Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Dentistry Journal

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 28098

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Department for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland
Interests: implantology; oral surgery; oral and maxillofacial surgery; jaw malpositions and craniofacial anomalies
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Guest Editor
Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, CH-8032 Zürich, Switzerland
Interests: dental implant; periodontitis; guided tissue regeneration; adhesive dentistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

It is our great pleasure to announce that Dentistry Journal (ISSN: 2304-6767) has received its first Impact Factor of 2.6, released in June 2023.

To celebrate this wonderful achievement, we are glad to announce this Special Issue on “Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Dentistry Journal”, aiming to publish top-quality papers. Papers could be both extensive research papers and review papers highlighting the latest developments in the field of dentistry.

If you are interested in publishing your work in this Special Issue, please contact our Managing Editor, Ms. Adele Min (adele.min@mdpi.com), before submitting. All papers will be subject to a thorough and rigorous peer review.

We look forward to receiving your excellent work.

Prof. Dr. Claude Jaquiéry
Prof. Dr. Patrick R. Schmidlin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (22 papers)

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10 pages, 1460 KiB  
Article
Clinical Experience Comparison of Foreign-Trained Dentists and Domestic Dental Students: One Institution’s Experience
by Zabihulla Ahmadi, Judy Chia-Chun Yuan, Michael Spector, Adriana Semprum-Clavier, Cortino Sukotjo and Fatemeh S. Afshari
Dent. J. 2024, 12(5), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12050139 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 419
Abstract
This study compared the clinical experiences of foreign-trained dentists (FTDs) enrolled in an Advance Standing DMD Dental Program (DMDAS) with those of the domestic dental students (DMD) at the University of Illinois Chicago, College of Dentistry (UIC-COD). A cross-sectional retrospective chart review of [...] Read more.
This study compared the clinical experiences of foreign-trained dentists (FTDs) enrolled in an Advance Standing DMD Dental Program (DMDAS) with those of the domestic dental students (DMD) at the University of Illinois Chicago, College of Dentistry (UIC-COD). A cross-sectional retrospective chart review of patients treated by 295 DMD and 253 DMDAS predoctoral dental students was completed at the UIC-COD. The data were retrieved from the electronic health record system (axiUm) for the graduated classes of 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022 on various performed clinical procedures as measured by relative value units (RVUs). The retrieved data were used to compare the clinical experiences of DMDAS vs. DMD students. Descriptive (mean) and statistical (independent t-test) analyses were used (α = 0.05). The results indicated that DMD and DMDAS students had comparable clinical experiences in several disciplines, including diagnosis, prevention, direct/indirect restorations, endodontics, periodontics, complete dentures, removable partial dentures, implants/fixed partial dentures, and oral surgery. There was a statistical difference in total RVUs for diagnosis (p = 0.002) and direct restorations (p < 0.001), in which DMD students had more experience. The 28 month program for FTDs appeared to be a reasonable timeframe to obtain an adequate number of varied clinical experiences as compared with the traditional four-year program at the UIC-COD. Full article
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12 pages, 1491 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impact of Various Decontamination Instruments on Titanium and Zirconia Dental Implants: An In Vitro Study
by Louisa Vierling, Chun Ching Liu, Daniel Wiedemeier, Andrea Gubler and Patrick R. Schmidlin
Dent. J. 2024, 12(5), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12050136 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of various instrumentation techniques on material removal and surface changes in titanium (Ti)- and zirconia (Zr) implant discs. Ti- and Zr discs were subjected to standardized experiments using various instruments including airflow, ultrasound, carbide, and diamond burs. Instrumentation [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of various instrumentation techniques on material removal and surface changes in titanium (Ti)- and zirconia (Zr) implant discs. Ti- and Zr discs were subjected to standardized experiments using various instruments including airflow, ultrasound, carbide, and diamond burs. Instrumentation was performed for 60 s with continuous automatic motion. Abrasion and changes in surface roughness were assessed using profilometry, while scanning electron microscopy was used to examine morphological changes and particle size. Carbide burs predominantly caused abrasion on Ti discs, while diamond burs caused more abrasion on Zr discs. The Ti discs were more susceptible to surface changes. However, among the materials tested, machined Zr discs treated with diamond burs produced the largest particle. In certain cases, a statistical significance (p < 0.05) was observed between the groups, while in others, there was no considerable difference among the means (p > 0.05). These results highlighted the statistical significance of our findings. These results found diverse alterations in surface characteristics of Ti- and Zr discs due to different instruments, with carbide and diamond burs causing notable effects. The findings highlight the need for a careful balance between promoting healing and minimizing harm during implantoplasty. Full article
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14 pages, 9114 KiB  
Article
Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Split-Mouth Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
by Simran R. Parwani, Kaustubh S. Thakare, Kshipra P. Kawadkar, Nishita Jaju Soni, Rajkumar Parwani, Himanshu Dadlani, Dhanashree S. Chaudhary, Dipanshu Pahuja, Gianrico Spagnuolo and Niccolò Giuseppe Armogida
Dent. J. 2024, 12(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12050135 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
This clinical trial investigated the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planing (SRP) in non-surgical periodontal therapy. In a split-mouth randomized controlled trial with 13 patients and 26 periodontal pocket sites, PRF was inserted in test [...] Read more.
