Use of Agricultural By-Products in Animal Feeding

A project collection of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This project collection belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Papers displayed on this page all arise from the same project. Editorial decisions were made independently of project staff and handled by the Editor-in-Chief or qualified Editorial Board members.

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Editor


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources, and Engineering (DAFNE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
Interests: ruminant welfare; veterinary immunology; heat stress; feeding strategies; milk production
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Project Overview

Dear Colleagues,

The increase in human population to more than 9 billion by 2050 and the concern about food security highlights the challenge of land use. In this context, the increase in demand for animal-based food is a central point in the novel concept of feed-food competition. Currently, livestock account for about 15% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through enteric fermentation and manure, and 33% of croplands are used for livestock feed production. Globally, livestock provides 25% of protein intake, and as a consequence, meeting the increasing demand for animal-based food is a major sustainability challenge. A possible approach could be an increase in total efficiency and the reduction of the impact of livestock by feeding livestock recycling biomass from agro-food systems unsuitable as food. The regeneration of natural resources and of by-products from the agro-food system could reduce feed–food competition and, therefore, the utilization of croplands for feed production. Moreover, the use of agricultural by-products in animal feeding represents a circular economy model to guarantee the production of healthy and affordable food by reducing the livestock system impact from an environmental and societal point of view, and minimizing waste outputs.

We invite original research papers and reviews that address experiments on the effects of the utilization of by-products from the agro-food system on livestock production. Research papers and reviews addressing the effects of by-products in the diet on livestock welfare and health are welcome. Additional topics may include preliminary studies on the utilization of by-products from agro-food systems from in vitro experiments.

Prof. Mariangela Caroprese
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • agricultural by-products
  • animal feeding
  • animal production
  • animal welfare and health
  • feed-food competition
  • circular economy.

Published Papers (54 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019

12 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Available Energy and Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Fermented Flaxseed Meal for Growing Pigs
by Zixi Wei, Lei Xu, Yao Guo, Baozhu Guo, Chunxiang Lu, Wenjuan Sun, Yanpin Li, Xianren Jiang, Xilong Li and Yu Pi
Animals 2024, 14(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani14020228 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 998
Abstract
Flaxseed meal (FSM) is a byproduct of flaxseed oil extraction which has rich nutritional value and can be used as a high-quality new protein ingredient. However, the anti-nutrient factor (ANF) in FSM restricts its potential application in feed. The strategy of microbial fermentation [...] Read more.
Flaxseed meal (FSM) is a byproduct of flaxseed oil extraction which has rich nutritional value and can be used as a high-quality new protein ingredient. However, the anti-nutrient factor (ANF) in FSM restricts its potential application in feed. The strategy of microbial fermentation is a highly effective approach to reducing ANF in FSM and enhancing its feeding value. However, evaluation of the nutritional value of fermented flaxseed meal (FFSM) in growing pigs has not yet been conducted. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of FFSM in growing pigs and comparison of the effect of fermentation treatment on improving the nutritional value of FSM. Two experiments were conducted to determine the available energy value, apparent digestibility of nutrients, and standard ileal digestibility of amino acids of FSM and FFSM in growing pigs. The results showed as follows: (1) Fermentation treatment increased the levels of crude protein (CP), Ca and P in FSM by 2.86%, 9.54% and 4.56%, while decreasing the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 34.09% and 12.71%, respectively (p < 0.05); The degradation rate of CGs in FSM was 54.09% (p < 0.05); (2) The digestible energy (DE) and metabolic energy (ME) of FSM and FFSM were 14.54 MJ/kg, 16.68 MJ/kg and 12.85 MJ/kg, 15.24 MJ/kg, respectively; (3) Compared with FSM, dietary FFSM supplementation significantly increased the apparent digestibility of CP, NDF, ADF, Ca, and P of growing pigs (p < 0.05) and significantly increased the standard ileal digestibility of methionine (p < 0.05). These results indicate that fermentation treatment could effectively enhance the nutritional value of FSM and provide basic theoretical data for the application of FFSM in pig production. Full article

