Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2023) | Viewed by 31257

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Ricicla Group Labs-Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (DISAA), University of Milan, Via Giovanni Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: functional food; plants; biochemicals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today’s increased awareness of functional foods has resulted in attempts to modify available food to have higher health benefits. Fermentation as the most historical processes for food production has been used historically to increase food nutritional value. Different fermentation technologies are usually employed for recovery and transformation of food components into valuable products. The transformation based on the type of fermentation can cause great effects on the food molecules structures resulting in structure modification, releasing new products. Therefore, the structure-activity relationship has a great impact on the food ingredients bioavailability and alterations in food molecules absorption rate that can affect their bioactivity.

This Special Issue aimed to present current knowledge and research trends concerning the use of fermentation technologies to explore bioactivity change in fermented foods.

Dr. Parisa Abbasi Parizad
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • fermentation
  • fermentation technologies
  • health promotion
  • functional foods
  • biotransformation
  • bioactivity change
  • bioavailability
  • changes in absorption rate
  • the structure-activity relationship
  • potential applications
  • future development

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 3178 KiB  
Article
Innovative Bicultured Lactic–Acetic Acid Co-fermentation Improves Jujube Puree’s Functionality and Volatile Compounds
by Turkson Antwi Boasiako, Yuqing Xiong, Isaac Duah Boateng, Jeffrey Appiagyei, Yanshu Li, Kerry Clark, Afusat Yinka Aregbe, Sanabil Yaqoob and Yongkun Ma
Fermentation 2024, 10(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10010071 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba Mill), characterized by a rich profile of bioactive compounds, have been historically less exploited due to their unappealing sensory characteristics when dried, including delayed bitterness and a limited shelf life when fresh. Co-fermented jujube puree has emerged as a [...] Read more.
Jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba Mill), characterized by a rich profile of bioactive compounds, have been historically less exploited due to their unappealing sensory characteristics when dried, including delayed bitterness and a limited shelf life when fresh. Co-fermented jujube puree has emerged as a strategy for enhancing its functional food potential. This study examined the impact of 8-day bicultured Junzao jujube puree, employing both commercial and indigenous Chinese lactic and acetic acid bacteria. Our investigation encompassed an assessment of functionality (cellular profile, antioxidant properties, color, free amino acids, phenolic profiling, volatiles elucidation using headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), aroma analysis using electronic nose), and microstructural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Viable counts of bicultured purees showed probiotic effects exceeding 6–7 log CFU/mL. Strong positive correlations were observed between phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, rutin, p-coumaric acid) and antioxidant capacities (ABTS-RSA and DPPH-RSA). The darker color of raw jujube puree was modified, exemplified by a significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation between overall color difference and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (R2 = −0.768). Purees, particularly those containing bicultures of Lactobacillus helveticus Lh 43 and Acetobacter pasteurianus Ap-As.1.41 HuNiang 1.01 exhibited the highest potential free amino acid content (157.17 ± 1.12 mg/100 g FW) compared to the control (184.03 ± 1.16 mg/100 g FW) with a distinctive formation of L-methionine in biculture of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Lp 28 and A. pasteurianus Ap-As.1.41 HuNiang 1.01. The phenolic profile of Lacticaseibacillus casei Lc 122 and A. pasteurianus Ap-As.1.41 HuNiang 1.01 increased by 22.79% above the control (48.34 mg/100 g FW) while biculture: L. helveticus Lh 43 and A. pasteurianus Ap-As.1.41 HuNiang 1.01 were enhanced by 4.37%, with the lowest profile in Lp. plantarum Lp 28 and A. pasteurianus Ap-As.1.41 HuNiang 1.01 (46.85 mg/100 g FW). The electronic nose revealed the predominant presence of sulfur, terpenes, and alcohol sensor bioactives in the fermented purees. HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis identified 80 volatile compounds in the bicultured purees, with esters constituting the major group (42%). Furthermore, SEM analysis unveiled massive microscopic alterations in the bicultured purees compared to the unfermented puree. These results collectively demonstrated that lactic–acetic acid co-fermentation serves to biovalorize Junzao jujube puree, enhancing its organoleptic appeal and extending its shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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22 pages, 4973 KiB  
Article
Using Deep Ocean Water in the Fermentation of Antrodia cinnamomea to Boost Magnesium Ion Bioabsorption and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in the Brain of an Alzheimer’s Disease Rat Model
by Ting-Yu Xu, De-Yu Tzeng and Chun-Lin Lee