This clinical trial investigated the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planing (SRP) in non-surgical periodontal therapy. In a split-mouth randomized controlled trial with 13 patients and 26 periodontal pocket sites, PRF was inserted in test group pockets alongside SRP, while control group pockets received SRP alone. Measurements at baseline and six weeks included probing pocket depths (PPDs), clinical attachment loss (CAL), gingival recession (GR), the plaque index, and the gingivitis index. The wound healing index was assessed at six weeks. The results show statistically significant improvements in the SRP+PRF group compared to SRP alone, demonstrating a better CAL gain (SRP+PRF group: 2.69 ± 0.63; SRP alone group: 4.15 ± 0.69—p-value: 0.001), PPD reduction (SRP+PRF group: 2.62 ± 0.65; SRP alone group: 3.85 ± 0.80—p-value: 0.001), and GR minimization (SRP+PRF group: 0.46 ± 0.62; SRP alone group: 0.81 ± 0.72—p-value: 0.21). The adjunctive use of PRF enhanced healing, reduced pocket depths, decreased tissue morbidity, and minimized gingival recession. This study concludes that PRF placement is effective in 5–6 mm pockets, potentially reducing the number of periodontal treatment sessions needed for pocket closure. Full article
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12 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Muscular Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A Prospective Case-Control Study
by Rossana Izzetti, Elisabetta Carli, Stefano Gennai, Maria Rita Giuca, Filippo Graziani and Marco Nisi
Dent. J. 2024, 12(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12050129 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Muscular temporomandibular joint disorders (M-TMDs) encompass a wide range of painful muscular conditions, which can provoke functional limitation and severely affect quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the treatment outcomes in patients affected by M-TMDs in terms [...] Read more.
Muscular temporomandibular joint disorders (M-TMDs) encompass a wide range of painful muscular conditions, which can provoke functional limitation and severely affect quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the treatment outcomes in patients affected by M-TMDs in terms of pain scores assessed with pressure pain threshold (PPT). The levels of depression, anxiety, and the Oral Health Impact Profile were also assessed and compared to healthy controls. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of M-TMDs and a control group of healthy subjects were enrolled. At baseline, OHIP-14, PHQ-9, and GAD-7 were administered. PPT was registered at the level of masseter and temporalis muscles. The patients affected by M-TMDs were then treated with oral splints and physio-kinesiotherapy following a standardized treatment protocol. At the 6-month follow-up of M-TMD-affected patients, PPT was registered, and the questionnaires were re-administered to evaluate treatment outcomes. In total, sixty patients and sixty controls were enrolled. The treatment of M-TMDs produced a significant improvement in PPT at the level of the masseter muscle. OHIP-14 at baseline in the M-TMD group was significantly higher compared to the control group (p < 0.05). At the 6-month follow-up, a significant reduction in OHIP-14 scores was registered, although with higher scores compared to the control group (p < 0.05). PHQ-9 was significantly higher at baseline in the M-TMD group (p < 0.05) and decreased to values comparable to the control group after treatment. GAD-7 presented statistically significant differences between the control group and M-TMD patients at baseline (p < 0.05) and between pre- and post-treatment in the M-TMD group. Following treatment, the GAD-7 scores were comparable to the control group. The symptom burden associated with M-TMDs negatively affects quality of life, with higher oral health impairment and a tendency towards depression and anxiety compared to healthy subjects. Following treatment, an improvement in both PPT and quality of life was observed. Full article
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14 pages, 5813 KiB  
Article
Biological Evaluation of Oral Care Products Using 3D Tissue-Engineered In Vitro Models of Plaque-Induced Gingivitis
by Emilia Barker, Lina AlQobaly, Zahab Shaikh, Kirsty Franklin, Johanna Thurlow, Behfar Moghaddam, Jonathan Pratten and Keyvan Moharamzadeh
Dent. J. 2024, 12(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12050126 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate and visualize the anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects of different oral care products using an infected and inflamed 3D tissue-engineered gingival mucosal model. Methods: A 3D full-thickness oral mucosal model was engineered inside tissue culture [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate and visualize the anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects of different oral care products using an infected and inflamed 3D tissue-engineered gingival mucosal model. Methods: A 3D full-thickness oral mucosal model was engineered inside tissue culture inserts using collagen hydrogels populated with human gingival fibroblasts and THP-1 monocytes and layered with oral epithelial cell lines. Oral saliva bacteria were cultured and added to the surface of the models and inflammation was further simulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli. The 3D models were exposed to three different types of toothpastes, a chlorhexidine antiseptic mouthwash, different antibiotics, and a mechanical rinse with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) prior to biological evaluation using the PrestoBlue tissue viability assay, histology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal microscopy, and measurement of the release of the inflammatory markers IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 with ELISA. Results: Multiple-endpoint analyses of the infected oral mucosal models treated with different anti-bacterial agents showed consistent outcomes in terms of tissue viability, histology, OCT, and confocal microscopy findings. In terms of anti-inflammatory testings, the positive control group showed the highest level of inflammation compared with all other groups. Depending on the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of the test groups, different levels of inflammation were observed in the test groups. Conclusions: The inflamed 3D oral mucosal model developed in this study has the potential to be used as a suitable in vitro model for testing the biocompatibility, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties of oral care products including mouthwashes and toothpastes. The results of this study indicate that the chlorhexidine mouthwash has both anti-bacterial and cytotoxic effects on the 3D oral mucosal model. Hyaluronic-acid-containing toothpaste has significant anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects on the 3D oral mucosal model. Full article
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21 pages, 6726 KiB  
Article
Quantity and Size of Titanium Particles Released from Different Mechanical Decontamination Procedures on Titanium Discs: An In Vitro Study
by Anthony Kao, Andrew Tawse-Smith, Sunyoung Ma, Warwick J. Duncan, Malcolm Reid and Momen A. Atieh
Dent. J. 2024, 12(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12050123 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Complications such as peri-implantitis could ultimately affect the survival of a dental implant. The prevention and treatment of peri-implant diseases require managing bacterial biofilm and controlling environmental risks, including the presence of pro-inflammatory titanium (Ti) particles in the peri-implant niche. Objectives included the [...] Read more.