2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019

14 pages, 1853 KiB  
Article
Effects of Perilla Seed Meal on Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Antioxidant Capacity and Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of Wenchang Breeder Hens
by Yingwen Zhang, Mengjie Liu, Yiqing Ding, Tianze Wang, Yimu Ma, Jieyi Huang, Shiqi He, Qian Qu, Fenggang Sun, Weijie Lv and Shining Guo
Animals 2023, 13(22), 3587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13223587 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding perilla seed meal (PSM) to the diet on reproductive performance, egg quality, yolk fatty acids, antioxidant capacity and liver lipid metabolism in breeding hens. A total of 192 31-week-old yellow-feathered hens [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding perilla seed meal (PSM) to the diet on reproductive performance, egg quality, yolk fatty acids, antioxidant capacity and liver lipid metabolism in breeding hens. A total of 192 31-week-old yellow-feathered hens were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 8 birds for 8 weeks. The chickens were fed a typical corn–soybean meal diet containing 0% (control), 0.3%, 0.6%, and 1% PSM. The results showed that PSM can change the productivity of laying hens. Adding 0.6% PSM to the feed reduced the mortality rate of chickens. Adding 1% PSM improved the fertilization rate and hatching rate of chickens. Regarding egg quality, the albumen height and Haugh unit were improved in the 0.6% PSM group. The content of MUFAs and PUFAs in the egg yolk was increased in all the PSM groups, while SFAs were only increased in the 0.6% PSM group. Among the indicators related to lipid metabolism, serum GLU decreased in all the PSM groups. The 0.6% PSM group had a reduction in serum and liver TG, as well as reductions in serum LDL-C and ALT. The same results were observed for the abdominal fat percentage in the 0.6% PSM group. Liver lipid metabolism-associated gene expression of FAS and LXRα was decreased in all the PSM groups, and the mRNA expression of ACC and SREBP-1c was significantly reduced in the 0.6% PSM group. HE staining showed that the vacuoles in the liver tissue gradually decreased with increasing PSM doses, especially the 1% PSM dose. Lipid droplets with a similar trend were observed using Oil Red O staining. In the results of the antioxidant capacity test, the serum T-AOC was increased in the 0.6% and 1% PSM groups, and the SOD in both the serum and liver was significantly increased in all the PSM groups. The expression of antioxidant-related genes such as Nrf2, NQO-1, HO-1, CAT and GSH-Px was significantly upregulated in the 1% PSM group. In conclusion, the PSM diet improved the lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity of breeding hens. PSM reduces mortality and improves fertilization and hatchability in the late laying period of chickens, resulting in greater benefits. We recommend adding 0.6% PSM to layer feed, which improves the physical condition of the hens and brings higher economic benefits. Full article
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14 pages, 1029 KiB  
Article
Effect of Potato Vine and Leaf Mixed Silage Compared to Whole Corn Crops on Growth Performance, Apparent Digestibility, and Serum Biochemical Characteristics of Fattening Angus Bull
by Jiajie Deng, Siyu Zhang, Yingqi Li, Changxiao Shi, Xinjun Qiu, Binghai Cao, Yang He and Huawei Su
Animals 2023, 13(14), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13142284 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1361
Abstract
This study aims to explore the different growth performances of the Angus bull on potato vine and leaf mixed silage in the early fattening period and to provide a reference animal production trial. Thirty-six 13-month-old Angus bulls were divided into three groups with [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the different growth performances of the Angus bull on potato vine and leaf mixed silage in the early fattening period and to provide a reference animal production trial. Thirty-six 13-month-old Angus bulls were divided into three groups with 403.22 ± 38.97 kg initial body weight and fed with three different silage diets: (1) control: whole-plant corn silage as control (CS); (2) treatment 1: 50% whole-plant corn +50% potato vine and leaf silage (PVS1); and (3) treatment 2: 75% potato vine and leaf +15% rice straw +10% cornmeal silage (PVS2). After the 14 days pre-feeding, the formal experiment was carried out for 89 days. The result showed that the ash content of the potato vine and leaf mixed silage (PVS) in the treatment groups was higher than that in control group, and the ash content of PVS1 and PVS2 even reached 10.42% and 18.48% (DM%), respectively, which was much higher than that of the CS group at 4.94%. The crude protein content in silage also increased with the additional amount of potato vine and leaf. The apparent crude protein digestibility of the PVS groups was also significantly higher than that of the CS group (p < 0.05). In terms of serum biochemical indexes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the experimental groups was significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). Compared with PVS2, cholesterol (CHO) was significantly lower in the CS and PVS1 groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of PVS2 were significantly higher than those of the CS and PVS1 group (p < 0.05), and daily gain (ADG) as a key production index had a significantly negative correlation with the CHO (r = −0.38, p < 0.05) and HDL-C (r = −0.40, p < 0.05) of cattle. In conclusion, PVS had higher crude protein content and ash but less starch than whole-corn silage. The PVS could replace whole-plant corn silage at the same dry matter status and did not affect the weight gain in this trial. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020, 2019