Fermentation 2023, 9(10), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9100893 - 04 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and subsequent oxidative inflammatory response, leading to brain damage and memory loss. This study explores the potential of Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), a Taiwan-native fungus known for its anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and subsequent oxidative inflammatory response, leading to brain damage and memory loss. This study explores the potential of Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), a Taiwan-native fungus known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The metabolites of AC, including dehydroeburicoic acid (DEA), 4-acetylantroquinonol B (4-AAQB), dehydrosulphurenic acid (DSA), and polysaccharides, were of particular interest. In the experiment, deep ocean water (DOW) was used to facilitate the solid-state fermentation of Antrodia cinnamomea NTTU 206 (D-AC), aiming to enhance its functional components. The impact of D-AC on the modulation of AD-related risk factors and the augmentation of cognitive abilities was subsequently evaluated in an AD rat model. This model was established via consecutive infusions of Aβ40 into the brain over a 28-day period. The administration of D-AC resulted in remarkable improvements in the rats’ reference memory, spatial probe test, and working memory. Notably, it restored the hippocampal magnesium levels by upregulating the expression of the magnesium transporter MAGT1. Concurrently, D-AC significantly downregulated the expressions of β-secretase 1 (BACE1) and the phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau), which were both implicated in AD progression. Additionally, it mitigated inflammatory responses, as suggested by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Ultimately, the ability of D-AC to restore the brain magnesium levels, attenuate inflammatory responses, and reduce hippocampal Aβ40 deposition led to significant improvements in the cognitive decline of AD rats. D-AC demonstrated a comparable efficacy with its counterpart, AC fruiting bodies (F-AC group), despite their componential differences. This study underscores the potential of D-AC, enriched through fermentation, as a novel dietary strategy for Alzheimer’s disease prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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23 pages, 1150 KiB  
Article
Enterococcus faecalis-Aided Fermentation to Facilitate Edible Properties and Bioactive Transformation of Underutilized Cyathea dregei Leaves
by Israel Sunmola Afolabi, Aderinsola Jumai Adigun, Precious Amaneshi Garuba, Eze Frank Ahuekwe, Oluwatofunmi E. Odutayo and Alaba Oladipupo Adeyemi
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080707 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
Cyathea dregei (CD) is a weed plant that is rarely consumed. This study investigated the impact of Enterococcus faecalis as an agent of 3–5-day fermentation, thus stimulating the edible properties of the leaves from CD using Talinum fruticosum as the control. The proximate [...] Read more.
Cyathea dregei (CD) is a weed plant that is rarely consumed. This study investigated the impact of Enterococcus faecalis as an agent of 3–5-day fermentation, thus stimulating the edible properties of the leaves from CD using Talinum fruticosum as the control. The proximate content, biochemical, antioxidant properties, and phytochemical constituents of the unfermented and fermented leaves were examined. The lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) activity significantly increased (p < 0.05) due to the fermentation, which peaked on the third day. The fat, ash, and crude fiber constituents of the fermented CD leaves were significantly higher (p < 0.05), especially on day 3, compared to the unfermented leaves of CD. The leaves of CD naturally possess significantly higher (p < 0.05) values of calcium, selenium, magnesium potassium, sodium, zinc, and vitamin C but significantly lower (p < 0.05) values of vitamins A and E compared to those of water leaf. The fermentation aided the synthesis of caffeic acid (61.71 mg/10 g extract), eleven other bioactive phytochemicals (0.14–60.24 mg/10 g extract), two unexplored saponins (P-Scd, 52.05 mg/10 g extract), and a phenolic compound (P-Pcd, 0.23 mg/10 g extract). Four novel intermediary compounds and six other established compounds were freshly identified with fermentation. The leaves of C. dregei are naturally rich in bioactive nutrients and phytochemicals that trigger their strong antioxidant qualities, which were improved by this fermentation technique. E. faecalis is most likely to engage LDH in driving the fermentation transforming the C. dregei into a potential edible vegetable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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15 pages, 1725 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Some Naturally Fermented Soybean Foods of the Eastern Himalayas
by Pynhunlang Kharnaior, Mayouri Das and Jyoti Prakash Tamang
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020091 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
Naturally fermented soybean foods have anti-thrombotic properties due to the presence of microbial fibrinolytic enzymes. However, fibrinolytic enzyme-producing bacteria from naturally fermented soybean foods of the Eastern Himalayas viz. kinema, grep-chhurpi, peha, peron namsing, peruñyaan and bemerthu have not been screened yet. [...] Read more.