Complications such as peri-implantitis could ultimately affect the survival of a dental implant. The prevention and treatment of peri-implant diseases require managing bacterial biofilm and controlling environmental risks, including the presence of pro-inflammatory titanium (Ti) particles in the peri-implant niche. Objectives included the evaluation of the size and quantity of Ti particles released from moderately roughened Ti surfaces during common mechanical surface decontamination methods. One hundred and forty moderately roughened Ti discs were divided into seven groups (n = 20 per group); six groups received mechanical decontamination procedures (ultrasonic scaling (US) with a metal tip and poly-ether-ketone (PEEK) under low and medium power settings, air-polishing with erythritol powder, and Ti brush), and the control group underwent air–water spray using a dental triplex. The rinsing solution was collected for Ti mass analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), as well as for Ti particle size and count analysis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). US metal tip instrumentation generated 34.00 ± 12.54 μg and 34.44 ± 6.08 μg of Ti under low and medium power settings, respectively. This amount of Ti generation was significantly higher than other instrumentation methods. The mean Ti particle size of the US groups ranged from 0.89 ± 0.27 μm to 1.25 ± 0.24 μm. No statistically significant difference was found in the particle size among US groups and Ti brush group (1.05 ± 0.11 μm), except for US with the PEEK tip, where a significantly smaller mean particle diameter was found at the low power setting (0.89 ± 0.27 μm). Mechanical instrumentation can produce Ti particulates and modify the implant surfaces. US using a metal tip generated the highest amount of Ti with smaller Ti size particles compared to all other commonly used mechanical surface instrumentations. The EDS analysis confirmed Ti in PEEK US tips. It can be suggested that deterioration from the PEEK US tip and Ti brush, as observed under SEM, is an additional source of Ti release during Ti surface decontamination. Full article
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13 pages, 1418 KiB  
Article
Shock Absorption Capacity of High-Performance Polymers for Dental Implant-Supported Restorations: In Vitro Study
by Maria Menini, Francesca Delucchi, Francesco Bagnasco, Domenico Baldi, Luigi Canullo, Paolo Setti, Marco Migliorati, Enrico Simetti and Paolo Pesce
Dent. J. 2024, 12(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12040111 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Background: Restorative materials might significantly affect load transmission in peri-implant bone. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the shock absorption capacity of two different polymeric materials to be used for implant-supported prostheses. Methods: A masticatory robot was used to compare [...] Read more.
Background: Restorative materials might significantly affect load transmission in peri-implant bone. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the shock absorption capacity of two different polymeric materials to be used for implant-supported prostheses. Methods: A masticatory robot was used to compare the shock absorption capacity of veneered and non-veneered polyetherketoneketone (PEKK), Pekkton®ivory (Cendres+Mètaux), and the glass fiber-reinforced composite (GFRC), TRINIATM (Bicon). Five identical sample crowns for each of the three groups were tested. Forces transmitted at the simulated peri-implant bone were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: The statistical analysis of forces transmitted at the simulated dental implant revealed significant differences between the materials tested and between these materials and zirconia, glass ceramic, composite resin, and acrylic resin. Only differences between PEKK and veneered PEKK and between PEKK and one of the previously tested composite resins were not statistically significant. PEKK samples demonstrated significantly greater shock absorption capacity compared to GFRC. Conclusions: PEKK revealed optimal shock absorption capacity. Further studies are needed to evaluate its efficacy in the case of long-span prostheses with reduced prosthetic volume. Full article
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12 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Dental Students from Romania Regarding Self-Perceived Risk and Prevention of Infectious Diseases
by Florentina Iuliana Dincă, Bogdan-Alexandru Dimitriu, Oana Săndulescu, Valentin Daniel Sîrbu and Mihai Săndulescu
Dent. J. 2024, 12(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12040097 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 960
Abstract
University education is a leading source of information for dental practitioners. Particular emphasis should be given to determining the extent to which students acquire positive knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) and positive metacompetences beyond the scope of each studied dental discipline. We performed [...] Read more.