13 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Feeding Byproduct-Based Concentrates Instead of Human-Edible Feed Ingredients Increases Net Food Production and Improves Performance of High-Producing Holstein Cows
by Nima Naderi, Gholam Reza Ghorbani, Hamid Erfani and Luiz Felipe Ferraretto
Animals 2022, 12(21), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12212977 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
The effect of feeding greater amounts of byproducts (BP) as a replacement for human-edible (HE) feed ingredients on nutrient intake, chewing activity, rumen fermentation, production performance, human-edible feed conversion efficiency (HeFCE) and net food production (NFP) of high-producing Holstein cows was evaluated. Twelve [...] Read more.
The effect of feeding greater amounts of byproducts (BP) as a replacement for human-edible (HE) feed ingredients on nutrient intake, chewing activity, rumen fermentation, production performance, human-edible feed conversion efficiency (HeFCE) and net food production (NFP) of high-producing Holstein cows was evaluated. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (BW = 673 ± 44, DIM = 112 ± 8 d; 48 ± 2.25 kg/d of milk; mean ± SE) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 21 d of adaptation followed by 7 d of data collection. Treatments diets were (DM basis): (1) concentrate containing 26% byproducts (BP26; control); (2) concentrate containing 60% byproducts (BP60); and (3) concentrate containing 95% byproducts (BP95). Alfalfa hay (20% dietary DM) and corn silage (20% dietary DM) were included in all diets. Dietary concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), starch and ether extract (EE) were 32.1, 41.0, 26.14 and 3.4% (BP 26); 35.3, 36.0, 22.05 and 4.7% (BP60); and 38.2, 32.0, 17.96 and 6.1% (BP95), respectively (DM basis). Dry matter (22.07 kg/d) and NEL (35.16 Mcal/d) intakes did not differ among treatments. However, ether extract and NDF intakes increased, whereas starch intake decreased linearly as BP ingredients increasingly replaced HE feed ingredients. Eating time was not affected by dietary treatment, but ruminating and total chewing time tended to increase with increasing amounts of BP. Replacing HE with BP ingredients did not affect rumen pH. An increased proportion of BP ingredients in the diet linearly decreased propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate concentrations in the rumen and increased acetate concentration and the acetate to propionate ratio. Replacing HE with BP ingredients did not affect milk yield. The yield of 3.5% FCM (39.12, 40.14 and 41.33 kg/d for BP26, BP60 and BP95, respectively) and fat content (2.95, 2.99 and 3.13 % for BP26, BP60 and BP95, respectively) linearly increased. Substituting BP ingredients for HE feed ingredients increased unsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, stearic acid, oleic acid and preformed fatty acids but decreased saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid, de novo and mixed fatty acids. Replacing HE with BP feed ingredients increased human-edible efficiency (HeFCE) for crude protein (1.06, 1.66 and 4.14 kg/kg edible for BP26, BP60 and BP95, respectively) and for energy (2.27, 3.62 and 9.22 MJ/MJ edible for BP26, BP60 and BP95, respectively) and also net food production (NFP) for crude protein (0.064, 0.52, and 1.00 kg/d for BP26, BP60, and BP95, respectively) and energy (62.8, 83.0 and 104.7 MJ/d for BP26, BP60 and BP95, respectively). Feeding byproduct-based concentrates instead of human-edible feed ingredients increase human-edible feed conversion efficiency (HeFCE), net food production (NFP) and improved the performance of high-producing Holstein cows. Full article

