Recent Trends in Probiotics and Gut Microbiome for Human Health

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Probiotic Strains and Fermentation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 16183

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Ildong Bioscience, Pyeongtaek-si 17957, Republic of Korea
Interests: probiotics; prebiotics; microbiome; food safety; fermentation

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
Interests: probiotics; food microbiology; bioprocess engineering; fermentation technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since 1908, when Metchnikoff first introduced beneficial microbes for prolonging life, scientific evidence of probiotics as functional supplementary foods has been abundant. Recent published articles have indicated that probiotics, exerting beneficial effects, might be perhaps recognized as a “panacea”, covering areas from gut health to an improvement in neurocognitive disorders. For example, beyond in vitro and in vivo experiments, over 1,000 clinical studies related to probiotics have been registered in the International Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP) of the World Health Organization (WHO), and have addressed over 700 different diseases and conditions (Theresia et al., 2020). However, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of probiotics is still questionable, and the effective substances that are metabolically produced by probiotic bacteria have not yet been identified to solve these unanswered questions. In addition, studies on fermentative food, including potential probiotics or live biotherapeutics and the fermentation techniques of unculturable bacteria, called “culturomics”, are attractive themes.

The goal of this Special Issue is to publish recent innovative research results, as well as review papers with pioneering opinions on the fermentation techniques and beneficial effects of probiotics and unculturable microbes; the combination of these concepts is highly recommended. High-quality reviews and original research articles on the three prerequisites for the commercialization of probiotics, namely safety assessment, unique functionalities, and manufacturing, are also of interest. If you would like to contribute a review paper, please contact one of the editors before submitting the manuscript to discuss the topic’s relevance.