University education is a leading source of information for dental practitioners. Particular emphasis should be given to determining the extent to which students acquire positive knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) and positive metacompetences beyond the scope of each studied dental discipline. We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study among dentistry students from Romania to assess self-perceived risk of infectious diseases and their KAP on topics related to infectious disease prevention. The surveyed students presented good knowledge regarding personal protective equipment (PPE), and their PPE practices significantly correlated with the perceived usefulness of PPE. Only 45.1% correctly recognized all vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), but knowledge regarding VPDs significantly improved with increasing year of study (τb = 0.298, p = 0.001), confirming a positive education effect. Awareness regarding the need for screening for bloodborne viruses is poor; the majority of students had never performed a test for hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) (59.4%) or for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (60.4%). Furthermore, most respondents incorrectly considered themselves at high or very high risk of acquiring BBV, and perceived risk was inversely correlated with willingness to treat patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (τb = −0.214, p = 0.018), HCV infection (τb = −0.234, p = 0.013), or HIV infection (τb = −0.242, p = 0.006). This led to 3.0% of respondents stating that they would hypothetically deny dental treatment to a patient with HBV infection, 5.0% for HCV infection, and 10.9% for HIV infection, the proportion being significantly higher for HIV (z = −2.2, p = 0.026). In conclusion, better knowledge is needed among dental students regarding their own vaccination history, screening for bloodborne viruses, accurate estimates for their risk of acquiring bloodborne viruses during routine dental practice, and the existence of post-exposure measures following occupational exposure. Improving student knowledge and awareness could translate into a higher willingness to treat patients with chronic viral infections and into a safer and more inclusive dental practice. We propose an adaptation to the university curriculum to cover these key areas for targeted focus to empower future dental practitioners and to facilitate the improvement of across-discipline metacompetences for infection prevention and control. Full article
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20 pages, 4347 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Multiple RT1 Gingival Recessions Using a Coronally Advanced Flap Associated with L-PRF or Subgingival Connective Tissue Graft from Maxillary Tuberosity: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial
by Giuseppe Balice, Michele Paolantonio, Matteo Serroni, Paolo De Ninis, Imena Rexhepi, Alessio Frisone, Stefania Di Gregorio, Luigi Romano, Bruna Sinjari, Giovanna Murmura and Beatrice Femminella
Dent. J. 2024, 12(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12040086 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 802
Abstract
The goal of plastic periodontal surgery is to obtain complete root coverage, increasing gingival thickness (GT), a positive prognostic factor for gingival margin stability over time. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) in [...] Read more.
The goal of plastic periodontal surgery is to obtain complete root coverage, increasing gingival thickness (GT), a positive prognostic factor for gingival margin stability over time. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) in RT1 (GR; gingival recession with no loss of interproximal attachment) when associated with a connective tissue graft from the maxillary tuberosity (tCTG) or with leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) membranes in obtaining root coverage and increasing the thickness and width of the keratinized tissue, along with aesthetic improvement, taking into account a number of patient-related outcomes. Thirty patients with two adjacent RT1 GRs (GRs with no loss of interproximal attachment) were each treated using CAF associated with tCTG (15 patients) or L-PRF. The main outcome was a GT increase; secondary outcomes were keratinized tissue width (KT), gingival recession (GR), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), root coverage percentage (RC%), complete root coverage (CRC), and root coverage esthetic score (RES). Patient-reported outcomes were discomfort (D), dentine hypersensitivity (DH), patient-related esthetic score (PRES), and overall treatment satisfaction (OTS). After 12 months, clinical and patient-reported parameters did not show significant differences between groups, with the only exception being a GT gain, which was significantly greater in the CAF + tCTG group. Our results showed that both techniques were effective in treating RT1 GRs, with comparable patient-related outcomes. However, the use of tCTG produces significantly thicker tissue, covering the exposed root surface. Full article
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13 pages, 3700 KiB  
Article
Prophylactic Use of Pentoxifylline and Tocopherol for Prevention of Osteoradionecrosis of the Jaw after Dental Extraction in Post-Radiated Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients: An Initial Case Series
by Adepitan A. Owosho, Katherine A. DeColibus, Osariemen Okhuaihesuyi and Layne C. Levy
Dent. J. 2024, 12(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12040083 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw is a morbid complication of radiotherapy in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers that may be precipitated by dental extractions. Pentoxifylline and tocopherol (PENTO) has been utilized in the management of osteoradionecrosis and as prophylaxis for post-radiated head and [...] Read more.
Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw is a morbid complication of radiotherapy in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers that may be precipitated by dental extractions. Pentoxifylline and tocopherol (PENTO) has been utilized in the management of osteoradionecrosis and as prophylaxis for post-radiated head and neck oncology patients requiring an invasive dental procedure. This observational study aims to report the outcome of the prophylactic use of PENTO in the prevention of osteoradionecrosis of the jaw after dental extractions in post-radiated oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients and to review the current literature on this topic. Four post-radiated oral and oropharyngeal oncology patients were referred to the dental oncology clinic of the University Dental Practice, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center for dental extractions. All four patients were prescribed pentoxifylline 400 mg BID (twice a day) and tocopherol 400 IU BID (oral tablets) for 2 weeks before extraction(s) and for 6 weeks after extraction(s). All patients were followed up every week after the second week post-extraction if feasible until the extraction site(s) healed (covered by mucosa). The assessment endpoint was defined as 6 weeks post-extraction with the outcomes assessed as using four categories determined by the area of exposed bone: complete healing (complete mucosal coverage of extraction site); partial healing (reduction in size of extraction site); no change; and progression (increase in size of the extraction site). At the assessment endpoint, all patients had complete healing of all extraction sites. The ORN rate at the patient level (0/4) and individual tooth level (0/8) was 0%. All patients tolerated the PENTO medications and no adverse effects from the use of these medications were reported. This limited study in addition to the other reviewed studies estimates the rate of ORN at the patient level as 3.2% (14/436) for post-radiated head and neck oncology patients after dental extractions/invasive oral procedures. In conclusion, this PENTO regimen can reduce/prevent the incidence of ORN in post-radiated head and neck oncology patients. This safe and cost-effective protocol (PENTO regimen) should be further evaluated as prophylaxis for post-radiated head and neck oncology patients requiring an invasive dental procedure. We recommend large prospective studies to be carried out to further validate these findings. Full article
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11 pages, 955 KiB  
Article
Chewing Function with Efficiency Tests in Subjects Wearing Clear Aligners
by Luca Levrini, Alessandro Deppieri, Andrea Carganico, Giorgia Rodigari, Stefano Saran, Piero Antonio Zecca, Marco Cicciù and Salvatore Bocchieri
Dent. J. 2024, 12(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12030057 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1250
Abstract
This study assessed the masticatory function of participants wearing clear aligners in order to determine whether these devices can be worn even when eating and therefore worn to extend treatment time and boost treatment effectiveness. An intercontrol test was conducted on 20 patients [...] Read more.
