Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 38045

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China
Interests: AOPs; environmental fate of pollutants; water remediation; wastewater treatment; emerging contaminants; in-situ analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China
Interests: bio-based catalysts; emerging contaminants; advanced oxidation/reduction technologies; ecotoxicology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; control of emerging contaminants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern urbanization and industrialization have resulted in the rapid and large emissions of non-biodegradable wastewaters. Emerging contaminants, such as persistent organics, pharmaceuticals, disinfection byproducts and endocrine disruptors, in these wastewaters can hardly be degraded in conventional wastewater treatment processes. The adverse result is reflected by the worldwide detection of these emerging pollutants in natural water bodies, which poses a great threat to human health and ecological systems. In the past decades, the demand for clean water has driven the fast development of advanced catalytic technologies. The catalytic oxidation offers the opportunity to directly detoxify and mineralize nonbiodegradable pollutants for deep water purification. In this account, catalytic oxidation holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve removal efficiency of refractory pollutants, and the green, inexpensive and sustainable catalysts and novel catalytic processes are greatly desired. Therefore, this Special Issue of Catalysts aims to provide the new findings in areas of designing novel advanced catalysts, developing new catalytic processes and recycling raw materials, etc., for water and wastewater treatment. Additionally, the investigation of pilot or even large-scale applications will be of special interest. We would like to invite you to share your latest research progress with the scientific community by submitting your research and review papers to this Special Issue on “Advanced catalytic material for water treatment”.

Submit your paper and select the Journal “Catalysts” and the Special Issue “Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment” via: MDPI submission system. Please contact the Guest Editor or the journal editor () for any queries. Our papers will be published on a rolling basis and we will be pleased to receive your submission once you have finished it.

Dr. Jiangkun Du
Dr. Lie Yang
Dr. Chengdu Qi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • advanced oxidation process
  • catalytic oxidation/degradation
  • photocatalysis
  • electrocatalysis
  • nanomaterial
  • sonication
  • Fenton
  • water and wastewater treatment
  • non-biodegradable organic contaminants
  • emerging contaminants
  • toxicity
  • mineralization
  • pilot-scale

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Published Papers (23 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on “Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment”
by Jiangkun Du, Lie Yang and Chengdu Qi
Catalysts 2023, 13(10), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13101354 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Water is the source of life on Earth [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

14 pages, 3600 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Dual Z-Scheme CuBi2O4/Bi2Sn2O7/Sn3O4 Photocatalysts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance for the Degradation of Tetracycline under Visible Light Irradiation
by Jingjing Xu, Yanlin Zhu, Zeyu Liu, Xueyu Teng, Haiqing Gao, Yaxin Zhao and Mindong Chen
Catalysts 2023, 13(7), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13071028 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
The dual Z-scheme heterojunction CuBi2O4/Bi2Sn2O7/Sn3O4(CBS) was successfully constructed through in situ growth methods, and its photocatalytic performance was evaluated via degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride under visible light. Out of [...] Read more.
The dual Z-scheme heterojunction CuBi2O4/Bi2Sn2O7/Sn3O4(CBS) was successfully constructed through in situ growth methods, and its photocatalytic performance was evaluated via degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride under visible light. Out of all samples, CBS-2 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity, with an apparent rate constant of 2.34, 20.16, and 44.17 times that of Bi2Sn2O7, CuBi2O4, and Sn3O4, respectively. Even after four cycles, the photocatalytic efficiency remained above 85%. The improvement can be attributed to the construction of the Z-scheme heterojunction, which effectively promotes the separation and migration of photogenerated carriers. The possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism of dual Z-scheme heterojunction CBS was deduced based on the theory of free radical capture and energy band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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14 pages, 5096 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Mn-Co-MCM-41 Molecular Sieve with Thermosensitive Template and Its Degradation Performance for Rhodamine B
by Wenju Peng, Lixia Cai, Yani Lu and Yaoyao Zhang
Catalysts 2023, 13(6), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13060991 - 9 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Rhodamine B (RhB) in dyes is widely used in various industries, but it poses a great threat to the natural environment and human health. In this work, a series of thermosensitive polymer materials, PNxDy, with controllable morphology and particle [...] Read more.
