Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Photocatalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019) | Viewed by 59461

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Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea
Interests: nanomaterials; energy; environmental; catalysis; chemistry
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Department of Environmental Science, School of Science, Institute of Technology Sligo, Ash Lane, F91 YW50 Sligo, Ireland
Interests: photocatalysis; electrocatalysis; antimicrobial polymers; CO2 conversion; self-cleaning coatings
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy crises and global warming are key challenges for researchers in order to develop a sustainable society for the future. Solar energy conversion is a remarkable, clean, and sustainable solution to nullify the effects of fossil fuels. The findings of photocatalytic hydrogen production (PCHP) by Fujishima and Honda realized that “water will be the coal for the future”. Hydrogen is a carbon-free clean fuel with a high specific energy of combustion. Titanium oxide (TiO2), graphitic-carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and cadmium sulfide (CdS) are three pillars of water splitting photocatalysts owing to their superior electronic and optical properties. Tremendous research efforts have been made in recent years to fabricate visible or solar-light, active photocatalysts. The main aim of this Special Issue is to present the significant features of oxide, sulfide, and carbon based photocatalysts for cost-effective hydrogen production.

We are pleased to invite submissions in the form of original research articles, communications, and short reviews that reflect key findings of semiconductor photocatalysts in the following topics: UV or visible or solar light assisted hydrogen production; photocatalytic hydrogen evolution (PCHE) using seawater/industrial waste water; and photocatalytic reactor design for efficient hydrogen production.

This Special Issue is not limited to the above-mentioned topics, but also welcome manuscripts on novel photocatalytic materials, systems, or mechanisms for hydrogen production.

Prof. Dr. Misook Kang
Dr. Vignesh Kumaravel
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • PCHE under UV or visible or simulated solar light
  • PCHE from seawater/ industrial waste water
  • PCHE without electron-donors
  • PCHE with in-situ electron donors
  • Mechanistic aspects of PCHE

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 144 KiB  
Editorial
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution
by Vignesh Kumaravel and Misook Kang
Catalysts 2020, 10(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10050492 - 1 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Solar energy conversion is one of the sustainable technologies that tackles the global warming and energy crisis [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)

