Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Extraction and Industrial Applications of Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 18649

Special Issue Editors

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435-0001, USA
Interests: antioxidant capacity; polyphenols; gut microbiota; microbial metabolites; inflammation; coffee; melanoidins
Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Cartuja S/N, 18012 Granada, Spain
Interests: antioxidant capacity; personalized nutrition; gut microbiota; chemical browning; diet
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The antioxidant capacity of many different foods has been widely studied over the years identifying highly antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and other plant metabolites. Antioxidant compounds could play a major role in the prevention of some chronic diseases related to oxidative stress. However, as has been demonstrated recently, a great number of these bioactive molecules escape gastrointestinal digestion and reach the large intestine where gut microbes have the necessary enzymatic equipment to metabolize them. As a result, many different, usually, smaller compounds are released and can potentially be absorbed. Accordingly, the antioxidant capacity of the original food may well be very different from that that is actually absorbed. Therefore, knowing how gut microbiota can modify the antioxidant capacity of the original food will provide valuable information that could actually change our current perceptions of highly or barely antioxidant food.

We invite you to submit your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research concerns related to the effect that gut microbiota could have on the antioxidant capacity of foods. Research articles can be based on either of both in vitro and in vivo experimental designs. Articles can include information about specific metabolite transformation by gut microbiota, absorption process, metabolite quantification and identification, antioxidant capacity assays, sequencing data (metagenomic or metatranscriptomic), metabolic routes, among others.

Dr. Sergio Pérez Burillo
Dr. José Ángel Rufián Henares
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Antioxidant capacity
  • Antioxidant molecules
  • Polyphenols
  • Gut microbiota
  • Microbial metabolites

