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Development of Sustainable Energy: Generation Technologies and Concepts

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 17251

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK
Interests: energy; sustainable energy; solar energy; hydrogen technologies
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Guest Editor
Institute of Sustainable Building Design, School of Energy Geoscience Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
Interests: solar PV systems; bifacial PV performance; ground albedo enhancement; sustainable buildings; behaviour and attitude of users towards energy consumption
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Engineering Construction and Project Management, School of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Interests: renewable energies; energy sustainability; climate change; urban planning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lack of access to energy supplies and transformation systems is a constraint to human and economic development. Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. Sustainable energy generation should be widely encouraged, as it does not cause any harm to the environment and is widely available free of cost.

Harnessing renewable energy resources appears to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower, biomass and marine energy are at the centre of the transition to less carbon-intensive and more sustainable energy systems. The use of renewable energy through improved technologies and concepts is therefore expected to play a major role in the future of sustainable energy generation.

Energy is central to nearly every major challenge and opportunity the world faces today. Be it for jobs, security, climate change, food production or increasing incomes, access to energy for all is essential. The adoption of the new United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 marked a new level of political recognition of the importance of energy to development. For the first time, this included a target to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all—collectively known as Sustainable Development Goal 7, or SDG 7. The aim is to enhance international cooperation by 2030 to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and to promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology.

The challenge is, however, far from being solved, and there needs to be more access to clean fuel and technology. Furthermore, more progress needs to be made regarding integrating sustainable energy into end-use applications in sectors such as building, transport and industry.

This edition of the Energies journal addresses the barriers and challenges faced with regards to sustainable energy generation for future energy technologies and concepts, and highlights potential solutions that should lead towards sustainable development.