Rhodamine B (RhB) in dyes is widely used in various industries, but it poses a great threat to the natural environment and human health. In this work, a series of thermosensitive polymer materials, PNxDy, with controllable morphology and particle size were prepared by free radical polymerization using N-isopropylacrylamide and N,N-dimethylacrylamide as monomers. Then, by using PNxDy as a template, bimetallic Mn- and Co-doped MCM-41 molecular sieves with good morphology and properties were prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of a series of thermosensitive templates on the morphology and properties of the Mn-Co-MCM-41 molecular sieve were investigated. The results demonstrated that the Mn-Co-MCM-41 by PN100D4 as a templating agent showed the best mesoporous ordering and the most regular material morphology with 2 nm nanoparticles. In addition, the molecular sieve with the best structure was selected for the RhB degradation experiments. The Mn-Co-MCM-41 with PN100D4 as the template showed regular morphology and uniform pore channels. It was applied as a catalyst for the degradation of RhB by potassium monopersulfate (PMS). The degradation rate of RhB could reach 98% with a 20 min reaction by Mn-Co-MCM-41 (PN100D4). Meanwhile, the degradation rate could be maintained at 91% after being reused six times. The bimetallic-doped Mn-Co-MCM-41 molecular sieves prepared using the thermosensitive material PN100D4 as a template have good catalytic performance and can be effectively reused. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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17 pages, 3265 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Bi-Metallic-Sulphides/MOF-5@graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for the Removal of Hazardous Moxifloxacin
by Aqsa Anum, Muhammad Altaf Nazir, Sobhy M. Ibrahim, Syed Shoaib Ahmad Shah, Asif A. Tahir, Misbah Malik, Muhammad Ahmad Wattoo and Aziz ur Rehman
Catalysts 2023, 13(6), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13060984 - 8 Jun 2023
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
The development of new and advanced materials for various environmental and energy applications is a prerequisite for the future. In this research, the removal of hazardous moxifloxacin (MOX) is accomplished by synthesizing new hybrids of MOF-5 i.e., Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5/GO, Ni.S2/MOF-5/GO, [...] Read more.
The development of new and advanced materials for various environmental and energy applications is a prerequisite for the future. In this research, the removal of hazardous moxifloxacin (MOX) is accomplished by synthesizing new hybrids of MOF-5 i.e., Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5/GO, Ni.S2/MOF-5/GO, Mo.S2/MOF-5/GO, and Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5 nanocomposites by using a metal-organic framework (MOF-5) and graphene oxide (GO) as a precursor. The introduction of NixMoxS2 facilitates the unique interfacial charge transfer at the heterojunction, demonstrating a significant improvement in the separation effectiveness of the photochemical electron-hole pairs. To evaluate equilibrium adsorption capacity, time, pH, and concentration of organic pollutants were used as experimental parameters. The adsorption kinetics data reveals pseudo-first-order (R2 = 0.965) kinetics when Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5/GO photocatalyst was irradiated under light for 90 min against MOX degradation. This led to a narrow energy band gap (2.06 eV in Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5/GO, compared to 2.30 eV in Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5), as well as excellent photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of moxifloxacin (MOX), listed in order: Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5/GO (95%) > Ni.S2/MOF-5/GO (93%) > Mo.S2/MOF5/GO (90%) > Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5 (86%) in concentrations up to 2.0 mgL−1, caused by the production of superoxide (O2•−) and hydroxide (OH) radicals, which encouraged the effective photocatalytic activities of the heterostructure. After five successive tests demonstrating its excellent mechanical stability, the impressive recyclability results for the Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5/GO revealed only a tiny variation in efficiency from 95% (for the first three runs) to 93% (in the fourth run) and 90% (in the fifth run). These findings show that the heterostructure of Ni/Mo.S2/MOF-5/GO is an effective heterojunction photocatalyst for the quick elimination of moxifloxacin (MOX) from aqueous media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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16 pages, 9127 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Co-CNK-OH and Its Performance in Fenton-like Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline
by Dongrui Hou, Jing Luo, Qinggong Sun, Mengyang Zhang and Jianfeng Wang
Catalysts 2023, 13(4), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13040715 - 9 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
In this study, Co-modified alkalinized g-C3N4 (named Co-CNK-OH) was prepared for the Fenton-like photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline (TC) via a simple yet effective calcination–impregnation method. In all samples of CNK-OH with different Co2+ loadings, Co-CNK-OH catalyst with the optimal [...] Read more.
In this study, Co-modified alkalinized g-C3N4 (named Co-CNK-OH) was prepared for the Fenton-like photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline (TC) via a simple yet effective calcination–impregnation method. In all samples of CNK-OH with different Co2+ loadings, Co-CNK-OH catalyst with the optimal content (9%) exhibited the highest catalytic activity, with 87.1% tetracycline removal and 50% removal efficiency of the total organic carbon (TOC). Mechanism studies revealed that the 9%Co-CNK-OH catalyst had the lower electrical resistance after alkalization treatment and Co2+ modification, leading to a significantly accelerated interfacial charge transfer to the electron acceptor as well as effectively separating electrons and holes. The intermediates generated during the TC degradation in the photo-Fenton process were detected by HPLC-MS, which proved that the holes, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen are the key reactive species in the Fenton-like photocatalysis. This study provides a new option for the treatment of TC in wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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17 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Selenium Oxoanions Removal from Wastewater by MoS42− Intercalated FeMgAl LDH: Catalytic Roles of Fe and Mechanism Insights
by Zhuwei Liao, Tianxu He, Lerong Shi, Yi Liu, Xinquan Zhou, Jia Wang, Wan Li, Yong Zhang, Huabin Wang and Rui Xu
Catalysts 2022, 12(12), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12121592 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
FeMgAl−MoS4 LDH was successfully synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal process followed by ion-exchange methods, and this novel adsorbent was first conducted for aqueous selenite and selenate elimination. The Fe as a component for metal cation layers of LDHs could modulate the layer [...] Read more.