2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020, 2019

18 pages, 494 KiB  
Article
Effects of Replacing Cottonseed Meal with Corn Dried Distillers’ Grain on Ruminal Parameters, Performance, and Enteric Methane Emissions in Young Nellore Bulls Reared in Tropical Pastures
by Tiago Luís Da Ros de Araújo, Wilton Ladeira da Silva, Andressa Scholz Berça, Abmael da Silva Cardoso, Rondineli Pavezzi Barbero, Eliéder Prates Romanzini and Ricardo Andrade Reis
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2959; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102959 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing cottonseed meal with DDG on ruminal parameters, methane (CH4) emissions (Experiment 1), and animal performance (Experiment 2) of young Nellore bulls grazing Marandu grass during the rainy season. Four supplementation strategies [...] Read more.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing cottonseed meal with DDG on ruminal parameters, methane (CH4) emissions (Experiment 1), and animal performance (Experiment 2) of young Nellore bulls grazing Marandu grass during the rainy season. Four supplementation strategies were used in both experiments: (1) Mineral supplementation (MS); (2) conventional multiple supplement (energy/protein) with cottonseed meal and citrus pulp (CMS); (3) CMS with 50% cottonseed meal replaced by DDG (50DDG); and (4) CMS with 100% cottonseed meal replaced by DDG (100DDG). The 50DDG condition resulted in greater intake of dry matter (p = 0.033), organic matter (OM) (p = 0.050), forage (p = 0.035), and digestible OM (p = 0.031) than 100DDG. The supplemented animals presented greater final body weight (BW) and average daily gain than the animals consuming MS (p = 0.011), and lower pH, acetate, and acetate:propionate (p < 0.05). However, the treatments had no influence on stocking rate, gain per area, and enteric CH4 emissions (p > 0.05). Replacing cottonseed meal with DDG does not result in great variations in ruminal parameters, animal performance, and enteric CH4 emissions of grazing Nellore cattle during the rearing phase in the wet season. Both protein sources in 0.3% BW supplementation can be used to intensify beef cattle production in pastures. Full article
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12 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Dietary Supplementations of Orange Peel and Tomato Pomace Extracts as Natural Sources for Ascorbic Acid on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Plasma Biochemicals and Antioxidant Status of Growing Rabbits
by Fawzia A. Hassan, Nabila Elkassas, Ibrahim Salim, Shawky El-Medany, Salama Mostafa Aboelenin, Mustafa Shukry, Ayman E. Taha, Soliman Peris, Mohamed Soliman and Khalid Mahrose
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061688 - 5 Jun 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4343
Abstract
The effect of dietary orange peel (OPE) and tomato pomace extract (TPE) supplementations on growth performance, plasma biochemicals, carcass characteristics and antioxidant status of growing male rabbits were investigated. A total of 96 rabbits (5 weeks old) were distributed into four groups. The [...] Read more.
The effect of dietary orange peel (OPE) and tomato pomace extract (TPE) supplementations on growth performance, plasma biochemicals, carcass characteristics and antioxidant status of growing male rabbits were investigated. A total of 96 rabbits (5 weeks old) were distributed into four groups. The first group received untreated pelleted diet (control). The second group was fed a diet containing ascorbic acid (AA; 1.0 g/kg diet), while the third and fourth groups consumed diets supplemented with 200 gm of OPE or (TPE, respectively. Our results indicated that OPE and TPE contained 59, 14.03 mg ascorbic acid/100 g DM, respectively. Growth performance, except feed conversion ratio, and carcass weight were improved by dietary supplementations. Dietary supplementations decreased kidneys, abdominal, back fats and ether extract of meat. Plasma protein and globulin levels were high in rabbits fed AA and TPE-supplemented diets. Low plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed in rabbits fed the supplemented diets. Plasma AA was increased in rabbits fed AA and OPE-supplemented diets. Rabbits fed OPE and TPE-supplemented diets had great SOD activity. The best economic efficiency was recorded by rabbits fed the supplemented diets. Dietary supplementations of OPE and TPE could effectively improve growth performance, antioxidative status, modulate AA level in plasma and meat and lower plasma total cholesterol and LDL. Full article
11 pages, 412 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of Equations for Predicting the Metabolizable Energy Value of Double-Low Rapeseed Cake for Growing Pigs
