Wine Aromas

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 34891

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Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand
Interests: wine chemistry; wine microbiology; food science
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Guest Editor
College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
Interests: fermented alcoholic beverages; winemaking; wine chemistry; biochemistry and molecular biology of grapes; food sensory analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine is a complex matrix with many volatile compounds present and evolving over time. These volatile compounds are important to wine quality as they contribute to the aroma and varietal characteristics of wine. Recent development in the analysis of volatile compounds in wine has greatly improved our understanding of the complexity of wine aroma. Analytical methods used for wine aroma fingerprinting have shown the potential to determine the origin and quality of wine. Thus, research on volatile compounds responsible for wine aroma and their correlation with wine provenance and wine quality have increasingly attracted great interest of researchers and winegrowers. This special issue aims to present the latest research regarding the wine aroma compounds, and we welcome manuscripts on topics including but not limiting to the characterization of aroma compounds in grapes and wine, factors influencing the production of aroma compounds in wine during fermentation and maturation, and analytical methods for wine aroma analysis.

Dr. Bin Tian
Prof. Dr. Jicheng Zhan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • ageing
  • aroma
  • bacteria
  • fermentation
  • grape
  • varietal characteristics
  • wine
  • yeast

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1143 KiB  
Article
Characterisation of Tannin and Aroma Profiles of Pinot Noir Wines Made with or without Grape Pomace
by Pradeep M. Wimalasiri, Jicheng Zhan and Bin Tian
Fermentation 2022, 8(12), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8120718 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
The contribution of grape pomace on tannin concentration, tannin composition and aroma profile of Pinot noir wine was studied using different fermentation media to make up four treatments: GJ-P, grape juice plus pomace; MJ-P, model juice plus pomace; GJ, grape juice; MJ, model [...] Read more.
The contribution of grape pomace on tannin concentration, tannin composition and aroma profile of Pinot noir wine was studied using different fermentation media to make up four treatments: GJ-P, grape juice plus pomace; MJ-P, model juice plus pomace; GJ, grape juice; MJ, model juice. The MJ-P treatment showed significantly lower amounts of tannins, mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), similar amounts of anthocyanin, and a similar secondary aroma profile compared to the GJ-P treatment. Grape pomace addition significantly increased the tannin concentration in wines. This study was also revealed the importance of phenolics present in grape juice in tannin polymerisation and final tannin concentration in wines. Grape pomace addition significantly reduced some important aroma compounds such as acetate esters (except ethyl acetate), most of the volatile fatty acids, a few ethyl esters and β-damascenone but increased some primary aromas in wines due to the presence of their aroma precursors in skins. Hence, these results indicate that grape pomace may bind or delay the release of some aroma compounds and/or lose these compounds during cap management in GJ-P and MJ-P treatments compared to the respective juice treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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9 pages, 368 KiB  
Article
Effect of Pre-Fermentative Bentonite Addition on Pinot Noir Wine Colour, Tannin, and Aroma Profile
by Pradeep M. Wimalasiri, Tanya Rutan and Bin Tian
Fermentation 2022, 8(11), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8110639 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Pinot noir is a grape variety with thin grape skin, which means the extraction of colour and polyphenols is more challenging than other red grape varieties. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protein removal by adding bentonite prior [...] Read more.