FeMgAl−MoS4 LDH was successfully synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal process followed by ion-exchange methods, and this novel adsorbent was first conducted for aqueous selenite and selenate elimination. The Fe as a component for metal cation layers of LDHs could modulate the layer charge density, leading to more functional groups inserted into layers, and more importantly, this heterogeneous Fe can catalyze the surface reactions between Se(IV) or Se(VI) with S(-II) for oxoanions sequestration. The mechanisms are ion exchange between functional groups with HSeO3 and SeO32− for Se(IV) or SeO42− for Se(VI), followed by reduction by S(-II) from MoS42− groups. The existence of Fe in LDH cation layers, obviously enhanced the reactions (almost two times more for Se(IV) and three times more for Se(VI), respectively), resulting in satisfying adsorption capacities of 483.9 mg/g and 167.2 mg/g for Se(IV) and Se(VI), respectively. Mechanisms were further revealed by elementary analysis, XRD, FT−IR, SEM−EDX, and XPS, as well as the quantitative study. For sorption kinetics, the calculated values of capacities from the pseudo-second-order model are much closer to the experimental values. For sorption isotherms, Langmuir is better than the Freundlich isotherms model for closer capacities (505 mg/g for selenite and 172 mg/g for selenate). All these results demonstrated that the presence of heterogeneous Fe could catalyze the reduction of Se (IV/VI) for the aqueous system, and maybe other high oxidative states hazardous ions. So FeMgAl−MoS4 is a kind of novel adsorbent that offers a promising multi-functional and highly efficient solution for water selenium purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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10 pages, 2220 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of P-Chlorophenol by ZnIn2S4 Nanoflowers Modified with Carbon Quantum Dots
by Jinli Qiu, Quan Liu, Yixing Qiu, Fuqiang Liu and Fenghe Wang
Catalysts 2022, 12(12), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12121545 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
The removal of chlorophenol (CP) contaminants from water is a great challenge owing to their natural robustness and the toxic chlorinated by-products generated in degradation processes. In this work, a series of three-dimensional nanoflower-like structured photocatalysts (CQDs/ZnIn2S4-x, x = [...] Read more.
The removal of chlorophenol (CP) contaminants from water is a great challenge owing to their natural robustness and the toxic chlorinated by-products generated in degradation processes. In this work, a series of three-dimensional nanoflower-like structured photocatalysts (CQDs/ZnIn2S4-x, x = 1, 2, or 3 wt%) were fabricated via a facile hydrothermal approach. Excellent photocatalytic abilities toward 4-CP degradation under Xe lamp irradiation were achieved over the as-prepared composites. The removal efficiency of total organic carbon for 4-CP on the optimized CQDs/ZnIn2S4-2 was 49.1%, which was 16.0% higher than that of ZnIn2S4. The presence of CQDs could not only be used to adjust controllable band structures for enhancing light absorption, but it could also serve as an electron acceptor to promote the transition of electron–hole pairs. Moreover, a possible degradation mechanism of 4-CP was also proposed according to the analyses of active species, electron paramagnetic resonance characterization, degradation products, and attacked sites. Overall, this work unveils a superior function of an efficient photocatalyst for refractory organic pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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16 pages, 4627 KiB  
Article
A Continuous Fixed Bed Adsorption Process for Fez City Urban Wastewater Using Almond Shell Powder: Experimental and Optimization Study
by Ibtissame Elmansouri, Amal Lahkimi, Mohammed Kara, Anouar Hmamou, Ghita El Mouhri, Amine Assouguem, Mehdi Chaouch, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei, Mohamed Kamel, Lotfi Aleya, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Noureddine Eloutassi, Abderrazzak Adachi and Hicham Bekkari
Catalysts 2022, 12(12), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12121535 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
This study deals with the valorization of a biomaterial, almond shell, for the treatment of urban effluents of the city of Fez by a fixed bed column adsorption process. A parametric analysis of the process is carried out with conditions such as particle [...] Read more.
This study deals with the valorization of a biomaterial, almond shell, for the treatment of urban effluents of the city of Fez by a fixed bed column adsorption process. A parametric analysis of the process is carried out with conditions such as particle size, pH and height of the adsorbent bed to evaluate the optimal removal percent and obtain an optimal removal capacity of the adsorbent load. Characterization of the adsorbent prior to continuous adsorption was carried out by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption treatment seems to be influenced by certain parameters, such as the particle size of the biomaterial used, the height of the adsorption bed and the pH. The results suggest that this biomaterial can be used as a less expensive, available, biodegradable and very effective adsorbent to eliminate the load of urban waters on a small scale and why not on a large scale to replace chemicals in the treatment and to recover waste such as almond shell. The parameters measured reached maximum values varying between 82% for COD, 79% for EC and 71% for nitrite under well-defined operating conditions, with a particle size of 0.063 mm, a height column height of 7 cm and a pH of 6.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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16 pages, 4473 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of High-Energy Faceted TiO2 Nanocrystals with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance for the Removal of Methyl Orange
by Yien Du, Xianjun Niu, Wanxi Li, Jian Liu and Jinxiao Li
Catalysts 2022, 12(12), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12121534 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
In this work, brookite TiO2 nanocrystals with co-exposed {001} and {120} facets (pH0.5-T500-TiO2 and pH11.5-T500-TiO2), rutile TiO2 nanorod with exposed {110} facets and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {101} facets (pH3.5-T500-TiO2) and {101}/{010} facets (pH5.5-T500-TiO [...] Read more.