This study assessed the masticatory function of participants wearing clear aligners in order to determine whether these devices can be worn even when eating and therefore worn to extend treatment time and boost treatment effectiveness. An intercontrol test was conducted on 20 patients who received Invisalign® treatment. Each participant was instructed to chew two pieces of Hue-Check Gum® chewing gum (one pink and the other blue) in 5, 10, and 20 cycles both with and without aligners. After being removed from the oral cavity, the gum was dried and pressed using a 1 × 50 × 50 mm model that was 3D printed with a transparent layer in between. After being scanned on both sides with a flatbed scanner at 600 dpi, the samples were saved as jpg files and subjected to an optoelectronic examination using ViewGum software. To validate the procedure, a control group from a different institution (University of Bern) was used. A statistical analysis of the data was carried out. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to confirm the normality of the samples. A one-way ANOVA test, a homogeneity of variance test, and a t-test did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two control groups, thus validating the methodology employed. In summary, clear aligners do not radically change the masticatory function while they are worn. As a result, clinicians can exploit the aligners for chewing to obtain a better fit of the plastic material to the dental surface and to attachments. Treatment times for patients could also be shorter. Full article
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19 pages, 5623 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Biological Validation of an Allogeneous Cancellous Bone Block for Alveolar Maxillary Ridge Reconstruction: A Case Series
by Alexandre Perez, Elena Pierantozzi, Roberto Di Felice and Tommaso Lombardi
Dent. J. 2024, 12(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12020042 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
This exploratory case series clinically and histologically investigated the performance of allogeneic cancellous freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) bone blocks (Maxgraft®) for the lateral augmentation of local alveolar defects in the posterior maxilla as part of two-staged implant therapy. Five patients receiving [...] Read more.
This exploratory case series clinically and histologically investigated the performance of allogeneic cancellous freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) bone blocks (Maxgraft®) for the lateral augmentation of local alveolar defects in the posterior maxilla as part of two-staged implant therapy. Five patients receiving eight implants 5 months after block augmentation with a follow-up period of up to 3 years were documented and analyzed. Horizontal alveolar dimensions before and 5 months after block augmentation were quantified using CBCT. Radiographic marginal bone level changes were quantified at implant placement, loading, and 1 year post-placement. Graft integration and resorption were histologically qualitatively evaluated from core biopsies retrieved at implant placement. Block augmentations resulted in a pronounced horizontal median bone gain of 7.0 (5.5 to 7.8) mm. Marginal implant bone levels in block-augmented bone remained constant over the 1 year follow-up period. Block grafts appeared histologically well integrated. Histologic analysis also revealed signs of progressive resorption and new bone formation at the lateral aspects of the grafts. The results of this case series support using Maxgraft® cancellous FDBA blocks as suitable materials for the lateral augmentation of local alveolar defects. Full article
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12 pages, 3827 KiB  
Article
Different Methods of Scan Alignment in Erosive Tooth Wear Measurements: An In Vitro Study
by Nikolaos Loumprinis, Stavroula Michou and Christos Rahiotis
Dent. J. 2024, 12(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12020034 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1412
Abstract
Background: Model alignment in cases of erosive tooth wear can be challenging, and no method has been reported to outweigh the others. Methods: Extracted human teeth were mounted on two models and scanned at different times, from 1 h to 2 weeks, with [...] Read more.
Background: Model alignment in cases of erosive tooth wear can be challenging, and no method has been reported to outweigh the others. Methods: Extracted human teeth were mounted on two models and scanned at different times, from 1 h to 2 weeks, with an intraoral scanner (3Shape TRIOS 4) before and after immersion in Monster® energy drink and tap water. The scans were superimposed (3Shape TRIOS Patient Monitoring, Version 2.2.3.3, 3Shape A/S, Copengagen, Denmark). Best fit, best-fit tooth comparison, reference best fit using fillings, and palatal rugae as reference points were used for alignment. Surface profile differences were calculated in a cross-section view. The nonparametric Bland–Altman and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used. Results: First, statistically significant differences were marked after 4 days of immersion. The measurements obtained after 2 weeks of immersion were statistically significantly different from the measurements obtained at the different time points until 1 week. No statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the alignment methods at any time. Conclusion: In comparison to the best-fit model, both palatal rugae and fillings can be used. The best-fit tooth comparison method is a reliable option; however, it should be used with caution in cases of major surface loss. Full article
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10 pages, 1913 KiB  
Article
Lower Incisor—Pg: A New Cephalometric Parameter to Evaluate the Anterior Limit of Dentition
by Marzio Galdi, Federica Di Spirito, Alessandra Amato, Davide Cannatà, Roberto Rongo and Stefano Martina
Dent. J. 2023, 11(11), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11110264 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Background: This present retrospective study aimed to introduce Lower Incisor—Pg and to assess how this new parameter varies with the skeletal sagittal and vertical relationships. Methods: A total of 1256 cephalometric analyses were performed using lateral cephalometric radiographs of a sample [...] Read more.