Pinot noir is a grape variety with thin grape skin, which means the extraction of colour and polyphenols is more challenging than other red grape varieties. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protein removal by adding bentonite prior to fermentation on Pinot noir wine composition. Four treatments were conducted, including the control without bentonite addition and Pinot noir wines produced with the addition of three different types of bentonites before cold soaking. The juice and wine samples were analysed for pathogenesis-related proteins, tannin, wine colour parameters, and aroma composition. The results showed that bentonite addition at 0.5 g/L had little impact on tannin and aroma compounds but more impact on wine colour, especially significantly higher level of SO2 resistant pigments observed in Na bentonite addition treatment. This study indicates the potential use of bentonite to modulate the Pinot noir juice composition that may facilitate the extraction of colour components from grape into juice, which plays an important role in colour stabilization in finished wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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16 pages, 1924 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Ethanol Tolerance via the Mutational Breeding of Pichia terricola H5 to Improve the Flavor Profiles of Wine
by Jie Gao, Xiuli He, Weidong Huang, Yilin You and Jicheng Zhan
Fermentation 2022, 8(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8040149 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2894
Abstract
Although using non-Saccharomyces yeasts during alcoholic fermentation can improve the wine aroma, most of them are not ethanol tolerant; therefore, in 2017, this study screened 85 non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated and identified from 24 vineyards in seven Chinese wine-producing regions, obtaining Pichia [...] Read more.
Although using non-Saccharomyces yeasts during alcoholic fermentation can improve the wine aroma, most of them are not ethanol tolerant; therefore, in 2017, this study screened 85 non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated and identified from 24 vineyards in seven Chinese wine-producing regions, obtaining Pichia terricola strain H5, which displayed 8% ethanol tolerance. Strain H5 was subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and diethyl sulfate (DES) mutagenesis treatment to obtain mutant strains with different fermentation characteristics from the parental H5. Compared with strain H5, the UV-irradiated strains, UV5 and UV8, showed significantly higher ethanol tolerance and fermentation capacity. Modified aroma profiles were also evident in the fermentation samples exposed to the mutants. Increased ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and ethyl dodecanoate content were apparent in the UV5 samples, providing the wine with a distinctly floral, fruity, and spicy profile. Fermentation with strain UV8 produced a high ethyl acetate concentration, causing the wine to present a highly unpleasant odor. To a certain extent, UV irradiation improved the ethanol tolerance and fermentation ability of strain H5, changing the wine aroma profile. This study provides a theoretical basis for the industrial application of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that can improve wine flavor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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21 pages, 2713 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Must Nutrients and Yeast Strain on the Aromatic Quality of Wines for Cognac Distillation
by Charlie Guittin, Faïza Maçna, Isabelle Sanchez, Adeline Barreau, Xavier Poitou, Jean-Marie Sablayrolles, Jean-Roch Mouret and Vincent Farines
Fermentation 2022, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8020051 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2792
Abstract
In order to understand the influence of nitrogen and lipid nutrition on the aromatic quality of wines for cognac distillation, we developed a transdisciplinary approach that combined statistical modeling (experimental central composite design and response surface modeling) with metabolomic analysis. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae [...] Read more.
In order to understand the influence of nitrogen and lipid nutrition on the aromatic quality of wines for cognac distillation, we developed a transdisciplinary approach that combined statistical modeling (experimental central composite design and response surface modeling) with metabolomic analysis. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that met the requirements of cognac appellation were tested at a laboratory scale (1 L) and a statistical analysis of covariance was performed to highlight the organoleptic profile (fermentative aromas, terpenes, alcohols and aldehydes) of each strain. The results showed that nitrogen and lipid nutrients had an impact on the aromatic quality of cognac wines: high lipid concentrations favored the production of organic acids, 1-octen-3-ol and terpenes and inhibited the synthesis of esters. Beyond this trend, each yeast strain displayed its own organoleptic characteristics but had identical responses to different nutritional conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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11 pages, 4040 KiB  