In this work, brookite TiO2 nanocrystals with co-exposed {001} and {120} facets (pH0.5-T500-TiO2 and pH11.5-T500-TiO2), rutile TiO2 nanorod with exposed {110} facets and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {101} facets (pH3.5-T500-TiO2) and {101}/{010} facets (pH5.5-T500-TiO2, pH7.5-T500-TiO2 and pH9.5-T500-TiO2) were successfully synthesized through a one-pot solvothermal method by using titanium (V) iso-propoxide (TTIP) colloidal solution as the precursor. The crystal structure, morphology, specific surface area, surface chemical states and photoelectric properties of the pHx-T500-TiO2 (x = 0.5, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5, 9.5, 11.5) were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field scanning transmission electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption instrument, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The photocatalytic activity performance of the pHx-T500-TiO2 samples was also investigated. The results showed that as-prepared pH3.5-T500-TiO2 nanocrystal with exposed {101} facets exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity (95.75%) in the process of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO), which was 1.1, 1.2, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 10.7, 15.1 and 27.8 fold higher than that of pH5.5-T500-TiO2 (89.47%), P25-TiO2 (81.16%), pH9.5-T500-TiO2 (79.41%), pH7.5-T500-TiO2 (73.53%), pH0.5-T500-TiO2 (69.10%), CM-TiO2 (61.09%), pH11.5-T500-TiO2 (8.99%), pH1.5-T500-TiO2 (6.33%) and the Blank (3.44%) sample, respectively. The highest photocatalytic activity of pH3.5-T500-TiO2 could be attributed to the synergistic effects of its anatase phase structure, the smallest particle size, the largest specific surface area and exposed {101} facets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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18 pages, 3593 KiB  
Article
Application of Dithiocarbamate Chitosan Modified SBA-15 for Catalytic Reductive Removal of Vanadium(V)
by Yilin Huang, Jia Wang, Mengwei Li and Zhixiong You
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111469 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
We have successfully synthesized dithiocarbamate chitosan modified SBA-15 (CS2C@SBA) composites, with promise in vanadium (V(V)) elimination. Among the three composites using different mass ratios of dithiocarbamate chitosan to SBA-15, CS2C@SBA−3, which had the highest CS2 substitution, showed the [...] Read more.
We have successfully synthesized dithiocarbamate chitosan modified SBA-15 (CS2C@SBA) composites, with promise in vanadium (V(V)) elimination. Among the three composites using different mass ratios of dithiocarbamate chitosan to SBA-15, CS2C@SBA−3, which had the highest CS2 substitution, showed the best performance on V(V) removal of which the maximum adsorption capacity could achieve 218.00 mg/g at pH 3.0. The adsorption kinetics were best fitted with a pseudo−second order reaction model, suggesting a chemisorption mechanism. Meanwhile, the Langmuir model fitted better with the adsorption isotherm, revealing a monolayer adsorption behavior. Through FTIR and XPS analysis, the functional group −SH was identified as dominating reduction sites on this composite, which reduced 73.1% of V(V) into V(IV) and V(III). The functional group −NH− was the main adsorption site for vanadium species. This reaction followed a catalytic reduction coupled adsorption mechanism reducing most of V(V) into less toxic vanadium species. Furthermore, CS2C@SBA−3 showed great selectivity towards V(V) in the presence of various co−existing ions in synthetic wastewater and real water samples. Moreover, CS2C@SBA−3 could retain a removal efficiency over 90% after five adsorption−desorption cycles. Based on the aforementioned results, we can conclude that CS2C@SBA−3 has great potential to be applied in efficient remediation of vanadium water−pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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12 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Fe(III)/Fe(II) Redox Cycle for Persulfate Activation by Reducing Sulfur Species
by Fujian Yang, Cheng Yin, Mengqiao Zhang, Jiangwei Zhu, Xiuyuan Ai, Wenchao Shi and Guilong Peng
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111435 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
The activation of persulfate (PS) by Fe(III) for the removal of environmental organic pollutants was severely limited by the low reduction rate from Fe(III) to Fe(II). In present study, we reported that reducing sulfur species (i.e., SO32−, HSO3 [...] Read more.
The activation of persulfate (PS) by Fe(III) for the removal of environmental organic pollutants was severely limited by the low reduction rate from Fe(III) to Fe(II). In present study, we reported that reducing sulfur species (i.e., SO32−, HSO3, S2−, and HS) under low concentration could significantly accelerate the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle in the Fe(III)/PS system. Under the condition of 1.0 mM Fe(III) and 4.0 mM PS, the removal performance of Fe(III)/PS system was poor, and only 21.6% of BPA was removed within 40 min. However, the degradation efficiency of BPA increased to 66.0%, 65.5%, 72.9% and 82.7% with the addition of 1.0 mM SO32−, HSO3, S2−, and HS, respectively. The degradation efficiency of BPA was highly dependent on solution pH and the concentration of reducing sulfur species. When the reductant was excessive, the removal efficiency would be significantly inhibited due to the elimination of reactive species. This study provided some valuable insights for the treatment of organic wastewater containing these inorganic reducing ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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14 pages, 4191 KiB  
Article
Converting Hybrid Mechanisms to Electron Transfer Mechanism by Increasing Biochar Pyrolysis Temperature for the Degradation of Sulfamethoxazole in a Sludge Biochar/Periodate System
by Liuyang He, Shangding Yang, Lie Yang, Yulong Li, Dejin Kong, Li Wu and Zulin Zhang
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111431 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
In this study, sludge biochar was prepared under four pyrolysis temperatures (SBC300, SBC500, SBC700, and SBC900) and then was employed to activate periodate (PI) for the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Various characterization methods were employed to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on [...] Read more.