Naturally fermented soybean foods have anti-thrombotic properties due to the presence of microbial fibrinolytic enzymes. However, fibrinolytic enzyme-producing bacteria from naturally fermented soybean foods of the Eastern Himalayas viz. kinema, grep-chhurpi, peha, peron namsing, peruñyaan and bemerthu have not been screened yet. Therefore, this study aims to screen the fibrinolytic enzyme-producing bacteria from these naturally fermented soybean foods and also to assess their therapeutic properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, flavones, isoflavones, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties of samples. A total of 877 bacteria were isolated, out of which Bacillus subtilis (ten strains), B. velezensis (three strains), B. inaquosorum (two strains) and B. halotolerans (one strain) showed fibrinolytic enzyme activity ranging from 775.70 U/mL to 1230.61 U/mL, with a blood clot-degrading property of more than 50%. A remarkable DPPH radical scavenging property (>50%), flavone (278.98 ± 7.06 µg QE/g) and isoflavone (394.13 ± 11.68 µg GEN/g) contents were observed. The Himalayan fermented soybean foods have shown anti-thrombotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties indicating their therapeutic values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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21 pages, 3556 KiB  
Article
Food Ingredients for the Future: In-Depth Analysis of the Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation on Spent Barley Rootlets
by Emma Neylon, Laura Nyhan, Emanuele Zannini, Thomas Monin, Steffen Münch, Aylin W. Sahin and Elke K. Arendt
Fermentation 2023, 9(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9010078 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
Repurposing by-products to alternative applications has become a vital part of food research. Barley rootlets (BRs) are a side-stream of malting and brewing industries. This study focuses on processing BRs into food ingredients, using fermentation with five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a [...] Read more.
Repurposing by-products to alternative applications has become a vital part of food research. Barley rootlets (BRs) are a side-stream of malting and brewing industries. This study focuses on processing BRs into food ingredients, using fermentation with five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a valorisation technique. The strains used were Lactiplantibacillus plantarum FST 1.7, Lactobacillus amylovorus FST2.11, Weissella cibaria MG1, Leuconostoc citreum TR116 and Limosilactobacillus reuteri R29. The influence of fermentation on sugar/FODMAP/acid compositions and microbial metabolites in BRs was analysed. A variety of techno-functional properties were also evaluated. Results showed BRs were a suitable substrate for LAB, particularly for Lactiplantibacillus plantarum FST 1.7 and Lactobacillus amylovorus FST2.11. Sugar, acid and the FODMAP composition of the fermented BRs demonstrated various traits imparted by LABs, including high mannitol production from Leuconostoc citreum TR116 and Limosilactobacillus reuteri R29. Limosilactobacillus reuteri R29 also produced fructans using BRs as a substrate. A techno-functional analysis of BRs showed a significant reduction in α-amylase activity post sterilisation and fermentation. Fermentation reduced water-binding capacity and significantly increased oil-binding capacity. The LAB used displayed great potential in improving the functionality of BRs as a food ingredient while also showcasing LAB fermentation as a viable processing aid for BR valorisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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14 pages, 1152 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation on the Bioactivity of Crayfish (Faxonius limosus) Meat
by Natalia Śmietana, Przemysław Śmietana, Emilia Drozłowska and Łukasz Łopusiewicz
Fermentation 2023, 9(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9010066 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2282
Abstract
In recent years, new raw materials have been sought for use in processing. This category certainly includes invasive crayfish Faxonius limosus. One of the problems associated with their use is their short microbiological shelf life. Therefore, in the research presented here, an [...] Read more.