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2168 KiB  
Article
In Silico and In Vitro Study of Antioxidant Potential of Urolithins
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030697 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
In this work, quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to predict the antioxidant potential of four bioactive gut microbiota metabolites of the natural polyphenols ellagitannins (ETs) and ellagic acid (EA), also known as urolithins (UROs). In order to [...] Read more.
In this work, quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to predict the antioxidant potential of four bioactive gut microbiota metabolites of the natural polyphenols ellagitannins (ETs) and ellagic acid (EA), also known as urolithins (UROs). In order to evaluate their ability to counter the effect of oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the hydroperoxyl radical (OOH), different reaction mechanisms were investigated, considering water and lipid-like environments. Through our in silico results, it emerged that at physiological pH, the scavenging activity of all urolithins, except urolithin B, are higher than that of trolox and other potent antioxidants existing in nature, such as EA, α-mangostin, allicin, caffeine and melatonin. These findings were confirmed by experimental assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods)
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14 pages, 1329 KiB  
Article
Relationship of Thermal Treatment and Antioxidant Capacity in Cooked Foods
Antioxidants 2022, 11(12), 2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11122324 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Most of the foods we eat undergo a cooking process before they are eaten. During such a process, the non-enzymatic browning occurs, which generates compounds such as furosine, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural. These are considered markers of cookedness and can therefore be used [...] Read more.
Most of the foods we eat undergo a cooking process before they are eaten. During such a process, the non-enzymatic browning occurs, which generates compounds such as furosine, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural. These are considered markers of cookedness and can therefore be used as quality indicators. In this work, we study the production of these compounds in different foods (both of plant and animal origin) that are cooked with different techniques. Additionally, we investigate correlations between the production of these markers of cookedness and the antioxidant capacity produced after in vitro digestion and fermentation. We observe that, in general, cereals and vegetables are more thermally damaged. Toasting and frying produce the highest concentrations of Maillard compounds whereas boiling the lowest. Furosine content shows a significant positive correlation with in vitro digestion data in fried foods, and with fermentation in roasted foods. Furfural content shows a significant positive correlation with in vitro digestion results in roasted foods, specifically in the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods)
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15 pages, 1542 KiB  
Article
Effect of Moderate Consumption of Different Phenolic-Content Beers on the Human Gut Microbiota Composition: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040696 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
The moderate consumption of beer has been associated with positive effects on health, and these benefits are driven, in part, by the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds found in this beverage. However, the potential impact of beer polyphenols on the human gut microbiome [...] Read more.
The moderate consumption of beer has been associated with positive effects on health, and these benefits are driven, in part, by the antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds found in this beverage. However, the potential impact of beer polyphenols on the human gut microbiome and their consequences are yet to be elucidated. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effect of three different phenolic-content beers on the gut microbiome and the potential role of the induced shifts in the antioxidant capacity of beer polyphenols. In total, 20 subjects (10 healthy volunteers and 10 individuals with metabolic syndrome) were randomly assigned in a crossover design to consume each of the different beers (alcohol-free, lager or dark beer) during a 2-week intervention. Significant changes in the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae and Streptococcus were found after beer consumption. An increased abundance of Streptococcaceae and Streptococcus was observed after the consumption of dark beer, with no detected differences between baseline and alcohol-free/lager beer intervention. Moreover, some of the detected differences appeared to be related to the metabolic status. Finally, a decrease in porphyrin metabolism and heme biosynthesis was found after the intervention, especially after the consumption of dark beer. These results show that the antioxidant capacity of beer polyphenols may induce positive shifts in gut microbiota composition, and some of the observed changes may also boost the antioxidant capacity of these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods)
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16 pages, 2068 KiB  
Article
The Prebiotic Potential of Geraniin and Geraniin-Enriched Extract against High-Fat-Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Sprague Dawley Rats
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040632 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Geraniin, an ellagitannin, has ameliorative properties against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome. Since geraniin has poor bioavailability, we hypothesised the interaction of this compound with gut microbiota as the main mechanism for improving metabolic aberrations. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into normal [...] Read more.
Geraniin, an ellagitannin, has ameliorative properties against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome. Since geraniin has poor bioavailability, we hypothesised the interaction of this compound with gut microbiota as the main mechanism for improving metabolic aberrations. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into normal diet (ND)- and HFD-fed animals and treated with geraniin and an enriched extract of geraniin (GEE). We observed that 5 mg geraniin and 115 mg GEE supplementation significantly attenuated glucose intolerance, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, total cholesterol, triacylglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein; improved insulin sensitivity; and significantly increased adiponectin and hepatic PPARα expression. Although geraniin and GEE did not significantly alter the gut microbial composition, we found an increment in the relative abundance of a few butyrate producers such as Alloprevotella, Blautia, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, and Clostridium sensu stricto 1. Geraniin and its enriched extract’s ability to ameliorate metabolic syndrome parameters while positively affecting the growth of butyrate-producing bacteria suggests its potential prebiotic role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods)
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21 pages, 5519 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Bacillus Alleviates Oxidative Stress-Induced Liver Injury by Modulating Gut-Liver Axis in a Rat Model
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020291 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3606
Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests a key role of gut microbiota in maintaining liver functions through modulating the gut–liver axis. In this study, we investigated whether microbiota alteration mediated by probiotic Bacillus was involved in alleviating oxidative stress- induced liver injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were orally [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests a key role of gut microbiota in maintaining liver functions through modulating the gut–liver axis. In this study, we investigated whether microbiota alteration mediated by probiotic Bacillus was involved in alleviating oxidative stress- induced liver injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were orally administered Bacillus SC06 or SC08 for a 24-day period and thereafter intraperitoneally injected diquat (DQ) to induce oxidative stress. Results showed that Bacillus, particularly SC06 significantly inhibited hepatic injuries, as evidenced by the alleviated damaged liver structure, the decreased levels of ALT, AST, ALP and LDH, and the suppressed mitochondrial dysfunction. SC06 pretreatment markedly enhanced the liver antioxidant capacity by decreasing MDA and p47, and increasing T-AOC, SOD and HO-1.16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed that DQ significantly changed the diversities and composition of gut microbiota, whereas Bacillus pretreatments could attenuate gut dysbiosis. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that AST and MDA exerted a positive correlation with the opportunistic pathogenic genera and species (Escherichia and Shigella), and negatively correlated with the potential probiotics (Lactobacillus), while SOD exerted a reverse trend. The microbial metagenomic analysis demonstrated that Bacillus, particularly SC06 markedly suppress the metabolic pathways such as carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and metabolism of cofactors and vitamins. Furthermore, SC06 decreased the gene abundance of the pathways mediating bacterial replication, secretion and pathogenicity. Taken together, Bacillus SC06 alleviates oxidative stress-induced liver injuries via optimizing the composition, metabolic pathways and pathogenic replication and secretion of gut microbiota. These findings elucidate the mechanisms of probiotics in alleviating oxidative stress and provide a promising strategy for preventing liver diseases by targeting gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods)
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Review