In this study, sludge biochar was prepared under four pyrolysis temperatures (SBC300, SBC500, SBC700, and SBC900) and then was employed to activate periodate (PI) for the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Various characterization methods were employed to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties of sludge biochar and the activation capacity of periodate. The SMX adsorption capacity of SBCs and the ability of activating PI to degrade SMX increased with the increasing pyrolysis temperature. The degradation of SMX by the SBCs/PI systems was highly dependent on the initial pH of the solution and the dosage of SBCs. Mechanistic studies indicated that the degradation of SMX by the SBCs/PI system was mainly based on an electron-mediated transfer mechanism. Additionally, the electron transfer capacity of the SBCs affected the defects and the degree of graphitization. The contribution of free radicals to SMX degradation decreases with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Toxicity experiments demonstrated that the toxic elimination of SMX by the SBCs/PI system was enhanced with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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16 pages, 10349 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Coking Wastewater by α-MnO2/Peroxymonosulfate Process via Direct Electron Transfer Mechanism
by Jia Wang, Zhuwei Liao, Jiayi Cai, Siqi Wang, Fang Luo, Jerosha Ifthikar, Songlin Wang, Xinquan Zhou and Zhuqi Chen
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111359 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Side reactions between free radicals and impurities decelerate the catalytic degradation of organic contaminants from coking wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Herein, we report the disposal of coking wastewater by α-MnO2/PMS process via a direct electron transfer mechanism in this [...] Read more.
Side reactions between free radicals and impurities decelerate the catalytic degradation of organic contaminants from coking wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Herein, we report the disposal of coking wastewater by α-MnO2/PMS process via a direct electron transfer mechanism in this study. By the removal assays of the target compound of phenol, the PMS mediated electron transfer mechanism was identified as the dominated one. Water quality parameters including initial pH, common anions and natural organic matters demonstrated limited influences on phenol degradation. Afterwards, α-MnO2/PMS process was applied on the disposal of coking wastewater. The treatment not only eliminated organic contaminants with COD removal of 73.8% but also enhanced BOD5/COD from 0.172 to 0.419, within 180 min of reaction under conditions of 50 g/L α-MnO2, 50 mM PMS and pH0 7.0. COD removal decreased only 1.1% after five-time cycle application, suggesting a good reuse performance. A quadratic polynomial regression model was further built to optimize the reaction conditions. By the model, the dosage of α-MnO2 was identified as the most important parameters to enhance the performance. The optimal reaction conditions were calculated as 50 g/L α-MnO2, 50 mM PMS and pH0 6.5, under which COD removal of 74.6% was predicted. All aforementioned results suggested that the α-MnO2/PMS process is a promising catalytic oxidation technology for the disposal of coking wastewater with good practical potentials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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17 pages, 3032 KiB  
Article
Large-Scale Synthesis of Iron Ore@Biomass Derived ESBC to Degrade Tetracycline Hydrochloride for Heterogeneous Persulfate Activation
by Tingting Tian, Xinfeng Zhu, Zhongxian Song, Xindong Li, Jinhui Zhang, Yanli Mao, Junfeng Wu, Wei Zhang and Chaohai Wang
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111345 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Iron-based catalysts are widely used in water treatment and environmental remediation due to their abundant content in nature and their ability to activate persulfate at room temperature. Here, eggshell biochar-loaded natural iron slag (IO@ESBC) was successfully synthesized to remove tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) by [...] Read more.
Iron-based catalysts are widely used in water treatment and environmental remediation due to their abundant content in nature and their ability to activate persulfate at room temperature. Here, eggshell biochar-loaded natural iron slag (IO@ESBC) was successfully synthesized to remove tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) by activated persulfate. The morphology, structure and chemical composition of IO@ESBC were systematically characterized. The IO@ESBC/PS process showed good performance for TCH removal. The decomposition rate constant (k) for IO@ESBC was 0.011 min−1 and the degradation rate was 3690 mmol/g/h in this system. With the increase of PS concentration and IO@ESBC content, the removal rate of TCH both increased. The IO@ESBC/PS process can effectively remove TCH at pH 3–9. There are different effects on TCH removal for the reason that the addition of water matrix species (humic acid, Cl, HCO3, NO3 and HPO42−). The IO@ESBC/PS system for degrading TCH was mainly controlled by both the free radical pathway (SO4•−, •OH and O2•−) and non-free radical pathway (1O2). The loading of ESBC slows down the agglomeration between iron particles, and more active sites are exposed. The removal rate of TCH was still above 75% after five cycles of IO@ESBC. This interesting investigation has provided a green route for synthesis of composite driving from waste resources, expanding its further application for environmental remediations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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14 pages, 3788 KiB  
Article
Photo-Induced Holes Initiating Peroxymonosulfate Oxidation for Carbamazepine Degradation via Singlet Oxygen
by Yifei Qi, Xiaoyue Zhou, Zhenjie Li, Renli Yin, Junhao Qin, Huashou Li, Wanqian Guo, Adela Jing Li and Rongliang Qiu
Catalysts 2022, 12(11), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12111327 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) has been intensively used to enhance the photocatalytic activity of catalysts, which is adopted as an electron acceptor to inhibit the recombination of electrons and holes. However, the effect of holes generated by visible light (VL) on PMS activation is always [...] Read more.
Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) has been intensively used to enhance the photocatalytic activity of catalysts, which is adopted as an electron acceptor to inhibit the recombination of electrons and holes. However, the effect of holes generated by visible light (VL) on PMS activation is always overlooked. Herein, the VL/Bi2WO6/PMS process was constructed for the efficient removal of organics, in which the degradation rate of carbamazepine (CBZ) increased by over 33.0 times by the introduction of PMS into Bi2WO6 under visible light. The radical quenching and determination experiments confirmed that the photogenerated holes could firstly oxidize PMS to form SO5•− and react with HSO5 to produce 1O2, then inducing the formation of other reactive species to greatly enhance the performance of pollutant removal by the VL/Bi2WO6/PMS process. Density functional theory (DFT) predicted that sites with high Fukui index (f0) on CBZ were more susceptible to being attacked, resulting in hydroxylation, ring closure, and C=C bond cleavage of CBZ. Toxicity estimation indicated that photocatalysis degradation products from CBZ were less toxic compared to the parent compound. This study provides a potential avenue for improving photocatalytic efficiency and widening the application of photocatalytic technology in wastewater purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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18 pages, 5102 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of a Polydioxanone-Coated Dipeptide-Functionalized Magnetic γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles-Modified PES Membrane and Its Biological Applications
by Özlem Demirci, Serpil Gonca, Veysel Tolan, Sadin Özdemir, Nadir Dizge and Ersin Kılınç
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101261 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
This work is focused on the synthesis of leucyl-glycine-functionalized γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles coated by polydioxanone (γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX) as a polyethersulphone (PES) membrane for biotechnological applications. The physicochemical characteristics were investigated by FT-IR, SEM, XRD, a vibrating sample [...] Read more.
This work is focused on the synthesis of leucyl-glycine-functionalized γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles coated by polydioxanone (γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX) as a polyethersulphone (PES) membrane for biotechnological applications. The physicochemical characteristics were investigated by FT-IR, SEM, XRD, a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and ICP-OES. The present investigation also centered on the several biological activities of γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and metal chelating activity was studied for evaluation of its antioxidant activity potential. It exhibited 100% DPPH radical scavenging and 93.33% metal chelating activity. With applicability to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, DNA cleavage and antimicrobial activity, the cell viability of γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX was investigated in detail. The γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX demonstrated the significant biofilm inhibition activity as being 81.54% and 86.34% for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, respectively. Moreover, a novel polyethersulphone nanocomposite membrane incorporated with γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX was prepared. The performance of the γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX-blended polyethersulphone (PES) membrane was investigated by measuring the antifouling and E. coli rejection. The nanocomposite membranes demonstrated remarkable antifouling properties in contrast with the pristine PES when BSA (bovine serum albumin) and E. coli were filtrated. A complete rejection was obtained by the composite membrane. After an application of the membrane study, the modified polyethersulphone (PES) membrane blended with γ-Fe2O3-CA-Leu-Gly-PDX removed 100% of the E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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20 pages, 7316 KiB  
Article
Wastewater Purification and All-Solid Z-Scheme Heterojunction ZnO-C/MnO2 Preparation: Properties and Mechanism
by Lei Zhao, Tingting Yu, Bing Yang, Huilin Guo, Lifen Liu, Jinlong Zhang, Changfei Gao, Tao Yang, Mingyan Wang and Yu Zhang
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101250 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Unlike many studies on the preparation of Z-scheme heterojunctions by doping precious metals, in this paper we first prepared a core-shell material obtained by C doping in ZnO and then composite with MnO2 to form a heterojunction; that is, a low-cost and [...] Read more.
Unlike many studies on the preparation of Z-scheme heterojunctions by doping precious metals, in this paper we first prepared a core-shell material obtained by C doping in ZnO and then composite with MnO2 to form a heterojunction; that is, a low-cost and highly catalytic ternary composite catalyst was prepared by a simple hydrothermal reaction. Meanwhile, a large amount of experimental data have enabled the heterostructure type as well as the mechanism of photocatalytic performance to be fully demonstrated. It is proven that C as an intermediate medium achieves electron transport while making up the deficiency of ZnO, and constitutes an all-solid state Z-scheme heterojunction, which enables the rapid transfer of photogenerated electron pairs and visible light irradiation to the stream to improve the photocatalytic performance of the composite photocatalyst. In terms of examination of degradation performance, this catalyst showed a high photodegradation rate of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) of 92.6% within 60 min, and the surface ZnO-C/MnO2 catalysts also showed good degradation effect on practical petrochemical wastewater in CODcr degradation experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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11 pages, 2844 KiB  
Article
Catalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants by Microwave-Assisted Persulfate Activation System: Performance and Mechanism
by Yunhe Li, Weibao Liu, Lezhuo Li, Siyuan Jiang and Xiuwen Cheng
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101232 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
In this study, a nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) system was constructed to purify a phenol solution in water. During the process, the influences of several critical operating parameters including the NiFe2O4 amount, PS dosage, MW power, initial [...] Read more.
