Hypothalamic Hormonal Secretion and Metabolism

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Cellular Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 3832

Special Issue Editor

Institut des Neurosciences Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Interests: hypothalamic neuroinflammation; insulin resistance; microRNAs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The central role of the hypothalamus in the control of several vital physiological functions is due to its ability to integrate numerous signals from the brain as well as the periphery and to deliver an adequate response. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis, water balance, reproduction and sexual maturity, circadian rhythm and sleep, and stress. Indeed, the hypothalamic neurons project to the median eminence and secrete neurohormones into the portal blood linking the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland, or directly to the posterior pituitary gland in the case of vasopressin or oxytocin. All of these secretions are regulated by feedback signals from the endocrine glands and other circulating factors (nutrients, hormones). Besides its role in hormonal secretion, the hypothalamus is able to integrate many signals from the periphery or higher brain centers to respond to body needs, such as, for instance, maintaining glucose homeostasis and controlling eating behavior.

The present topic will be dedicated to the role of the endocrine hypothalamus in the control of whole-body metabolism to allow fine regulation to achieve homeostasis.

Prof. Dr. Mohammed Taouis
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • hypothalamus
  • endocrine control
  • energy homeostasis
  • hormones
  • signaling

Published Papers (2 papers)

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17 pages, 8323 KiB  
Article
mTORC1 Signaling in AgRP Neurons Is Not Required to Induce Major Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Food Restriction
Cells 2023, 12(20), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12202442 - 12 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling is involved in nutrient sensing. Neurons that express the agouti-related protein (AgRP) are activated by food restriction and integrate interoceptive and exteroceptive signals to control food intake, energy expenditure, and other metabolic responses. To determine whether mTORC1 signaling in AgRP [...] Read more.
Hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling is involved in nutrient sensing. Neurons that express the agouti-related protein (AgRP) are activated by food restriction and integrate interoceptive and exteroceptive signals to control food intake, energy expenditure, and other metabolic responses. To determine whether mTORC1 signaling in AgRP neurons is necessary for regulating energy and glucose homeostasis, especially in situations of negative energy balance, mice carrying ablation of the Raptor gene exclusively in AgRP-expressing cells were generated. AgRPΔRaptor mice showed no differences in body weight, fat mass, food intake, or energy expenditure; however, a slight improvement in glucose homeostasis was observed compared to the control group. When subjected to 5 days of food restriction (40% basal intake), AgRPΔRaptor female mice lost less lean body mass and showed a blunted reduction in energy expenditure, whereas AgRPΔRaptor male mice maintained a higher energy expenditure compared to control mice during the food restriction and 5 days of refeeding period. AgRPΔRaptor female mice did not exhibit the food restriction-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels. Finally, although hypothalamic fasting- or refeeding-induced Fos expression showed no differences between the groups, AgRPΔRaptor mice displayed increased hyperphagia during refeeding. Thus, some metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to food restriction are disturbed in AgRPΔRaptor mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypothalamic Hormonal Secretion and Metabolism)
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Review

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28 pages, 2375 KiB  
Review
Neurochemical Basis of Inter-Organ Crosstalk in Health and Obesity: Focus on the Hypothalamus and the Brainstem
Cells 2023, 12(13), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12131801 - 07 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
Precise neural regulation is required for maintenance of energy homeostasis. Essential to this are the hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei which are located adjacent and supra-adjacent to the circumventricular organs. They comprise multiple distinct neuronal populations which receive inputs not only from other brain [...] Read more.
Precise neural regulation is required for maintenance of energy homeostasis. Essential to this are the hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei which are located adjacent and supra-adjacent to the circumventricular organs. They comprise multiple distinct neuronal populations which receive inputs not only from other brain regions, but also from circulating signals such as hormones, nutrients, metabolites and postprandial signals. Hence, they are ideally placed to exert a multi-tier control over metabolism. The neuronal sub-populations present in these key metabolically relevant nuclei regulate various facets of energy balance which includes appetite/satiety control, substrate utilization by peripheral organs and glucose homeostasis. In situations of heightened energy demand or excess, they maintain energy homeostasis by restoring the balance between energy intake and expenditure. While research on the metabolic role of the central nervous system has progressed rapidly, the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms involved in regulating distinct metabolic functions have only gained traction in the last few decades. The focus of this review is to provide an updated summary of the mechanisms by which the various neuronal subpopulations, mainly located in the hypothalamus and the brainstem, regulate key metabolic functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypothalamic Hormonal Secretion and Metabolism)
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