Research

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12 pages, 3193 KiB  
Article
Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution and CO2 Reduction over MoS2/Si and MoSe2/Si Nanostructures by Combined Photoelectrochemical Deposition and Rapid-Thermal Annealing Process
by Sungmin Hong, Choong Kyun Rhee and Youngku Sohn
Catalysts 2019, 9(6), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9060494 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5224
Abstract
Diverse methods have been employed to synthesize MoS2 and MoSe2 catalyst systems. Herein, a combined photoelectrochemical (PEC) deposition and rapid-thermal annealing process has first been employed to fabricate MoS2 and MoSe2 thin films on Si substrates. The newly developed [...] Read more.
Diverse methods have been employed to synthesize MoS2 and MoSe2 catalyst systems. Herein, a combined photoelectrochemical (PEC) deposition and rapid-thermal annealing process has first been employed to fabricate MoS2 and MoSe2 thin films on Si substrates. The newly developed transition-metal dichalcogenides were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PEC hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was demonstrated in an acidic condition to show a PEC catalytic performance order of MoOx/Si < MoS2/Si << MoSe2/Si under the visible light-on condition. The HER activity (4.5 mA/cm2 at −1.0 V vs Ag/AgCl) of MoSe2/Si was increased by 4.8× compared with that under the dark condition. For CO2 reduction, the PEC activity was observed to be in the order of MoS2/Si < MoOx/Si << MoSe2/Si under the visible light-on condition. The reduction activity (0.127 mA/cm2) of MoSe2/Si was increased by 9.3× compared with that under the dark condition. The combined electrochemical deposition and rapid-thermal annealing method could be a very useful method for fabricating a thin film state catalytic system perusing hydrogen production and CO2 energy conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)
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14 pages, 8792 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Spherical TiO2 Particles with Disordered Rutile Surface for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production
by Na Yeon Kim, Hyeon Kyeong Lee, Jong Tae Moon and Ji Bong Joo
Catalysts 2019, 9(6), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9060491 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5956
Abstract
One of the most important issues in photocatalysis research has been the development of TiO2-based photocatalysts that work efficiently under visible light conditions. Here, we report the monodispersed, spherical TiO2 particles with disordered rutile surface for use as visible-light photocatalysts. [...] Read more.
One of the most important issues in photocatalysis research has been the development of TiO2-based photocatalysts that work efficiently under visible light conditions. Here, we report the monodispersed, spherical TiO2 particles with disordered rutile surface for use as visible-light photocatalysts. The spherical TiO2 particles with disordered surface were synthesized by sol-gel synthesis, followed by sequential calcination, and chemical reduction process using Li/Ethylenediamine (Li/EDA) solution. Variation of the calcination temperature allowed the crystalline properties of the calcined TiO2 samples, such as the ratio of anatase and rutile, to be finely controlled. The content ratios of anatase phase to rutile phase leads to different degrees of disorder of the rutile surface, which is closely related to the photocatalysis activity. Chemical reduction using the Li/EDA solution enables selective reduction of the rutile surface of the calcined TiO2, resulting in enhanced light absorption. As a result, we were able to synthesize spherical TiO2 photocatalysts having a disordered rutile surface in a mixed crystalline phase, which is beneficial during photocatalysis in terms of light absorption and charge separation. When used as photocatalysts for hydrogen production under solar light conditions, the chemically-reduced TiO2 particles with both the disordered rutile surface and mixed crystalline phase showed significantly enhanced catalytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)
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35 pages, 2989 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production: Role of Sacrificial Reagents on the Activity of Oxide, Carbon, and Sulfide Catalysts
by Vignesh Kumaravel, Muhammad Danyal Imam, Ahmed Badreldin, Rama Krishna Chava, Jeong Yeon Do, Misook Kang and Ahmed Abdel-Wahab
Catalysts 2019, 9(3), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9030276 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 220 | Viewed by 17946
Abstract
Photocatalytic water splitting is a sustainable technology for the production of clean fuel in terms of hydrogen (H2). In the present study, hydrogen (H2) production efficiency of three promising photocatalysts (titania (TiO2-P25), graphitic carbon nitride (g [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic water splitting is a sustainable technology for the production of clean fuel in terms of hydrogen (H2). In the present study, hydrogen (H2) production efficiency of three promising photocatalysts (titania (TiO2-P25), graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), and cadmium sulfide (CdS)) was evaluated in detail using various sacrificial agents. The effect of most commonly used sacrificial agents in the recent years, such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, lactic acid, glucose, sodium sulfide, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfide/sodium sulfite mixture, and triethanolamine, were evaluated on TiO2-P25, g-C3N4, and CdS. H2 production experiments were carried out under simulated solar light irradiation in an immersion type photo-reactor. All the experiments were performed without any noble metal co-catalyst. Moreover, photolysis experiments were executed to study the H2 generation in the absence of a catalyst. The results were discussed specifically in terms of chemical reactions, pH of the reaction medium, hydroxyl groups, alpha hydrogen, and carbon chain length of sacrificial agents. The results revealed that glucose and glycerol are the most suitable sacrificial agents for an oxide photocatalyst. Triethanolamine is the ideal sacrificial agent for carbon and sulfide photocatalyst. A remarkable amount of H2 was produced from the photolysis of sodium sulfide and sodium sulfide/sodium sulfite mixture without any photocatalyst. The findings of this study would be highly beneficial for the selection of sacrificial agents for a particular photocatalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)
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16 pages, 5315 KiB  
Article
In-Situ Synthesis of Nb2O5/g-C3N4 Heterostructures as Highly Efficient Photocatalysts for Molecular H2 Evolution under Solar Illumination
by Faryal Idrees, Ralf Dillert, Detlef Bahnemann, Faheem K. Butt and Muhammad Tahir
