Selected Papers from Elitecat 2019, 1-5 July 2019, Villeurbanne, France

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020) | Viewed by 20304

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Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon, UMR 5256-CNRS, Université Lyon 1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, CEDEX, 69626 Villeurbanne, France
Interests: heterogeneous catalysis; catalytic process for environmental application; preparation of noble metal catalysts; synthesis of mixed oxide catalysts; characterization of catalysts; NOx abatement; VOC abatement; post treatment

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Institute of Nanostructured Materials, Palermo Research Division, CNR - ISMN, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy
Interests: heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 valorization; dry and steam reforming of methane; autothermal reactions; thermal and photothermal activation; H2 purification; WGS reaction and PROX; CO2 hydrogenation; methanation reaction; CO2 electrochemical reduction; SOECs; SOFCs; catalytic devices for VOCs abatement (indoor and outdoor); CO and CH2 oxidation; NO SCR by NH3, HC, EtOH; antifouling and bactericidal activity of green materials
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Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo José Cela 12, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
Interests: conventional catalysis and electrocatalysis; the application of the phenomenon of the electrochemical promotion of catalysis; the synthesis of carbon nanostructures (nanotubes, nanofibers, nanospheres and graphene) that have been used as catalysts or in the formulation of composites used in construction (aerogels), nautical, aeronautics and energy sector; the encapsulation of phase change materials and catalysts; pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of biomass; and simulation and modeling of chemical processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Following the success of the previous catalysis training courses, hosted every two years, since 2013, at the LyonTech La Doua scientific campus in Villeurbanne, France, it is our pleasure to announce the next Elitecat 2019, which will be held from 1–5 July 2019. Elitecat is a training course aimed at young researchers, and PhD and post-doctoral students interested in the field of heterogeneous catalysis. The training course will fill in details about the latest developments in catalysis, starting from the main procedures for preparing, characterizing, and testing the catalysts used for different purposes, the tools used for establishing kinetic models, and the kind of reactors where the catalytic reactions proceed. In addition, the training course provides trainees with practical sessions in the laboratory, which would allow for clarifying concepts and learning how experimental data can be efficiently fitted to kinetic models. Moreover, participants in Elitecat 2019 have the opportunity to present their latest results by short oral presentations.

The present Special Issue will feature the works presented at Elitecat 2019, as well as additional contributions in the field of heterogeneous catalysis, ranging from synthesis and characterizations to catalytic applications. In detail, the Special Issue will cover the following topics: (i) new synthetic strategy and chemical processes, (ii) green and sustainable catalytic processes and reaction media, (iii) selective catalytic reactions for the synthesis of fine chemicals, (iv) industrial catalytic processes for environmental catalysis and energy production, and (v) new kinetic models for catalytic data fitting.

Authors with expertise in any of the above topics of catalysis are cordially invited to submit their manuscripts to this Special Issue of Catalysts. Significant full papers and review articles are very welcome.

