal evidences claiming that consumers accept off-flavours that would not be tolerated if the wines were conventionally produced. Therefore, the aim of this study was to shed further light on this issue by tasting blind wines of both types of production using a tasting panel comprised by experienced individuals of several nationalities. The tasted wines were both conventional and organic and were with and without off-flavours. The same wines were evaluated in three tasting sessions where the given information was: (1) all wines were conventional, (2) all wines were organic, and (3) tasters were asked to guess the mode of production. A group of untrained tasters also rated the same organic wines in an informed session. The results showed that wines were significantly better scored and were given a higher willingness to pay value in the “organic” session. In addition, the experienced tasting panel produced a list of the most frequent sensory descriptors. When tasters were asked to guess the mode of production, wines that were supposed to be organic received a higher citation of off-flavours, such as “oxidized”, “reductive”, and “animal/undergrowth”. Moreover, an overall emotional response of unpleasantness was associated with the recognition of organic wines in the “guess” session. Untrained tasters rated the same organic wines with lower liking scores and were willing to pay less. In conclusion, off-flavours and their unpleasantness worked as a cue to identify wines supposed to be organic by experienced tasters. Their corresponding higher valorization could be explained by the psychological halo effect induced by the organic label. Contrarily, consumers did not show this halo effect, depreciating wines with unpleasant flavours irrespective of their mode of production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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14 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Cold Brew Coffee: Consumer Acceptability and Characterization Using the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Method
by JeongAe Heo, Kap Seong Choi, Shangci Wang, Koushik Adhikari and Jeehyun Lee
Foods 2019, 8(8), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8080344 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 7862
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate consumers’ acceptability and perceived sensory attributes of cold brew coffee, which is increasing in popularity. A total of 120 consumers evaluated liking of 13 cold brew coffee samples and checked sensory attributes they perceived using [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate consumers’ acceptability and perceived sensory attributes of cold brew coffee, which is increasing in popularity. A total of 120 consumers evaluated liking of 13 cold brew coffee samples and checked sensory attributes they perceived using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method. Correspondence analysis identified characteristics of each cold brew sample and brewing methods, namely cold brew, coffee machine brewed but served cold, ready-to-drink, and purchased from a coffee shop. In addition, a reduced number of terms were reviewed for common-to-all cold brew samples (17 terms) and specific to each sample (48 terms), which also discriminated among samples. Furthermore, data on consumers’ liking were not influenced by caffeine contents and most of the volatile compounds, but chlorogenic acid and trigonelline contents were negatively related with sensory data. This study specifies the characteristics of cold brew coffee using the CATA method, shows consumers’ segmentation using acceptability, and investigates the relationship between sensory liking data and non-volatile, volatile compounds of coffee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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Review

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24 pages, 1867 KiB  
Review
Beverage and Food Fragrance Biotechnology, Novel Applications, Sensory and Sensor Techniques: An Overview
by Alice Vilela, Eunice Bacelar, Teresa Pinto, Rosário Anjos, Elisete Correia, Berta Gonçalves and Fernanda Cosme
Foods 2019, 8(12), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120643 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 7651
Abstract
Flavours and fragrances are especially important for the beverage and food industries. Biosynthesis or extraction are the two main ways to obtain these important compounds that have many different chemical structures. Consequently, the search for new compounds is challenging for academic and industrial [...] Read more.
Flavours and fragrances are especially important for the beverage and food industries. Biosynthesis or extraction are the two main ways to obtain these important compounds that have many different chemical structures. Consequently, the search for new compounds is challenging for academic and industrial investigation. This overview aims to present the current state of art of beverage fragrance biotechnology, including recent advances in sensory and sensor methodologies and statistical techniques for data analysis. An overview of all the recent findings in beverage and food fragrance biotechnology, including those obtained from natural sources by extraction processes (natural plants as an important source of flavours) or using enzymatic precursor (hydrolytic enzymes), and those obtained by de novo synthesis (microorganisms’ respiration/fermentation of simple substrates such as glucose and sucrose), are reviewed. Recent advances have been made in what concerns “beverage fragrances construction” as also in their application products. Moreover, novel sensory and sensor methodologies, primarily used for fragrances quality evaluation, have been developed, as have statistical techniques for sensory and sensors data treatments, allowing a rapid and objective analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Volatile Flavor Analysis of Beverages)
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