Catalysts 2019, 9(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9020169 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 5893
Abstract
This work focuses on the synthesis of heterostructures with compatible band positions and a favourable surface area for the efficient photocatalytic production of molecular hydrogen (H2). In particular, 3-dimensional Nb2O5/g-C3N4 heterostructures with suitable band [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the synthesis of heterostructures with compatible band positions and a favourable surface area for the efficient photocatalytic production of molecular hydrogen (H2). In particular, 3-dimensional Nb2O5/g-C3N4 heterostructures with suitable band positions and high surface area have been synthesized employing a hydrothermal method. The combination of a Nb2O5 with a low charge carrier recombination rate and a g-C3N4 exhibiting high visible light absorption resulted in remarkable photocatalytic activity under simulated solar irradiation in the presence of various hole scavengers (triethanolamine (TEOA) and methanol). The following aspects of the novel material have been studied systematically: the influence of different molar ratios of Nb2O5 to g-C3N4 on the heterostructure properties, the role of the employed hole scavengers, and the impact of the co-catalyst and the charge carrier densities affecting the band alignment. The separation/transfer efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs is found to increase significantly as compared to that of pure Nb2O5 and g-C3N4, respectively, with the highest molecular H2 production of 110 mmol/g·h being obtained for 10 wt % of g-C3N4 over Nb2O5 as compared with that of g-C3N4 (33.46 mmol/g·h) and Nb2O5 (41.20 mmol/g·h). This enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to a sufficient interfacial interaction thus favouring the fast photogeneration of electron-hole pairs at the Nb2O5/g-C3N4 interface through a direct Z-scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)
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9 pages, 1901 KiB  
Article
Band Gap Modulation of Tantalum(V) Perovskite Semiconductors by Anion Control
by Young-Il Kim and Patrick M. Woodward
Catalysts 2019, 9(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9020161 - 7 Feb 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4521
Abstract
Band gap magnitudes and valence band energies of Ta5+ containing simple perovskites (BaTaO2N, SrTaO2N, CaTaO2N, KTaO3, NaTaO3, and TaO2F) were studied by diffuse reflection absorbance measurements, density-functional theoretical calculations, and [...] Read more.
Band gap magnitudes and valence band energies of Ta5+ containing simple perovskites (BaTaO2N, SrTaO2N, CaTaO2N, KTaO3, NaTaO3, and TaO2F) were studied by diffuse reflection absorbance measurements, density-functional theoretical calculations, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a universal trend, the oxynitrides have wider valence bands and narrower band gaps than isostructural oxides, owing to the N 2p contribution to the electronic structure. Visible light-driven water splitting was achieved by using Pt-loaded CaTaO2N, together with a sacrificial agent CH3OH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)
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15 pages, 3675 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Hydrogen Productions by Accelerating Electron-Transfers of Sulfur Defects in the CuS@CuGaS2 Heterojunction Photocatalysts
by Namgyu Son, Jun Neoung Heo, Young-Sang Youn, Youngsoo Kim, Jeong Yeon Do and Misook Kang
Catalysts 2019, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9010041 - 4 Jan 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3361
Abstract
CuS and CuGaS2 heterojunction catalysts were used to improve hydrogen production performance by photo splitting of methanol aqueous solution in the visible region in this study. CuGaS2, which is a chalcogenide structure, can form structural defects to promote separation of [...] Read more.
CuS and CuGaS2 heterojunction catalysts were used to improve hydrogen production performance by photo splitting of methanol aqueous solution in the visible region in this study. CuGaS2, which is a chalcogenide structure, can form structural defects to promote separation of electrons and holes and improve visible light absorbing ability. The optimum catalytic activity of CuGaS2 was investigated by varying the heterojunction ratio of CuGaS2 with CuS. Physicochemical properties of CuS, CuGaS2 and CuS@CuGaS2 nanoparticles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Compared with pure CuS, the hydrogen production performance of CuGaS2 doped with Ga dopant was improved by methanol photolysis, and the photoactivity of the heterogeneous CuS@CuGaS2 catalyst was increased remarkably. Moreover, the 0.5CuS@1.5CuGaS2 catalyst produced 3250 μmol of hydrogen through photolysis of aqueous methanol solution under 10 h UV light irradiation. According to the intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) results, the high photoactivity of the CuS@CuGaS2 catalyst is attributed to the inhibition of recombination between electron-hole pairs, accelerating electron-transfer by acting as a trap site at the interface between CuGaS2 structural defects and the heterojunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)
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Review

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19 pages, 5693 KiB  
Review
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution via Water Splitting: A Short Review
by Yifan Zhang, Young-Jung Heo, Ji-Won Lee, Jong-Hoon Lee, Johny Bajgai, Kyu-Jae Lee and Soo-Jin Park
Catalysts 2018, 8(12), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120655 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 13495
Abstract
Photocatalytic H2 generation via water splitting is increasingly gaining attention as a viable alternative for improving the performance of H2 production for solar energy conversion. Many methods were developed to enhance photocatalyst efficiency, primarily by modifying its morphology, crystallization, and electrical [...] Read more.
Photocatalytic H2 generation via water splitting is increasingly gaining attention as a viable alternative for improving the performance of H2 production for solar energy conversion. Many methods were developed to enhance photocatalyst efficiency, primarily by modifying its morphology, crystallization, and electrical properties. Here, we summarize recent achievements in the synthesis and application of various photocatalysts. The rational design of novel photocatalysts was achieved using various strategies, and the applications of novel materials for H2 production are displayed herein. Meanwhile, the challenges and prospects for the future development of H2-producing photocatalysts are also summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution)
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