Background: This present retrospective study aimed to introduce Lower Incisor—Pg and to assess how this new parameter varies with the skeletal sagittal and vertical relationships. Methods: A total of 1256 cephalometric analyses were performed using lateral cephalometric radiographs of a sample of subjects divided according to SN^Go-Gn, ANPg^, and IMPA measurements. The differences in Lower Incisor—Pg between the groups were assessed through ANOVA tests and posthoc analyses, while Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to assess the correlations between the measurements. Results: The mesofacial growth pattern (61.0%) was more common than dolichofacial (30.0%) and brachyfacial (8.6%) ones in the sampled population. Regarding skeletal sagittal relationships, Class I was more frequent (70.9%) than Class II (19.3%) and Class III (9.8%). The mean value of the Lower Incisor—Pg was 3.2 ± 4.0 mm. Linear regression showed that the β coefficient was 0.45 and 0.36 for ANPg^ and SnGoGn^, respectively. Conclusions: Lower Incisor—Pg is a linear cephalometric measurement to evaluate the lower incisor sagittal position. For each degree of increase in ANPg^ and SNGoGn^, the Lower Incisor—Pg increased 0.45 mm and 0.36 mm, respectively. Full article
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12 pages, 1239 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior of Repaired Monolithic Crowns: A 3D Finite Element Analysis
by Pablo Machado Soares, Lucas Saldanha da Rosa, Gabriel Kalil Rocha Pereira, Luiz Felipe Valandro, Marilia Pivetta Rippe, Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal Piva, Albert J. Feilzer, Cornelis J. Kleverlaan and João Paulo Mendes Tribst
Dent. J. 2023, 11(11), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11110254 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
This study evaluated the mechanical behavior and risk of failure of three CAD-CAM crowns repaired with different resin composites through a three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Three-dimensional models of different cusp-repaired (conventional nanohybrid, bulk-fill, and flowable resin composites) crowns made of zirconia, lithium [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the mechanical behavior and risk of failure of three CAD-CAM crowns repaired with different resin composites through a three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Three-dimensional models of different cusp-repaired (conventional nanohybrid, bulk-fill, and flowable resin composites) crowns made of zirconia, lithium disilicate, and CAD-CAM resin composite were designed, fixed at the cervical level, and loaded in 100 N at the working cusps, including the repaired one. The models were analyzed to determine the Maximum Principal and Maximum Shear stresses (MPa). Complementary, an in vitro shear bond strength test (n = 10) was performed to calculate the risk of failure for each experimental group. The stress distribution among the models was similar when considering the same restorative material. The crown material affected the stress concentration, which was higher for the ceramic models (±9 MPa for shear stress; ±3 MPa for tensile stress) than for the CAD-CAM composite (±7 MPa for shear stress; ±2 MPa for tensile stress). The shear bond strength was higher for the repaired CAD-CAM resin composite (±17 MPa) when compared to the ceramics (below 12 MPa for all groups), while the repair materials showed similar behavior for each substrate. The stress distribution is more homogenous for repaired resin composite crowns, and a flowable direct resin composite seems suitable to repair ceramic crowns with less risk of failure. Full article
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12 pages, 2516 KiB  
Article
Clinicoradiopathologic Analysis of Odontomas: A Retrospective Study of 242 Cases
by Katherine A. DeColibus, D. Shane Rasner, Osariemen Okhuaihesuyi and Adepitan A. Owosho
Dent. J. 2023, 11(11), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11110253 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Odontomas are considered hamartomatous lesions and are one of the two most common odontogenic tumors of the jaw. Odontomas are classified as compound or complex. Recently, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) and ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma were reclassified as developing odontomas. Though clinically odontomas are usually asymptomatic, [...] Read more.
Odontomas are considered hamartomatous lesions and are one of the two most common odontogenic tumors of the jaw. Odontomas are classified as compound or complex. Recently, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) and ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma were reclassified as developing odontomas. Though clinically odontomas are usually asymptomatic, they have adverse effects on adjacent teeth such as tooth impaction, delayed eruption, displacement of teeth, over-retention of teeth, and can give rise to odontogenic cysts within the jaw. We sought to evaluate the clinicoradiopathologic presentations of odontomas by collecting and analyzing the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data of odontomas diagnosed in our institution from 2013 to 2022. Over this 10-year period, there were 242 patients with a histopathological and/or radiographic diagnosis of odontoma. There was no gender predilection and ages ranged from 3 to 101 years (median, 14 years). The second decade of life was the most prevalent (57.4%). There was no jaw predilection; however, the anterior jaw was the most common location. Ninety-four (38.8%) cases presented with clinical findings. The most common finding was tooth impaction (n = 83). Nine (3.7%) cases were histopathologically confirmed to be associated with other lesions such as dentigerous cysts (n = 8) and nasopalatine duct cyst (n = 1). The median age (25 years) of patients diagnosed with odontomas associated with cysts was older than patients with odontomas (14 years) without associated cysts. Compound odontomas were the most common type of odontoma compared to complex and AFOs with 71.4%, 26.6%, and 2%, respectively. The majority of compound odontomas involved the anterior jaw (69.3%) and mandible (54.9%) while the majority of complex odontomas involved the posterior jaw (59.6%) and maxilla (54.7%). The four AFOs were in the posterior jaw and 75% involved the maxilla. The median age (12 years) of patients diagnosed with AFO was the youngest compared to patients diagnosed with compound (13 years) and complex (16 years). In conclusion, we analyzed the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of 242 new cases of odontomas. Our study reaffirms that odontomas frequently affect the pediatric population and can disrupt their dentition. Based on the result of this study, our clinical recommendation to prevent problems to adjacent teeth from odontomas is for dentists to be apt in the diagnose of odontomas to ensure that they are surgically removed in a timely manner. Full article
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13 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Influence of Surgical Technique on Post-Operative Complications in the Extraction of the Lower Third Molar: A Retrospective Study
by Massimo Albanese, Alessandro Zangani, Federica Manfrin, Dario Bertossi, Rachele De Manzoni, Nicolò Tomizioli, Paolo Faccioni and Alessia Pardo
Dent. J. 2023, 11(10), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11100238 - 17 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
The surgical extraction of the impacted third molar is frequently associated with several complications. The purpose of this study is to assess how two different surgical protocols affect post-operative complications during the extraction of the lower impacted third molars. In order to compare [...] Read more.