Dr. Jungwoo Yang
Dr. Young Hoon Jung
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fermentation
  • unculturable intestinal microbes
  • gut microbiome
  • gut microbiota balance
  • health benefits of probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics
  • mechanisms of action of probiotics
  • multi-omics analysis
  • live biotherapeutics
  • next-generation probiotics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3088 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of Bioactive Bi-Layer Edible Films Based on Starch and LAB-Fermented Whey and/or Mango Solution
by Paola Hernández-Carranza, Bricia A. Mendoza-Gutiérrez, Karen H. Estévez-Sánchez, Carolina Ramírez-López, Silvia del C. Beristain-Bauza, Sandra V. Avila-Reyes, Irving I. Ruíz-López and Carlos E. Ochoa-Velasco
Fermentation 2024, 10(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10020105 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1004
Abstract
This study aimed to develop bioactive bi-layer edible films based on starch (primary layer) and LAB-fermented whey and/or mango pulp powder solutions (secondary layer). Bioactive bi-layer edible films were evaluated for their physical properties, mechanical properties, antioxidant capacity, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus availability for [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop bioactive bi-layer edible films based on starch (primary layer) and LAB-fermented whey and/or mango pulp powder solutions (secondary layer). Bioactive bi-layer edible films were evaluated for their physical properties, mechanical properties, antioxidant capacity, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus availability for 28 days (4 and 20 °C). Selected bioactive bi-layer edible film was applied to sushi to evaluate its sensory acceptance. The results indicated that bi-layer edible films based on LAB-fermented whey/mango solutions presented a higher quantity of phenolic compounds (95.87–107.67 mg GAE/100 g) and higher antioxidant capacity (74.84–77.64%). In addition, the higher viability (106–107 CFU/g) of L. rhamnosus after edible film production was obtained in those formulated with whey. After the storage period, the antioxidant capacity of all edible films was significantly affected by the storage time, while edible films containing whey in their formulation and stored at 4 °C had a L. rhamnosus count higher than 6 log cycles, which is the minimum required threshold to exert its beneficial effects in humans. The sushi covered with the selected bi-layer edible film was well accepted by the consumers, showing acceptance values between “I like it” and “I like it much”. Therefore, the developed bi-layer edible films can serve as an alternative for adding health-promoting compounds to sushi with an adequate sensory acceptance of the consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Probiotics and Gut Microbiome for Human Health)
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17 pages, 2474 KiB  
Article
Impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus—La5 on Composition and Metabolism of the Intestinal Microbiota of Type 2 Diabetics (T2D) and Healthy Individuals Using a Microbiome Model
by Mateus Kawata Salgaço, Fellipe Lopes de Oliveira, Adilson Sartoratto, Victoria Mesa, Marcia Pinto Alves Mayer and Katia Sivieri
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080740 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dysbiosis in the gut, which may lead to systemic inflammation. Therefore, the use of probiotics may help to achieve a balanced microbiota and improve glycemic control. The aim of this study was to verify the impact of [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dysbiosis in the gut, which may lead to systemic inflammation. Therefore, the use of probiotics may help to achieve a balanced microbiota and improve glycemic control. The aim of this study was to verify the impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus—La5 on the gut microbiome of type 2 diabetes adults using the Human Gut Microbial Ecosystem Simulator (SHIME®) and compare this to the microbiome of healthy subjects. Four groups (Control Group: NormoGlycemic; Treatment Group: T2D) were evaluated in SHIME® for 6 weeks. After 7 and 14 days of colonic fermentation, the intestinal microbiota (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and metabolites (short-chain fatty acids) were analyzed. La5 altered the composition of the microbiota after 14 days of treatment for both groups, by increasing the abundance of Bacteroidetes and a decrease in Firmicutes in the NormoGlycemic. Treatment with La5 resulted in a shift in the microbial community of NormoGlycemic with increased abundance of Bacteroides and Mitsuokella and a decrease in Achromobacter and Catabacter, whereas T2D gut microbiome was enriched with Faecalibacterium and reduced in Bacteroides. Megasphaera spp. stimulated with La5 treatment in NormoGlycemic has already been reported to produce intestinal metabolites and recognized to contribute to increased anti-inflammatory and immune responses. Faecalibacterium, on the other hand, can modulate the intestinal epithelium and be a major butyrate product in the microbiota. Finally, this study showed a positive and promising result of La5 treatment in increasing intestinal homeostasis in the microbiota of T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Probiotics and Gut Microbiome for Human Health)
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12 pages, 1242 KiB  
Article
Oral Administration of Animal and Plant Protein Mixture with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum IDCC 3501 Improves Protein Digestibility
by Hyeon Ji Jeon, Hayoung Kim, Minjee Lee, Jinseok Moon, Jungyeon Kim, Jungwoo Yang and Young Hoon Jung
Fermentation 2023, 9(6), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9060560 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
A combined usage of animal and plant proteins-mixture could aid to solve environmental and social problems arising from the use of animal protein alone, while also improving the taste and texture of plant protein. Protein mixtures could be a better protein source due [...] Read more.
A combined usage of animal and plant proteins-mixture could aid to solve environmental and social problems arising from the use of animal protein alone, while also improving the taste and texture of plant protein. Protein mixtures could be a better protein source due to the high availability of amino acids in the body compared with single proteins. Consuming proteins with probiotics can provide more beneficial health effects by helping to hydrolyze protein and absorb amino acids in the body. In this study, coadministration of an animal and plant protein mixture with a high concentration of probiotics was investigated to increase protein digestibility and amino acids absorbability in a mice model. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum IDCC 3501, which has the maximum ability to hydrolyze a protein mixture, composed of soybean protein and milk protein, was selected, and the changes in mice (C57BL/6J, male, six weeks) were investigated after the coadministration of protein mixture and 5 × 108 or 5 × 109 CFU/mL of L. plantarum for eight weeks. Normal diet, high-protein diet (HPD), and HPD supplementing L. plantarum were separately administered to mice. Food and water consumption of the mice did not differ depending on diet type. Measurements of the serum concentrations of amino acids showed that the absorption of aspartate, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, valine, and lysine increased when high concentrations of protein and probiotics were administered. Thus, high L. plantarum concentrations could be a protein diet supplementation to improve health by promoting the absorption of amino acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Probiotics and Gut Microbiome for Human Health)
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18 pages, 2150 KiB  
Article
Bacillus- and Lactobacillus-Based Dietary Synbiotics Are Associated with Shifts in the Oropharyngeal, Proximal Colonic, and Vaginal Microbiomes of Korean Native Black Pigs
by Andrew Wange Bugenyi, Ki-Duk Song, Hak-Kyo Lee and Jaeyoung Heo
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040359 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1445
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the modulatory effect of synbiotics (probiotics + prebiotics) on the oropharyngeal, proximal colonic, and vaginal microbiomes of Korean native pigs using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found increased abundances of an unclassified deltaproteobacterial genus in oropharyngeal communities of [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the modulatory effect of synbiotics (probiotics + prebiotics) on the oropharyngeal, proximal colonic, and vaginal microbiomes of Korean native pigs using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found increased abundances of an unclassified deltaproteobacterial genus in oropharyngeal communities of pigs supplemented with a Lactobacillus-based synbiotic. These pigs also had increased abundances of unclassified genera of Tremblayales and Lactobacillales in their proximal colons. In another group, pigs supplemented with a Bacillus-based synbiotic had increased Megasphaera and reduced Campylobacter within their oropharyngeal microbiota. In addition, their vaginal microbiota had increased Clostridium and Halalkalibacillus, as well as reduced Filifactor and Veillonella. We then explored changes in the predicted microbial functionality, associated with the synbiotics. Our analysis showed a reduction in the abundance of a fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis pathway among proximal colonic microbiomes of the Lactobacillus-fed pigs. In pigs supplemented with a Bacillus-based synbiotic, the analysis showed reduced pathway abundances for the biosynthesis of carbohydrates, as well as vitamins, cofactors, and carrier molecules within their oropharyngeal microbiomes. Meanwhile, their vaginal microbiomes had higher pathway abundances for aromatic compound degradation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, but lower abundances for amino acid degradation. The results confirmed our hypothesis that dietary synbiotics modulate the microbiome, not only in the proximal colon, but also the oropharyngeal cavity and vaginal tract of these pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Probiotics and Gut Microbiome for Human Health)
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14 pages, 2531 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Limosilactobacillus reuteri KGC1901 Newly Isolated from Panax ginseng Root as a Probiotic and Its Safety Assessment
by Hye-Young Yu, Mijin Kwon, Yun-Seok Lee, Seung-Ho Lee and Sang-Kyu Kim
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030228 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
In this study, we determined the probiotic properties and safety of Limosilactobacillus reuteri KGC1901 isolated from Korean Panax ginseng root. This strain was identified based on its 16s rRNA sequence, and the absence of genes related to antibiotic resistance and virulence was confirmed [...] Read more.
In this study, we determined the probiotic properties and safety of Limosilactobacillus reuteri KGC1901 isolated from Korean Panax ginseng root. This strain was identified based on its 16s rRNA sequence, and the absence of genes related to antibiotic resistance and virulence was confirmed through whole genome analysis in terms of safety. Moreover, this strain had no antibiotic resistance to eight antibiotics as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority, did not show hemolytic activity on blood agar, and did not produce biogenic amines. L. reuteri KGC1901 also showed the capability to survive at low pH and in presence of bile salts and sufficiently adhered to HT-29 cells and mucin. The adhesion ability to HT-29 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. These results indicated the excellent viability of L. reuteri KGC1901 in the human gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, L. reuteri KGC1901 had antimicrobial activity against Clostridium difficile, and the presence of the reuterin (3-HPA) biosynthetic gene cluster in the genome was revealed. Furthermore, the cell-free supernatant of KGC1901 had DPPH scavenging activity and reduced the nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Based on these results, it was confirmed that L. reuteri KGC1901 derived from ginseng has sufficient potential to be used as a probiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Probiotics and Gut Microbiome for Human Health)
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Review