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24 pages, 1678 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Za’atar Antioxidant Compounds on the Gut Microbiota and Gastrointestinal Disorders: Insights for Future Clinical Applications
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020426 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
Since the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis and energy balance, changes in its composition can be associated with disease states through the promotion of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and increasing intestinal permeability, ultimately leading to the impairment of intestinal barrier [...] Read more.
Since the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis and energy balance, changes in its composition can be associated with disease states through the promotion of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and increasing intestinal permeability, ultimately leading to the impairment of intestinal barrier function. Za’atar is one of the most popular plant-based foods in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Za’atar is a mixture of different plant leaves, fruits, and seeds and contains hundreds of antioxidant compounds, especially polyphenols, and fiber, with pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggesting health-promoting effects in cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Za’atar compounds have also been studied from a gastrointestinal perspective, concerning both gut microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases. Antioxidants such as Za’atar polyphenols may provide beneficial effects in the complex interplay between the diet, gut microbiota, and intestinal permeability. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the effects of the whole Za’atar mixture, however, based on the pre-clinical studies published on components and single compounds found in Za’atar, we provide a clinical overview of the possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract, focusing mainly on carvacrol, rosmarinic acid, gallic acid, and other polyphenols. We also cover the potential clinical applications of Za’atar mixture as a possible nutraceutical in disorders involving the gastrointestinal tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods)
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29 pages, 1430 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of Different Advanced Approaches to Simulation of Dynamic In Vitro Digestion of Polyphenols from Different Food Matrices—A Systematic Review
Antioxidants 2023, 12(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12010101 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2050
Abstract
Phenolic compounds have become interesting bioactive antioxidant compounds with implications for obesity, cancer and inflammatory gastrointestinal pathologies. As the influence of digestion and gut microbiota on antioxidant behavior is yet to be completely elucidated, and due to limitations associated to in vivo studies, [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds have become interesting bioactive antioxidant compounds with implications for obesity, cancer and inflammatory gastrointestinal pathologies. As the influence of digestion and gut microbiota on antioxidant behavior is yet to be completely elucidated, and due to limitations associated to in vivo studies, dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal models have been promoted. A systematic review was conducted of different databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) following PRISMA guidelines to assess different dynamic digestion models and assay protocols used for phenolic compound research regarding bioaccesibility and interaction with colonic microbiota. Of 284 records identified, those including dynamic multicompartmental digestion models for the study of phenolic compound bioaccesibility, bioactivity and the effects of microbiota were included, with 57 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Different conditions and experimental configurations as well as administered doses, sample treatments and microbiological assays of dynamic digestion studies on polyphenols were recorded and compared to establish their relevance for the dynamic in vitro digestion of phenolic compounds. While similarities were observed in certain experimental areas, a high variability was found in others, such as administered doses. A description of considerations on the study of the digestion of phenolic compounds is proposed to enhance comparability in research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods)
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22 pages, 1744 KiB  
Review
Nanotechnology as a Tool to Mitigate the Effects of Intestinal Microbiota on Metabolization of Anthocyanins
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030506 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3016
Abstract
Anthocyanins are an important group of phenolic compounds responsible for pigmentation in several plants. For humans, a regular intake is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases. However, molecular instability reduces the absorption and bioavailability of these compounds. Anthocyanins are degraded by [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are an important group of phenolic compounds responsible for pigmentation in several plants. For humans, a regular intake is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases. However, molecular instability reduces the absorption and bioavailability of these compounds. Anthocyanins are degraded by external factors such as the presence of light, oxygen, temperature, and changes in pH ranges. In addition, the digestion process contributes to chemical degradation, mainly through the action of intestinal microbiota. The intestinal microbiota has a fundamental role in the biotransformation and metabolization of several dietary compounds, thus modifying the chemical structure, including anthocyanins. This biotransformation leads to low absorption of intact anthocyanins, and consequently, low bioavailability of these antioxidant compounds. Several studies have been conducted to seek alternatives to improve stability and protect against intestinal microbiota degradation. This comprehensive review aims to discuss the existing knowledge about the structure of anthocyanins while discussing human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and bioavailability after the oral consumption of anthocyanins. This review will highlight the use of nanotechnology systems to overcome anthocyanin biotransformation by the intestinal microbiota, pointing out the safety and effectiveness of nanostructures to maintain molecular stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Gut Microbiota on Antioxidant Capacity of Foods)
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