In recent years, new raw materials have been sought for use in processing. This category certainly includes invasive crayfish Faxonius limosus. One of the problems associated with their use is their short microbiological shelf life. Therefore, in the research presented here, an attempt was made to ferment crayfish meat with strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, and yogurt culture. The analyses included an evaluation of changes in the microbial quality of the material, the content of free amino acids, reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, and the antioxidant properties of the fermented meat. Changes in the canthaxanthin content and the number of sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bridges were also evaluated. The study showed that carrying out lactic fermentation resulted in a decrease in meat pH (8.00 to 7.35–6.94, depending on the starter culture). Moreover, the meat was characterized by an increase in FRAP (2.99 to 3.60–4.06 mg AAE/g), ABTS (2.15 to 2.85–3.50 μmol Trolox/g), and reducing power (5.53 to 6.28–14.25 μmol Trolox/g). In addition, the study showed a favorable effect of fermentation on the content of sulfhydryl groups in the meat as well as for ascorbic acid content. The results obtained can serve as a starting point for the further development of fermented products based on crayfish meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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16 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Functional and Healthy Yogurts Fortified with Probiotics and Fruit Peel Powders
by Hafza Fasiha Zahid, Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera, Zhongxiang Fang and Said Ajlouni
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090469 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3286
Abstract
The application of processing waste by-products along with probiotics is an interesting choice to confer potential functional aspects to food products. This study was designed to investigate the nutritional capacity of freeze-dried mango peel powder (MPP) and banana peel powder (BPP) in the [...] Read more.
The application of processing waste by-products along with probiotics is an interesting choice to confer potential functional aspects to food products. This study was designed to investigate the nutritional capacity of freeze-dried mango peel powder (MPP) and banana peel powder (BPP) in the presence of a mixture of three probiotic species (1% of each of three probiotics (Lacticaseibacillus casei (431®), Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium subsp. Lactis (Bb-12®)) as sources of additional nutrients and prebiotics in fresh and rehydrated freeze-dried (RFD) yogurts for 28 days of refrigerated storage. The net count of probiotics in yogurt fortified with MPP and BPP increased by at least 1 log CFU/g after 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. Adding fruit peel powder (FPP) significantly (p < 0.05) increased fat, ash, and protein contents in both fresh and RFD yogurts in comparison with the control yogurt. Similarly, the total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) was enhanced significantly (p < 0.05). The TPC reached 2.27 ± 0.18 and 2.73 ± 0.11 mg GAE/g in RFD enriched with BPP and MPP compared to a TPC of 0.31 ± 0.07 mg GAE/g in the control. Additionally, yogurt samples enriched with BPP (Y-5) and MPP (Y-6) demonstrated 12% more sugar contents than non-fortified yogurts (Y-1). Higher titratable acidity and lower pH values were also recorded in the RFD yogurt. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the color parameters were detected in both fresh and RFD yogurts with reduced brightness (L*) and increased redness (a*) of the product. These findings demonstrated the suitability of MPP and BPP in yogurt formulations to optimize the advantages of such synbiotic products with higher availability of phenolic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
18 pages, 2839 KiB  
Article
Effects of Lactobacillus curvatus HY7602-Fermented Antlers in Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Atrophy
by Hyejin Jeon, Yong-Tae Kim, Woo Young Jang, Joo-Yun Kim, Keon Heo, Jae-Jung Shim, Jung-Lyoul Lee, Deok-Chun Yang and Se Chan Kang
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090454 - 12 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
This study assessed the improvements yielded by Lactobacillus curvatus HY7602-fermented antlers (FA) in dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy and the effects of bioactive compounds increased by fermentation. Dexamethasone-treated C2C12 myoblast cells were treated with FA and non-fermented antlers (NFA). FA showed inhibitory effects on muscle [...] Read more.