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23 pages, 426 KiB  
Review
Fermented Foods: Their Health-Promoting Components and Potential Effects on Gut Microbiota
by Aabid Manzoor Shah, Najeebul Tarfeen, Hassan Mohamed and Yuanda Song
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020118 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 8182
Abstract
Fermented foods play a significant role in the diets of many cultures, and fermentation has been recognized for its many health benefits. During fermentation, the physical and biochemical changes due to microorganisms are crucial to the long-term stability of fermented foods. Recently, fermented [...] Read more.
Fermented foods play a significant role in the diets of many cultures, and fermentation has been recognized for its many health benefits. During fermentation, the physical and biochemical changes due to microorganisms are crucial to the long-term stability of fermented foods. Recently, fermented foods have attracted the attention of scientists all over the world. Some putative mechanisms that explain how fermented foods affect health are the potential probiotic effects of the microorganisms in fermented foods, bioactive peptides and biogenic amines produced as a result of fermentation, phenolic compounds transformed to bioactive substances, and decreased antinutrients. In addition, increased vitamin content, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic activities have associated with fermented products. The purpose of this paper is to present various types of fermented foods and the health-promoting components that emerge during the fermentation of major food matrices, as well as the affect of fermented foods on the gut microbiome once they are ingested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Probiotics and Gut Microbiome for Human Health)
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