Prof. Dr. Tariq Muneer
Dr. Mehreen Gul
Prof. Dr. Eulalia Jadraque Gago
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Energy supplies and transformation
  • Sustainable development
  • Sustainable energy generation
  • Future energy technologies and concepts
  • Potential solutions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1840 KiB  
Article
The Role of Low-Load Diesel in Improved Renewable Hosting Capacity within Isolated Power Systems
by James Hamilton, Michael Negnevitsky, Xiaolin Wang and Evgenii Semshchikov
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4053; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164053 - 5 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Isolated communities are progressively integrating renewable generation to reduce the societal, economic and ecological cost of diesel generation. Unfortunately, as renewable penetration and load variability increase, systems require greater diesel generation reserves, constraining renewable utilisation. Improved diesel generator flexibility can reduce the requirement [...] Read more.
Isolated communities are progressively integrating renewable generation to reduce the societal, economic and ecological cost of diesel generation. Unfortunately, as renewable penetration and load variability increase, systems require greater diesel generation reserves, constraining renewable utilisation. Improved diesel generator flexibility can reduce the requirement for diesel reserves, allowing increased renewable hosting. Regrettably, it is uncommon for utilities to modify diesel generator control during the integration of renewable source generation. Identifying diesel generator flexibility and co-ordination as an essential component to optimising system hosting capacity, this paper investigates improved diesel generator flexibility and coordination via low-load diesel application. Case study comparisons for both high- and low-penetration hybrid diesel power systems are presented in King Island, Australia, and Moloka`i, Hawai`i, respectively. For King Island, the approach details a 50% reduction in storage requirement, while for Moloka`i the application supports a 27% increase in renewable hosting capacity. Full article
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26 pages, 4297 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Interrelationships among Occupant Attitude, Knowledge and Behaviour in LEED-Certified Buildings Using Structural Equation Modelling
by Mehreen Saleem Gul and Elmira NezamiFar
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123158 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
The proliferation of residential building energy consumption and CO2 emissions has led many countries to develop buildings under the green rating systems umbrella. Many such buildings, however, fail to meet their designed energy performance, which is possibly attributable to occupant behaviour and [...] Read more.
The proliferation of residential building energy consumption and CO2 emissions has led many countries to develop buildings under the green rating systems umbrella. Many such buildings, however, fail to meet their designed energy performance, which is possibly attributable to occupant behaviour and unforeseen building usages. The research problem lies in the fact that occupant environmental behaviour is a complex socio-cultural-technical issue that needs to be addressed to achieve the desired energy savings. This study is novel as it investigates complex interrelationships between many observed and unobserved variables using data from four LEED-certified multi-residential buildings in the United Arab Emirates. Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the impact of three unobserved/latent variables: occupant environmental Attitude, Knowledge and Behaviour (AKB) with respect to occupant energy consumption, based on measured/observed variables. Although our Goodness-of-Fit values indicated that we achieved a good model fit, the interrelationship between Knowledge and Behaviour (p = 0.557) and between Attitude and Behaviour (p = 0.931) was insignificant, as the p-values > 0.05. The key study outcomes were: (i) providing information alone could not motivate people towards environmentally friendly behaviour; (ii) even changes in their attitude, belief and lifestyle were not significantly related to their behaviour, as the interrelationships among occupant environmental AKB were not significant; and (iii) knowledge and attitude change should be combined with other motivational factors to trigger environmentally friendly actions and influence behaviour. Full article
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31 pages, 15989 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Study of Integrating Renewable Energy Generation System in Sark Island to Reduce Energy Generation Cost and CO2 Emissions
by Shamir Robinson, Savvas Papadopoulos, Eulalia Jadraque Gago and Tariq Muneer
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4722; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244722 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
The island of Sark, located in the English Channel, has endured an electricity distribution crisis for the past few years, resulting in high electricity costs almost six times higher than UK mainland energy prices. This article is focused on a methodology for finding [...] Read more.
The island of Sark, located in the English Channel, has endured an electricity distribution crisis for the past few years, resulting in high electricity costs almost six times higher than UK mainland energy prices. This article is focused on a methodology for finding the best renewable energy system with the lowest levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in comparison to the current energy rate of 66 p/kWh. Three different main cases of study have been compared in performance for different levels of renewable energy integration and energy storage, evaluating the estimated size of the system, installation cost and CO2 emissions. The results, which depend on the assumptions outlined, show that Case 2 renewable energy generation system is the most suitable in terms of reduction of CO2 emissions and expected earnings from a lower LCOE. Uncertainty in the results could be minimized if actual data from the island is made available by following the same methodology to find the best solution to the island’s current energy generation problem. Due to non-available data for the load profiles and wind velocity a set of assumption were required to be implemented. As such, two different load profiles were selected—one with a peak of energy consumption in winter and the other with a summer peak. Full article
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14 pages, 8399 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation on Heat Pipe Spanwise Spacing to Determine Optimum Configuration for Passive Cooling of Photovoltaic Panels
by Samiya Aamir Al-Mabsali, Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry and Mehreen Saleem Gul
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4635; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244635 - 6 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
The uncertainty regarding the capacity of photovoltaics to generate adequate renewable power remains problematic due to very high temperatures in countries experiencing extreme climates. This study analyses the potential of heat pipes as a passive cooling mechanism for solar photovoltaic panels in the [...] Read more.
The uncertainty regarding the capacity of photovoltaics to generate adequate renewable power remains problematic due to very high temperatures in countries experiencing extreme climates. This study analyses the potential of heat pipes as a passive cooling mechanism for solar photovoltaic panels in the Ecohouse of the Higher Colleges of Technology, Oman, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A baseline model has been set-up comprised of 20 units, 20 mm diameter water-filled heat pipes, with a length of 992 mm attached to a photovoltaic panel measuring 1956 mm × 992 mm. Using the source temperature of 64.5 °C (337.65 K), the findings of this work have established that a temperature reduction in the range of up to 9 °C is achievable when integrating heat pipes into photovoltaic panels. An optimum spacing of 50 mm (2.5 times the diameter of the heat pipe) was determined through this work, which is also a proof-of-concept towards the use of heat pipe technology for passive cooling of photovoltaic panels in hot climates. Full article
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16 pages, 10564 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Jeju Island Power System with an Offshore Wind Farm Applied to a Diode Rectifier HVDC
by Sang Heon Chae, Min Hyeok Kang, Seung-Ho Song and Eel-Hwan Kim
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4515; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234515 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2649
Abstract
The Jeju Island power system consists of two-unidirectional high voltage direct current transmission systems (HVDC), thermal power plants, and renewable energy sources. The local government’s policy states that a 100 MW offshore wind farm should be constructed in the future. Due to the [...] Read more.
The Jeju Island power system consists of two-unidirectional high voltage direct current transmission systems (HVDC), thermal power plants, and renewable energy sources. The local government’s policy states that a 100 MW offshore wind farm should be constructed in the future. Due to the small size and sensitivity of the Jeju Island power system, power system analysis must be carried out before the installation of the new facility. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the Jeju Island power system with a new wind farm applied to uncontrolled diode rectifier HVDC. Although there are many studies about the grid connection method of offshore wind farms, its small grid connection analysis has been rarely investigated, especially in the diode rectifier HVDC method. Diode rectifier HVDC is a new grid connection method for offshore wind farms, which reduces the costs and increases the reliability of the offshore platform. To verify the accuracy and effectiveness of simulation models, steady and transient state scenarios were conducted using the PSCAD/EMTDC program. First, the model of the Jeju Island power system without a new wind farm was compared with measured power system data. Second, its power system connected with a diode rectifier HVDC was simulated in a steady state. Finally, disconnection and single line ground fault occurred at the offshore wind farm, respectively. From the simulation results, the grid stability of the Jeju Island power system was confirmed considering a new facility. Full article
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14 pages, 4073 KiB  
Article
Radiation View Factor for Building Applications: Comparison of Computation Environments
by Marzia Alam, Mehreen Saleem Gul and Tariq Muneer
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3826; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203826 - 10 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3349
Abstract
Computation of view factors is required in several building engineering applications where radiative exchange takes place between surfaces such as ground and vertical walls or ground and sloping thermal or photovoltaics collectors. In this paper, view factor computations are performed for bifacial solar [...] Read more.
Computation of view factors is required in several building engineering applications where radiative exchange takes place between surfaces such as ground and vertical walls or ground and sloping thermal or photovoltaics collectors. In this paper, view factor computations are performed for bifacial solar photovoltaic (PV) collectors based on the finite element method (FEM) using two programming languages known as Microsoft Excel-Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and Python. The aim is to determine the computer response time as well as the performance of the two languages in terms of accuracy and convergence of the numerical solution. To run the simulations in Python, an open source just-in-time (JIT) compiler called Numba was used and the same program was also run as a macro in VBA. It was observed that the simulation response time significantly decreased in Python when compared to VBA. This decrease in time was due to the increase in the total number of iterations from 400 million to 250 billion for a given case. Results demonstrated that Python was 71–180 times faster than VBA and, therefore, offers a better programming platform for the view factor analysis and modelling of bifacial solar PV where computation time is a significant modelling challenge. Full article
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