Prof. Dr. Anne Giroir-Fendler
Dr. Leonarda Francesca Liotta
Prof. Dr. Jose Luis Valverde Palomino
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2973 KiB  
Article
Total Oxidation of Toluene and Propane over Co3O4 Catalysts: Influence of Precipitating pH and Washing
by Imane Driouch, Weidong Zhang, Michèle Heitz, Jose Luis Valverde and Anne Giroir-Fendler
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080900 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
A series of Co3O4 catalysts were synthesized by an ammonia precipitation method at various precipitating pH values (8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5, and 10.0) and with different numbers of washings. Their performance in the total oxidation of two selected hydrocarbons, toluene [...] Read more.
A series of Co3O4 catalysts were synthesized by an ammonia precipitation method at various precipitating pH values (8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5, and 10.0) and with different numbers of washings. Their performance in the total oxidation of two selected hydrocarbons, toluene and propane, was evaluated at a reactant/oxygen molar ratio of 1/210 and a Weight Hourly Space Velocity (WHSV) of 40,000 mL g−1 h−1. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 absorption–desorption. The results show that the catalysts are in the cubic spinel phase (Fd-3m (227), a = 8.0840 Å) with average crystalline sizes of 29−40 nm and specific surface areas of 12–20 m2 g−1. All catalysts allowed 100% conversion of both toluene and propane at temperatures below 350 °C. The precipitating pH and the number of washings were observed to significantly affect the catalytic performance. The optimal synthesis condition was established to be pH 8.5 with two washings. The best catalyst gave 100% conversion of toluene and propane at 306 °C and 268 °C, respectively. Full article
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15 pages, 2498 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Residual Sodium on the Catalytic Oxidation of Propane and Toluene over Co3O4 Catalysts
by Guangtao Chai, Weidong Zhang, Yanglong Guo, Jose Luis Valverde and Anne Giroir-Fendler
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080867 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
A series of Co3O4 catalysts with different contents of residual sodium were prepared using a precipitation method with sodium carbonate as a precipitant and tested for the catalytic oxidation of 1000 ppm propane and toluene at a weight hourly space [...] Read more.
A series of Co3O4 catalysts with different contents of residual sodium were prepared using a precipitation method with sodium carbonate as a precipitant and tested for the catalytic oxidation of 1000 ppm propane and toluene at a weight hourly space velocity of 40,000 mL g−1 h−1, respectively. Several techniques were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the catalysts. Results showed that residual sodium could be partially inserted into the Co3O4 spinel lattice, inducing distortions and helping to increase the specific surface area of the Co3O4 catalysts. Meanwhile, it could negatively affect the reducibility and the oxygen mobility of the catalysts. Moreover, residual sodium had a significant influence on the catalytic activity of propane and toluene oxidation over the synthesized Co3O4 catalysts. The catalyst derived from the precursor washed three times presented the best activity for the catalytic oxidation of propane. The origin was traced to its better reducibility and higher oxygen mobility, which were responsible for the formation of active oxygen species. On the other hand, the catalyst obtained from the precursor washed two times exhibited better performance in toluene oxidation, benefitting from its more defective structure and larger specific surface area. Furthermore, the most active catalysts maintained constant performance in cycling and long-term stability tests of propane and toluene oxidation, being potentially applicable for practical applications. Full article
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14 pages, 2476 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Metal Doping Effects on Co3O4 Catalysts for the Total Oxidation of Toluene and Propane
by Weidong Zhang, Paola Anguita, Javier Díez-Ramírez, Claude Descorme, Jose Luis Valverde and Anne Giroir-Fendler
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080865 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4233
Abstract
Metal-doped (Mn, Cu, Ni, and Fe) cobalt oxides were prepared by a coprecipitation method and were used as catalysts for the total oxidation of toluene and propane. The metal-doped catalysts displayed the same cubic spinel Co3O4 structure as the pure [...] Read more.
Metal-doped (Mn, Cu, Ni, and Fe) cobalt oxides were prepared by a coprecipitation method and were used as catalysts for the total oxidation of toluene and propane. The metal-doped catalysts displayed the same cubic spinel Co3O4 structure as the pure cobalt oxide did; the variation of cell parameter demonstrated the incorporation of dopants into the cobalt oxide lattice. FTIR spectra revealed the segregation of manganese oxide and iron oxide. The addition of dopant greatly influenced the crystallite size, strain, specific surface area, reducibility, and subsequently the catalytic performance of cobalt oxides. The catalytic activity of new materials was closely related to the nature of the dopant and the type of hydrocarbons. The doping of Mn, Ni, and Cu favored the combustion of toluene, with the Mn-doped one being the most active (14.6 × 10−8 mol gCo−1 s−1 at 210 °C; T50 = 224 °C), while the presence of Fe in Co3O4 inhibited its toluene activity. Regarding the combustion of propane, the introduction of Cu, Ni, and Fe had a negative effect on propane oxidation, while the presence of Mn in Co3O4 maintained its propane activity (6.1 × 10−8 mol gCo−1 s−1 at 160 °C; T50 = 201 °C). The excellent performance of Mn-doped Co3O4 could be attributed to the small grain size, high degree of strain, high surface area, and strong interaction between Mn and Co. Moreover, the presence of 4.4 vol.% H2O badly suppressed the activity of metal-doped catalysts for propane oxidation, among them, Fe-doped Co3O4 showed the best durability for wet propane combustion. Full article
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18 pages, 7441 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Waste Grooved Razor Shell (GRS) as a Catalyst in Biodiesel Production from Refined and Waste Cooking Oils
by Abdellah Aitlaalim, Fatiha Ouanji, Abdellah Benzaouak, Mohammed El Mahi, El Mostapha Lotfi, Mohamed Kacimi and Leonarda Francesca Liotta
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060703 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2879
Abstract
Biodiesel is a potential alternative for fossil fuel. However, its large-scale application is held up by the disadvantage of a homogenous process, the scarce availability of raw materials and the production cost, which is higher than for fossil diesel. In this work, biodiesel [...] Read more.