The surgical extraction of the impacted third molar is frequently associated with several complications. The purpose of this study is to assess how two different surgical protocols affect post-operative complications during the extraction of the lower impacted third molars. In order to compare and evaluate two different techniques (triangular flap vs. envelope flap), and the relative post-extraction complications, two groups of 150 patients each underwent to surgical impacted third molar extraction and 60 days of follow-up. The complication rate in the two groups was 14.00% in group A and 17.33% in group B. There was a strong association between smoking (OR: 2.8) and the use of oral contraceptives (OR: 1.75) with complications. The age- and sex-related incidence of complications in hard tissue healing has great variability in the literature; the analysis performed on our data did not show a statistically significant association between them. Even though related to a higher incidence of transient changes in sensitivity, it was found that the envelope flap saw a lower percentage of complications. There is still no clarity on which is the best protocol for the extraction of the lower impacted third molar, and the choice often depends on the surgeon’s experience. Full article
11 pages, 686 KiB  
Article
Supernumerary Tooth Patterns in Non-Syndromic White European Subjects
by Eva Henninger, Luca Friedli, Miltiadis A. Makrygiannakis, Vasileios F. Zymperdikas, Moschos A. Papadopoulos, Georgios Kanavakis and Nikolaos Gkantidis
Dent. J. 2023, 11(10), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11100230 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Supernumerary teeth form at an incidence of about 3% in the population, with differences among races and various clinical consequences. Information on detailed patterns, and especially on white subjects, is scarce in the literature. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the patterns of non-syndromic [...] Read more.
Supernumerary teeth form at an incidence of about 3% in the population, with differences among races and various clinical consequences. Information on detailed patterns, and especially on white subjects, is scarce in the literature. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the patterns of non-syndromic permanent supernumerary teeth in a white European population. A record review was performed in different orthodontic clinics and identified 207 eligible individuals with 258 supernumerary teeth. Approximately 80% of the subjects had one supernumerary tooth, while 15% had two. Supernumerary tooth formation was more often evident in males (male/female: 1.65). However, there was no sexual dimorphism in its severity. The following pattern sequences, with decreasing prevalence order, were observed in the maxilla: 21 > 11 > 12 > 18 > 28 and in the mandible: 34 > 44 > 35 > 45 > 42. Supernumerary teeth were most often unilaterally present, without sexual dimorphism. In the maxilla, they were more often anteriorly present, whereas in the mandible, an opposite tendency was observed. Supernumerary teeth were consistently more often observed in the maxilla than in the mandible; 74% were impacted, 80% had normal orientation (13% horizontal, 7% inverted), and 53% had normal size. The present thorough supernumerary tooth pattern assessment enables a better understanding of this condition with clinical, developmental, and evolutionary implications. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

15 pages, 2245 KiB  
Review
Prevention of Dental Caries: A Review on the Improvements of Toothpaste Formulations from 1900 to 2023
by Patrick Unterbrink, Erik Schulze zur Wiesche, Frederic Meyer, Pascal Fandrich, Bennett T. Amaechi and Joachim Enax
Dent. J. 2024, 12(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12030064 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2128
Abstract
Modern toothpastes are complex formulations with various ingredients. The aim of this study was to analyze the improvement of toothpaste formulations from 1900 to 2023 focusing on active ingredients with remineralizing, antibacterial, or plaque-removing effects, and to discuss their influence on caries prevention. [...] Read more.
Modern toothpastes are complex formulations with various ingredients. The aim of this study was to analyze the improvement of toothpaste formulations from 1900 to 2023 focusing on active ingredients with remineralizing, antibacterial, or plaque-removing effects, and to discuss their influence on caries prevention. For this, worldwide patent applications were searched using the international database Espacenet from the European Patent Office. Additionally, toothpaste products were searched using the Mintel product database from 1996 to 2023. The searched ingredients were (in alphabetical order): calcium carbonate, calcium phosphates, hydrated silica, sodium fluoride, sodium lauryl sulfate, triclosan, xylitol, and zinc salts as they are known from the scientific literature to be remineralizing or antibacterial/antiplaque agents. It was shown that the number of patent applications containing these ingredients significantly increased since the 1970s. As these ingredients have remineralizing, antibacterial, or plaque-removing effects, they all can contribute to caries prevention. In conclusion, and within the limitations of this approach, this study shows that toothpaste formulations have greatly improved over the past decades by using various active anticaries ingredients. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

11 pages, 721 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effect of Charcoal-Based Dentifrice and Conventional Whitening Toothpaste on the Color Stability and Surface Roughness of Composite Resin: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies
by Cody A. Wiktorski, Dimitrios Michelogiannakis, P. Emile Rossouw and Fawad Javed
Dent. J. 2024, 12(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12030058 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
The objective was to systematically review studies that evaluated the effect of charcoal-based dentifrices (CbDs) and conventional whitening toothpastes (CWTs) on the color stability (CS) and/or surface roughness (SR) of composite resin (CR). The question we focused on was “Do CbD and CWT [...] Read more.