Article
Aroma Perception of Rose Oxide, Linalool and α-Terpineol Combinations in Gewürztraminer Wine
by Mildred Melina Chigo-Hernandez, Aubrey DuBois and Elizabeth Tomasino
Fermentation 2022, 8(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8010030 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3695
Abstract
Cis-Rose oxide was found to be an important chiral compound in Gewürztraminer wine, with an enantiomeric ratio range from 76 to 58%. The enantiomeric ratio showed an important influence on white wine aroma when other monoterpenes were present. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Cis-Rose oxide was found to be an important chiral compound in Gewürztraminer wine, with an enantiomeric ratio range from 76 to 58%. The enantiomeric ratio showed an important influence on white wine aroma when other monoterpenes were present. The aim of this study was to evaluate rose oxide at different ratios and changes to aroma perception, and the interaction of rose oxide with linalool and α-terpineol. A wine model was made based on Gewürztraminer wine. Twelve models were created with different ratios of rose oxide and concentrations of linalool and α-terpineol. Triangle tests, check-all-that-apply (CATA) and descriptive analysis were used to evaluate the aroma of the wines. Results show that the rose oxide ratios of 70:30 and 65:35 were statistically different. Additional descriptive analysis showed that the ratios altered aroma when linalool and α-terpineol were at low and medium concentrations. At high concentrations, linalool and α-terpineol masked any influence from rose oxide. Understanding how monoterpenes alter aroma perception of white wine when at different combinations and concentrations is important to achieving desired wine qualities and helps provide information on how flavor chemistry results can be interpreted without having to run sensory analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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13 pages, 3532 KiB  
Article
Recycling and Conversion of Yeasts into Organic Nitrogen Sources for Wine Fermentation: Effects on Molecular and Sensory Attributes
by Paula Rojas, Daniel Lopez, Francisco Ibañez, Camila Urbina, Wendy Franco, Alejandra Urtubia and Pedro Valencia
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040313 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3368
Abstract
Organic nitrogen plays a significant role in the fermentation performance and production of esters and higher alcohols. This study assessed the use of yeast protein hydrolysate (YPH) as a nitrogen source for grape must fermentation. In this study, we prepared an enzymatic protein [...] Read more.
Organic nitrogen plays a significant role in the fermentation performance and production of esters and higher alcohols. This study assessed the use of yeast protein hydrolysate (YPH) as a nitrogen source for grape must fermentation. In this study, we prepared an enzymatic protein hydrolysate using yeasts recovered from a previous fermentation of wine. Three treatments were performed. DAP supplementation was used as a control, while two YPH treatments were used. Low (LDH) and high degrees of hydrolysis (HDH), 3.5% and 10%, respectively, were chosen. Gas chromatography and principal component analysis indicated a significant positive influence of YPH-supplementations on the production of esters and higher alcohols. Significantly high concentrations of 3-methyl-1-penthanol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, and 2-phenylethanol were observed. Significant odorant activity was obtained for 3-methyl-1-pentanol and ethyl-2-hexenoate. The use of YPH as nitrogen supplementation is justified as a recycling yeasts technique by the increase in volatile compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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17 pages, 13446 KiB  
Article
Sensory Characteristics of Two Kinds of Alcoholic Beverages Produced with Spent Coffee Grounds Extract Based on Electronic Senses and HS-SPME-GC-MS Analyses
by Lu Wang, Xu Yang, Zhuoting Li, Xue Lin, Xiaoping Hu, Sixin Liu and Congfa Li
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040254 - 1 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
In this work, the hydrothermal extract of spent coffee grounds (SCG) was used to make alcoholic beverages with commercial S. cerevisiae strain D254. The sensory characteristics of the SCG alcoholic beverages were analyzed using sensory description, electronic nose, electronic tongue, and gas chromatography-mass [...] Read more.