This study assessed the improvements yielded by Lactobacillus curvatus HY7602-fermented antlers (FA) in dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy and the effects of bioactive compounds increased by fermentation. Dexamethasone-treated C2C12 myoblast cells were treated with FA and non-fermented antlers (NFA). FA showed inhibitory effects on muscle protein degradation in the C2C12 cells. Hsb:ICR mice were orally administered saline (control(CON) and dexamethasone only (DEX)), oxymetholone (DEX+OXY), NFA (DEX+NFA), and FA (DEX+FA) via gavage. Before the end of the experiment, dexamethasone was intraperitoneally (IP) injected into the mice, except in the control group, to induce muscle atrophy. Compared with the DEX group, the DEX+FA group exhibited a significant prevention in the reduction of hindlimb strength, calf thickness, calf muscle weight, and the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers (p < 0.05). The FA-induced improvements in muscle atrophy were associated with a decreased gene expression of protein degradation and growth inhibition, and an increased gene expression of protein synthesis and growth factors. Sialic acid, a bioactive compound associated with muscles, was increased by 51.41% after fermentation and suppressed the expression of protein degradation genes in the C2C12 cells. L. curvatus HY7602-fermented antlers with increased sialic acid after fermentation may therefore be useful for preventing and improving muscle atrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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Review

Jump to: Research

22 pages, 2202 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Fermentation-Driven Functionalities of Lactobacillaceae-Originated Probiotics in Preventive Measures of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review
by Anjali Tripathi, Vinay Kumar Pandey, Vivek Tiwari, Rashi Mishra, Kshirod Kumar Dash, Endre Harsányi, Béla Kovács and Ayaz Mukarram Shaikh
Fermentation 2023, 9(8), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9080762 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1620
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an ascending, neurodegenerative disorder that attacks the brain’s nerve cells, i.e., neurons, resulting in loss of memory, language skills, and thinking and behavioural changes. It is one of the most common causes of dementia, a group of disorders that [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an ascending, neurodegenerative disorder that attacks the brain’s nerve cells, i.e., neurons, resulting in loss of memory, language skills, and thinking and behavioural changes. It is one of the most common causes of dementia, a group of disorders that is marked by the decline of cognitive functioning. Probiotics are living microorganisms that are beneficial for human well-being. They help in balancing the extent of bacteria in the gut and support the defensive immune system of the body. Studies have found that probiotics can help with a variety of conditions, including mental health. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that can help to maintain and strengthen a healthy gut microbiome. The gut microbiome is important for healthy brain function, as it is linked to the production of neurotransmitters and hormones that regulate mood and behaviour. This review article includes detailed review on the origination of probiotics and its significance in the treatment of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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32 pages, 1454 KiB  
Review
Research Progress of Fermented Functional Foods and Protein Factory-Microbial Fermentation Technology
by Wenli Sun, Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian and Min Lin
Fermentation 2022, 8(12), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8120688 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 11725
Abstract
Fermentation has been used for ages as a safe technique for food preservation, and it uses minimal resources. Fermentation is related to a wide range of catabolic biochemical procedures in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Yeasts are eukaryotes; they can use oxygen while also [...] Read more.
Fermentation has been used for ages as a safe technique for food preservation, and it uses minimal resources. Fermentation is related to a wide range of catabolic biochemical procedures in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Yeasts are eukaryotes; they can use oxygen while also having the ability to live without oxygen. The lactate fermentation process consists of glycolysis and some alternative steps. A review of the literature was done using keywords in main indexing systems, including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, the search engine of the Institute for Scientific Web of Science and Google Scholar. The keywords reviewed were fermentation technologies, protein mass expression, health benefits of functional foods, microbial fermentation technology, anaerobic respiration, fermentation in eukaryotes, fermentation in prokaryotes, solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation. This research was carried out to highlight the importance of fermentation technology and to introduce and survey the technology and its relationship with functional foods. Research progress in the area of protein factory-microbial fermentation technology was also investigated and inspected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity Change in Fermented Foods)
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