In this study, a nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) system was constructed to purify a phenol solution in water. During the process, the influences of several critical operating parameters including the NiFe2O4 amount, PS dosage, MW power, initial pH value, and different natural water anions were systematically studied. The results indicated that the constructed system performed excellently regarding the removal efficiency (97.74%) of phenol within 30 min. Meanwhile, the influence of co-existing anions such as Cl, NO3, H2PO4, and HCO3 was also studied, which displayed an inhibiting action on phenol degradation, while HA facilitated it. To explore the reaction mechanism of this system, major free radical quenching experiments were conducted, and it was confirmed that both SO4 and HO• were primary radicals. Moreover, stability experiments confirmed the apt stability of the NiFe2O4 system. Besides, the mineralization and toxicity analysis performed during phenol degradation also confirmed the superiority of the as-constructed system. Furthermore, the possible degradation mechanism of phenol was proposed. Hence, this system could be applied in advanced wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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11 pages, 1349 KiB  
Article
Sulfate Decelerated Ferrous Ion-Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Azo Dye Reactive Brilliant Red: Influence Factors, Mechanisms, and Control Methods
by Chenliu Tang, Zhicheng Long, Yidan Wang, Dongze Ma and Xiaobiao Zhu
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101207 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
This study investigated the inhibition effects of sulfate on ferrous ion-activated persulfate oxidation of azo dye reactive brilliant red X-3B. The experimental results showed that the degradation efficiency of reactive brilliant red X-3B decreased from 100% to 63% in 60 min when the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the inhibition effects of sulfate on ferrous ion-activated persulfate oxidation of azo dye reactive brilliant red X-3B. The experimental results showed that the degradation efficiency of reactive brilliant red X-3B decreased from 100% to 63% in 60 min when the initial concentration of sulfate increased from 0 to 3 g/L. The ferrous/persulfate molar ratio had remarkable influence on persulfate oxidation capability in presence of sulfate. SO42− could coordinate with Fe2+ and Fe3+ in generating FeSO4 ion pairs as well as FeSO4+ or Fe(SO4)2 complexes, which were difficult to activate persulfate and reduced the regeneration of Fe2+. Radicals quenching and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments showed that ·OH and SO4·− were responsible for the oxidation of reactive brilliant red X-3B; however, the addition of sulfate significantly inhibited the generation of SO4·−, and then the generation of ·OH. Moreover, the corresponding Nernst equation indicated that high concentration of sulfate reduced the oxidation potential of SO4·−/SO42−. Experimental results proved that the adverse effects of sulfate on the persulfate oxidation could be counteracted either by batch addition of ferrous or by adding Ba2+ to remove SO42− in the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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13 pages, 1860 KiB  
Article
Chloride-Enhanced Removal of Ammonia Nitrogen and Organic Matter from Landfill Leachate by a Microwave/Peroxymonosulfate System
by Ke Feng and Qibin Li
Catalysts 2022, 12(10), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12101078 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Landfill leachate contains not only high concentrations of refractory organic matter and ammonia nitrogen, but also high concentrations of chloride ions (Cl). The modification of reactive species of the peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation system by Cl and its priority sequence for [...] Read more.
Landfill leachate contains not only high concentrations of refractory organic matter and ammonia nitrogen, but also high concentrations of chloride ions (Cl). The modification of reactive species of the peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation system by Cl and its priority sequence for the removal of NH4+-N and organic matter from landfill leachate remain unclear. This study investigated the removal characteristics of NH4+-N and organic matter in the microwave (MW)/PMS system with high Cl content. The results show that increasing Cl concentration significantly improves the production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in the MW/PMS system under acidic conditions, and that the thermal and non-thermal effects of MW irradiation have an important influence on the HOCl produced by PMS activation. The maximum cumulative concentration of HOCl was 748.24 μM after a reaction time of 2 min. The formation paths of HOCl are (i) SO4 formed by the MW/PMS system interacting with Cl and HO, and (ii) the nucleophilic addition reaction of PMS and Cl. Moreover, the high concentration of HOCl produced by the system can not only remove NH4+-N in situ, but also interact with PMS to continuously generate Cl as an oxidant to participate in the reaction with pollutants (e.g., NH4+-N and organic matter). Common aqueous substances (e.g., CO32, HCO3, NO3, and humic acid) in landfill leachate will compete with NH4+-N for reactive species in the system, and will thereby inhibit its removal to a certain extent. It was found that when NH4+-N and leachate DOM co-exist in landfill leachates, they would compete for reactive species, and that humic acid-like matter was preferentially removed, leading to the retention of fulvic acid-like matter. It is hoped that this study will provide theoretical support for the design and optimization of methods for removing NH4+-N and organic matter from landfill leachate with high chloride ion content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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14 pages, 2092 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen Peroxide Activation with Sulfidated Zero-Valent Iron for Synchronous Removal of Cr(VI) and BPA
by Haibo Ling, Xiaowei Zhu, Ting Zhou, Fan Su, Jiangkun Du and Jianguo Bao
Catalysts 2022, 12(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12030252 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
In this work, the synchronous removal of Cr(VI) and bisphenol A (BPA) in a heterogeneous Fenton process with sulfidated nanoscale zero-valent iron (S-nZVI) as the reductant and catalyst was systematically evaluated. Compared to other systems including S-nZVI or H2O2 alone, [...] Read more.