In this work, the hydrothermal extract of spent coffee grounds (SCG) was used to make alcoholic beverages with commercial S. cerevisiae strain D254. The sensory characteristics of the SCG alcoholic beverages were analyzed using sensory description, electronic nose, electronic tongue, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggested that the supplement of 0.20% (NH4)2HPO4 was effective at improving growth and alcohol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D254 in SCG extract. SCG fermented beverages (SFB) and SCG distilled spirits (SDS) produced at the optimized fermentation conditions had appropriate physicochemical properties and different sensory characteristics. Fermentation aromas, especially esters, were produced in SFB, increasing the complexity of aroma and lowing the irritating aroma. The combination of original and fermentation components might balance the outstanding sourness, astringency, and saltiness tastes of SFB. The fermentation aroma was partially lost and the sourness, bitterness, astringency, and saltiness tastes were relieved in distillation, leading to the relatively more prominent aroma typicality of coffee and a soft taste. These findings lay a foundation for producing new high-quality coffee-flavored alcoholic beverages or flavoring liquors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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14 pages, 944 KiB  
Article
Increase in Fruity Ester Production during Spine Grape Wine Fermentation by Goal-Directed Amino Acid Supplementation
by Zijian Zhu, Kai Hu, Siyu Chen, Sirui Xiong and Yongsheng Tao
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040231 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
The aim of this work was to enhance the levels of fruity esters in spine grape (Vitis davidii Foёx) wine by goal-directed amino acid supplementation during fermentation. HPLC and GC-MS monitored the amino acids and fruity esters, respectively, during alcoholic fermentation of [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to enhance the levels of fruity esters in spine grape (Vitis davidii Foёx) wine by goal-directed amino acid supplementation during fermentation. HPLC and GC-MS monitored the amino acids and fruity esters, respectively, during alcoholic fermentation of spine grape and Cabernet Sauvignon grape. HPLC was also used to determine the extracellular metabolites and precursors involved in the synthesis of fruity esters. Alanine, phenylalanine, and isoleucine levels in spine grape were less than those in Cabernet Sauvignon. Pearson correlation between amino acid profile and fruity ester content in the two systems indicated that deficiencies in alanine, phenylalanine, and isoleucine levels might have limited fruity ester production in spine grape wine. Supplementation of these three amino acids based on their levels in Cabernet Sauvignon significantly increased fruity ester content in spine grape wine. Interestingly, goal-directed amino acid supplementation might have led to changes in the distribution of carbon fluxes, which contributed to the increase in fruity ester production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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12 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Chemical and Sensory Characterization of Vidal Icewines Fermented with Different Yeast Strains
by Ke Tang, Yulu Sun, Xiaoqian Zhang, Jiming Li and Yan Xu
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040211 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
The aim of this study is to comprehensively investigate the aroma composition and sensory attributes of Vidal icewine fermented with four yeast strains (ST, K1, EC1118, and R2). A total of 485 kinds of volatile components were identified by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to comprehensively investigate the aroma composition and sensory attributes of Vidal icewine fermented with four yeast strains (ST, K1, EC1118, and R2). A total of 485 kinds of volatile components were identified by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry, among which 347 kinds of volatile compounds were the same in four kinds of sample. The heat map was conducted with 156 volatile compounds, which have aroma contributions, and the analysis results identified the characteristics of the aroma composition of icewine fermented with different yeasts. Quantitative descriptive analysis was performed with a trained panel to obtain the sensory profiles. The aroma attributes of honey and nut of the icewine fermented by R2 were much higher than others. Partial least squares discriminant analysis further provided 40 compounds that were mainly responsible for the differences of the aroma characteristics of the icewines fermented by four yeasts. This study provides more data on the current status of Vidal icewines by main commercial yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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18 pages, 1914 KiB  
Article
Increased Varietal Aroma Diversity of Marselan Wine by Mixed Fermentation with Indigenous Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts
by Xiaomin Xi, Aili Xin, Yilin You, Weidong Huang and Jicheng Zhan
Fermentation 2021, 7(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7030133 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2801
Abstract
The common use of commercial yeasts usually leads to dull wine with similar aromas and tastes. Therefore, screening for novel indigenous yeasts to practice is a promising method. In this research, aroma discrepancies among six wine groups fermentated with indigenous yeasts were analyzed. [...] Read more.