Biodiesel is a potential alternative for fossil fuel. However, its large-scale application is held up by the disadvantage of a homogenous process, the scarce availability of raw materials and the production cost, which is higher than for fossil diesel. In this work, biodiesel production was carried out using both refined and used cooking oils. The process was investigated in a batch reactor, in the presence of CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst prepared by the calcination of the natural Waste Grooved Razor Shell (GRS). Characterizations by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermal Gravimetric (TG)/Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) showed that the as-received GRS consists of aragonite, (i.e., CaCO3) as the main component and of water and organic matter in a lower amount. After calcination at 900 °C, CaO was formed as the only crystalline phase. The effects of several experimental parameters in the transesterification reactions were studied, and their impact on the produced biodiesel properties was investigated. The studied variables were the methanol/oil molar ratio, the catalyst weight percentage (with respect to the oil mass), the calcination temperature of the parent GRS and the recycling and regeneration of the catalyst. The physico-chemical and fuel properties, i.e., viscosity, density and acid value of used oils and of the produced biodiesel, were determined by conventional methods (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods) and compared with the European standards of biodiesel. The optimal identified conditions were the following: the use of a 15:1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 5 wt% of CaO with respect to the oil mass. After 3 h of reaction at 65 °C, the biodiesel yield was equal to 94% and 99% starting from waste and refined oils, respectively. Full article
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13 pages, 2775 KiB  
Article
Application of Potassium Ion Deposition in Determining the Impact of Support Reducibility on Catalytic Activity of Au/Ceria-Zirconia Catalysts in CO Oxidation, NO Oxidation, and C3H8 Combustion
by Ewa M. Iwanek (nee Wilczkowska), Leonarda F. Liotta, Shazam Williams, Linjie Hu, Krishelle Calilung, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Zbigniew Kaszkur, Donald W. Kirk and Marek Gliński
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060688 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to show how a controlled, subtle change of the reducibility of the support by deposition of potassium ions impacts the activity of gold catalysts. Since the activity of supported gold catalysts in carbon monoxide oxidation is known [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to show how a controlled, subtle change of the reducibility of the support by deposition of potassium ions impacts the activity of gold catalysts. Since the activity of supported gold catalysts in carbon monoxide oxidation is known to strongly depend on the reducibility of the support, this reaction was chosen as the model reaction. The results of tests conducted in a simple system in which the only reagents were CO and O2 showed good agreement with the CO activity trend in tests performed in a complex stream of reagents, which also contained CH4, C2H6, C3H8, NO, and water vapor. The results of the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the support has the composition Ce0.85Zr0.15O2, that its lattice constant is the same for all samples, and that gold is mostly present in the metallic phase. The reducibility of the systems was established based on Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR) and in situ XRD measurements in H2 atmosphere. The results show that the low temperature reduction peak, which is due to the presence of gold, is shifted to a higher value by the presence of 0.3 at% potassium ions on the surface. Moreover, the increase of the potassium loading leads to a more pronounced shift. The T50 of CO oxidation in the simple model stream was found to exhibit an excellent linear correlation with the maximum temperature of the low temperature reduction peak of Au catalysts. This means that stabilizing oxygen with a known amount of potassium ions can be numerically used to estimate the T50 in CO oxidation. The results in the complex stream also showed a similar dependence of CO conversion on reducibility, though there was no substantial difference in the activity of the catalysts in other reactions regardless of the potassium loading. These studies have shown that the influence of potassium varies depending on the reaction, which highlights differences in the impact of reducibility and importance of other factors in these reactions. Full article
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17 pages, 2970 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Nature of Active Sites in Cu-loaded SAPO-34 and SSZ-13 for the Direct Conversion of Methane to Methanol
by Karoline Kvande, Dimitrios K. Pappas, Michael Dyballa, Carlo Buono, Matteo Signorile, Elisa Borfecchia, Kirill A. Lomachenko, Bjørnar Arstad, Silvia Bordiga, Gloria Berlier, Unni Olsbye, Pablo Beato and Stian Svelle
Catalysts 2020, 10(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10020191 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4735
Abstract
On our route towards a more sustainable future, the use of stranded and underutilized natural gas to produce chemicals would be a great aid in mitigating climate change, due to the reduced CO2 emissions in comparison to using petroleum. In this study, [...] Read more.
On our route towards a more sustainable future, the use of stranded and underutilized natural gas to produce chemicals would be a great aid in mitigating climate change, due to the reduced CO2 emissions in comparison to using petroleum. In this study, we investigate the performance of Cu-exchanged SSZ-13 and SAPO-34 microporous materials in the stepwise, direct conversion of methane to methanol. With the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, infrared (in combination with CO adsorption) and Raman spectroscopy, we compared the structure–activity relationships for the two materials. We found that SSZ-13 performed significantly better than SAPO-34 at the standard conditions. From CH4-TPR, it is evident that SAPO-34 requires a higher temperature for CH4 oxidation, and by changing the CH4 loading temperature from 200 to 300 °C, the yield (μmol/g) of SAPO-34 was increased tenfold. As observed from spectroscopy, both three- and four-fold coordinated Cu-species were formed after O2-activation; among them, the active species for methane activation. The Cu speciation in SAPO-34 is distinct from that in SSZ-13. These deviations can be attributed to several factors, including the different framework polarities, and the amount and distribution of ion exchange sites. Full article
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