In this work, the synchronous removal of Cr(VI) and bisphenol A (BPA) in a heterogeneous Fenton process with sulfidated nanoscale zero-valent iron (S-nZVI) as the reductant and catalyst was systematically evaluated. Compared to other systems including S-nZVI or H2O2 alone, a simultaneous BPA degradation and Cr(VI) removal could be achieved in the S-nZVI/H2O2 system at an optimum pH of 3. It was, interestingly, found that 7.8% of BPA and 98.2% of Cr(VI) were removed within 60 min in presence of S-nZVI alone, whereas, correspondingly, 98.2% of BPA and 96.9% of Cr(VI) were eliminated in the S-nZVI/H2O2 system. Specifically, humic acid (HA) and H2PO4 inhibited the deterioration of BPA but posed no significant effect on Cr(VI) removal. NO3 had a slight lifting effect on the removal of BPA and Cr(VI), while HCO3 showed a relatively weak prohibition. Experiments with EPR and radical probe tests also provide direct evidence that hydroxyl radicals was monitored in the S-nZVI/H2O2 system, which not only degraded BPA but also inhibited the reduction of Cr(VI). It could not be ignored that FeS accelerated Fe0 corrosion to release Fe2+. In, addition, Fe0, Fe2+ and S2+ could react with Cr(VI) while the most of produced Cr(III) was co-precipitated in the form of CrxFe1−xOOH film. The study confirmed that it was feasible for S-nZVI/H2O2 system to remove synchronously organic pollutants and heavy metal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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Review

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19 pages, 1029 KiB  
Review
Electrochemically Assisted Persulfate Oxidation of Organic Pollutants in Aqueous Solution: Influences, Mechanisms and Feasibility
by Jianting Sun, Wei Zheng, Gang Hu, Fan Liu, Siyuan Liu, Lie Yang and Zulin Zhang
Catalysts 2023, 13(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13010135 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Electrochemically (EC) assisted persulfate (PS) oxidation processes (EPOPs) have gained increasing attention in recent years. In this review, the current status and prospects of EC/PS degradation of organic pollutants are discussed and summarized. It was found that the oxidation of most organic contaminants [...] Read more.
Electrochemically (EC) assisted persulfate (PS) oxidation processes (EPOPs) have gained increasing attention in recent years. In this review, the current status and prospects of EC/PS degradation of organic pollutants are discussed and summarized. It was found that the oxidation of most organic contaminants could be significantly enhanced or accelerated using the combination of EC and PS compared to single treatments. Moreover, the effects of various operational variables on the removal of organic contaminants were investigated. Some variables are highly sensitive, and the optimal conditions are case-specific. Regarding the degradation mechanisms, radical-induced reactions and nonradical reactions both exist for the elimination of organic contaminants. Oxidants (including S2O82− and SO4•−) can be produced from SO42− near the anode, which is a unique feature of EPOPs. In some studies, the electrical energy consumption of EPOPs has been controlled to a reasonably low level in lab-scale attempts. Although there are still a few drawbacks or difficulties (e.g., potential electrode fouling, dependency on batch mode) for large-scale applications, EPOPs offer a promising alternative to traditional advanced oxidation techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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18 pages, 2275 KiB  
Review
Heterogeneous Metal-Activated Persulfate and Electrochemically Activated Persulfate: A Review
by Junjing Li, Yiqi Liang, Pengliang Jin, Bin Zhao, Zhaohui Zhang, Xiaojia He, Zilin Tan, Liang Wang and Xiuwen Cheng
Catalysts 2022, 12(9), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12091024 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3208
Abstract
The problem of organic pollution in wastewater is an important challenge due to its negative impact on the aquatic environment and human health. This review provides an outline of the research status for a sulfate-based advanced oxidation process in the removal of organic [...] Read more.
The problem of organic pollution in wastewater is an important challenge due to its negative impact on the aquatic environment and human health. This review provides an outline of the research status for a sulfate-based advanced oxidation process in the removal of organic pollutants from water. The progress for metal catalyst activation and electrochemical activation is summarized including the use of catalyst-activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and peroxydisulfate (PDS) to generate hydroxyl radicals and sulfate radicals to degrade pollutants in water. This review covers mainly single metal (e.g., cobalt, copper, iron and manganese) and mixed metal catalyst activation as well as electrochemical activation in recent years. The leaching of metal ions in transition metal catalysts, the application of mixed metals, and the combination with the electrochemical process are summarized. The research and development process of the electrochemical activation process for the degradation of the main pollutants is also described in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Catalytic Material for Water Treatment)
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