The objective was to systematically review studies that evaluated the effect of charcoal-based dentifrices (CbDs) and conventional whitening toothpastes (CWTs) on the color stability (CS) and/or surface roughness (SR) of composite resin (CR). The question we focused on was “Do CbD and CWT affect the CS and/or SR of CR?” Indexed databases were searched without language and time restrictions up to and including May 2023 using different keywords. Original experimental studies were included. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for In Vitro Studies. Ten in vitro studies performed on CR were included. The number of CR samples assessed ranged between 18 and 200. In one study, CbDs altered the CS and SR of CR, whereas another study showed no difference in changes in the SR and CS of CR when CbDs were compared with CWTs. One study showed that compared with CWTs, CbDs caused changes in the CS of CR but changes in SR were similar between the two dentifrices. One study showed that CbDs and CWTs improved the overall color and enhanced the SR of CR. Three studies had a high RoB, five had a medium RoB, and two had a low RoB. Compared to CWTs, CbDs appeared to affect the CS of CR, but the SR of CR induced by both dentifrices remained consistent. Further well-designed and power-adjusted studies are needed. Full article
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13 pages, 956 KiB  
Systematic Review
Predictors of Intra-Operative and Post-Operative Pain Associated with Routine Dental Procedures in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Mohammed A. Alzubaidi, Bernadette K. Drummond, Jianhua Wu, Adam Jones, Jinous F. Tahmassebi and Vishal R. Aggarwal
Dent. J. 2024, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj12010004 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Background: Understanding predictors of pain associated with paediatric dental procedures could play an important role in preventing loss of cooperation, which often leads to the procedure having to be performed under general anaesthesia. Aim: We aimed to identify predictors of intra-operative and post-operative [...] Read more.
Background: Understanding predictors of pain associated with paediatric dental procedures could play an important role in preventing loss of cooperation, which often leads to the procedure having to be performed under general anaesthesia. Aim: We aimed to identify predictors of intra-operative and post-operative pain associated with routine dental procedures in children. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of observational studies was performed using electronic searches on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health via OVID, PubMed, Scopus, and SciELO. The NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies, which were meta-analysed to estimate the impact of dental procedures and anxiety on children’s pain perception. A meta-regression analysis was also performed to determine the relative effect of predictors on children’s pain perception measured as mean differences on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: The search identified 532 articles; 53 were retrieved for full-text screening; 6 studies were included in the review; and 4 were eligible for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed the types of procedures that predicted intra-operative pain, with dental extractions being the most painful (Mean VAS Difference [MD] 46.51 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI] 40.40 to 52.62 mm). The meta-regression showed that pain scores for dental extractions were significantly higher than polishing (the least painful procedure (reference category)) by VAS MD = 23.80 mm (95% CI 5.13–42.46 mm, p-value = 0.012). It also showed that highly anxious children reported significantly higher pain scores during dental procedures by a 12.31 mm MD VAS score (95% CI 5.23–19.40 mm, p-value = 0.001) compared to those with low anxiety levels. Conclusions: This systematic review demonstrates that the strongest predictors of intra-operative pain associated with paediatric dental procedures are dental extractions followed by drilling. Children with high anxiety also reported more pain for similar procedures. Tailoring interventions to reduce pain associated with paediatric dental procedures should be a priority for future research, as reducing pain can impact compliance and could reduce the need for general anaesthesia in dental treatment. Full article
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13 pages, 22796 KiB  
Protocol
Five Steps for the Maintenance and Interception of Complications in Zygomatic Implants
by Consuela Sanavia, Edoardo Vallerga, Fanny Alessi, Tiziano Tealdo, Marco Bevilacqua, Christian Alberti, Maria Menini and Paolo Pesce
Dent. J. 2023, 11(10), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11100226 - 22 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Zygomatic implants are used for the rehabilitation of the upper jaw of patients with severe and moderate bone atrophy. Possible post-surgical complications include soft tissue dehiscence, sinusitis, and prosthodontic fractures, and maintaining an accurate control is crucial. Additionally, zygomatic implants have a unique [...] Read more.
Zygomatic implants are used for the rehabilitation of the upper jaw of patients with severe and moderate bone atrophy. Possible post-surgical complications include soft tissue dehiscence, sinusitis, and prosthodontic fractures, and maintaining an accurate control is crucial. Additionally, zygomatic implants have a unique peri-implant anatomy, making traditional periodontal parameters unsuitable. The present paper aims to provide guidelines for the maintenance and interception of complications in patients rehabilitated with these kinds of implants. The proposed protocol includes: 1. intra/extraoral and temporo-mandibular joint examination; 2. soft tissue and transmucosal path observation with magnifiers; 3. peri-implant health indices and digital stimulation of tissues; 4. examination of prosthodontic devices; and 5. photographic recording. These steps facilitate the comprehensive evaluation and monitoring of clinical conditions of zygomatic-supported rehabilitations, including dehiscence and occlusal wear during follow-up appointments. Full article
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