The common use of commercial yeasts usually leads to dull wine with similar aromas and tastes. Therefore, screening for novel indigenous yeasts to practice is a promising method. In this research, aroma discrepancies among six wine groups fermentated with indigenous yeasts were analyzed. Three Saccharomyces yeasts (FS36, HL12, YT28) and three matched non-Saccharomyces yeasts (FS31, HL9, YT2) were selected from typical Chinese vineyards. The basic oenological parameters, aroma compounds, and sensory evaluation were analyzed. The results showed that each indigenous Saccharomyces yeast had excellent fermentation capacity, and mixed-strain fermentation groups produced more glycerol, contributing to sweeter and rounder taste. The results from GC-MS, principal components analysis (PCA), and sensory evaluation highlighted that the HL mixed group kept the most content of Marselan varietal flavors such as calamenene and β-damascone hereby ameliorated the whole aroma quality. Our study also implied that the indigenous yeast from the same region as the grape variety seems more conducive to preserve the natural variety characteristics of grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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Review

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19 pages, 612 KiB  
Review
Varietal Aromas of Sauvignon Blanc: Impact of Oxidation and Antioxidants Used in Winemaking
by Pei-Chin Tsai, Leandro Dias Araujo and Bin Tian
Fermentation 2022, 8(12), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8120686 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2894
Abstract
Key varietal characteristics of Sauvignon Blanc, including the descriptors of ‘green’ and ‘tropical fruit’, are mostly attributed to methoxypyrazines and volatile thiols, while monoterpenes, higher alcohols, esters, fatty acids, and other volatile compounds also add complexity and fruity notes to the wines. During [...] Read more.
Key varietal characteristics of Sauvignon Blanc, including the descriptors of ‘green’ and ‘tropical fruit’, are mostly attributed to methoxypyrazines and volatile thiols, while monoterpenes, higher alcohols, esters, fatty acids, and other volatile compounds also add complexity and fruity notes to the wines. During the winemaking and ageing period, oxidation decreases the concentrations of these compounds and diminishes the flavours derived from this aromatic grape variety. Therefore, antioxidants, such as sulfur dioxide, are commonly utilized in Sauvignon Blanc wine production for better preservation of those beneficial primary aromas. This review focuses on key varietal aromas in Sauvignon Blanc wine and how they are influenced by oxidation, and SO2 alternatives, including ascorbic acid, glutathione, and glutathione-enriched inactivated dry yeasts, that can be used in winemaking as antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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11 pages, 255 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Vineyard Mechanization on Grape and Wine Phenolics, Aroma Compounds, and Sensory Properties
by Qun Sun, Craig Ebersole, Deborah Parker Wong and Karley Curtis
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070318 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2794
Abstract
Grapes are one of the most valuable fruit crops in the United States and can be processed into a variety of products. The grape and wine industry contributes to and impacts the U.S. agricultural economy. However, rising labor costs and global competition pose [...] Read more.
Grapes are one of the most valuable fruit crops in the United States and can be processed into a variety of products. The grape and wine industry contributes to and impacts the U.S. agricultural economy. However, rising labor costs and global competition pose challenges for the grape and wine industry. Vineyard mechanization is a promising strategy to increase efficiency and address the labor shortage and cost issues. Recent studies have focused on the impact of vineyard mechanization on general grape and wine quality. Wine phenolics, aroma compounds, and sensory characteristics are the key indicators of wine quality and consumer preference. This article aims to review the impact of vineyard mechanization, specifically mechanical harvesting, mechanical leaf removal, mechanical shoot thinning, cluster thinning, and mechanical pruning on grape and wine phenolics, and aroma compounds and sensory profile. Studies have shown that vineyard mechanization significantly affects phenolic and aroma compounds, especially grape-derived aroma compounds such as volatile thiols, terpenes, C13-norpentadiene, and methoxypyrazine. Mechanically processed grapes can produce wines of the same or better quality than wines made from hand-operated grapes. Vineyard mechanization could be a promising strategy for grape growers to reduce operating costs and maintain or improve grape and wine quality. Future research directions in the area of vineyard mechanization were discussed. It provides a comprehensive view and information on the topic to both grape growers and winemakers in the application of vineyard mechanization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aromas)
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