by Lu Wang, Qile Hu, Peili Li, Changhua Lai, Defa Li, Jianjun Zang and Shouqing Ni
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041168 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
The study was conducted to develop and validate an equation to predict the metabolizable energy (ME) of double-low rapeseed cakes (DLRSC) for growing pigs based on their chemical compositions. In Experiment 1, 66 growing pigs (initial body weight 36.6 ± 4.1 kg) were [...] Read more.
The study was conducted to develop and validate an equation to predict the metabolizable energy (ME) of double-low rapeseed cakes (DLRSC) for growing pigs based on their chemical compositions. In Experiment 1, 66 growing pigs (initial body weight 36.6 ± 4.1 kg) were allotted randomly to a completely randomized design with 11 diets. The diets included a corn–soybean meal basal diet and 10 test diets containing 19.22% DLRSC supplemented at the expense of corn, soybean meal, and lysine. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude fiber (CF), and gross energy (GE) were the best predictors to determine ME. The best-fit prediction equation of ME (MJ/kg) was ME = 9.33 − 0.09 × NDF − 0.25 × CF + 0.59 × GE (R2 = 0.93). In Experiment 2, a total of 144 growing pigs (initial body weight 29.7 ± 2.7 kg), with six pigs per pen and six pens per treatment, were assigned randomly to four treatments in a completely randomized block design for a 28-day feeding trial. A corn–soybean meal basal diet was prepared, and three additional diets were formulated by adding 7%, 14%, and 21% DLRSC to the basal diet at the expense of soybean meal. All diets were formulated to provide equal standardized ileal digestibility (SID) Lys/ME ratio and SID essential amino acids/SID Lys ratio. Increasing dietary levels of DLRSC had no effect on average daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed-to-gain ratio. The caloric efficiency of ME (31.83, 32.44, 31.95, and 32.69 MJ/kg, respectively) was not changed by increasing the dietary concentration of DLRSC. Increasing dietary levels of DLRSC linearly reduced (p < 0.05) the concentrations of triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine in serum, as well as apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and organic matter of the diet. In conclusion, the ME prediction equation obtained in Experiment 1 accurately estimates the ME value of DLRSC fed to growing pigs. Full article
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12 pages, 715 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Parts on the Chemical Composition, Silage Fermentation Profile, In Vitro and In Situ Digestibility of Paper Mulberry
by Yangyi Hao, Shuai Huang, Gaokun Liu, Jun Zhang, Gang Liu, Zhijun Cao, Yajing Wang, Wei Wang and Shengli Li
Animals 2021, 11(2), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020413 - 5 Feb 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3158
Abstract
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera, PM) is high protein but unutilized as a feed source. The study explores the different parts (leaf, stem, and whole plant) of PM chemical composition, silage fermentation, and in vitro and in situ digestibility, aiming to give [...] Read more.
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera, PM) is high protein but unutilized as a feed source. The study explores the different parts (leaf, stem, and whole plant) of PM chemical composition, silage fermentation, and in vitro and in situ digestibility, aiming to give some guidelines to PM usage as feed. The result showed that the leaf had a higher fresh weight than the stem (p < 0.05). The dry matter contents of the three groups had no differences. The highest crude protein, ether extract, water-soluble carbohydrate, ash, calcium, phosphorus, amino acid contents, and butter capacity were observed in the leaf (p < 0.05). The stem had the highest (p < 0.05) neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents. After ensiling, the stem silage had the lowest pH value, ammonia nitrate (NH3-N), lactate, acetate, and propionate (p < 0.05). The leaf silage had the highest pH value (p < 0.05). The lactate, acetate, and propionate in the leaf and whole plant silage had no difference. The butyrate was not detected in all silage. The in vitro and in situ digestibility experiments showed the leaf had the highest digestibility (p < 0.05), which could produce more volatile fatty acids and have a higher effective digestibility. These results allow a greater understanding of PM to be used as a feedstuff. Full article
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14 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Effect of Raw and Fermented Grape Pomace on the Growth Performance, Antioxidant Status, Intestinal Morphology, and Selected Bacterial Species in Broiler Chicks
by Emrah Gungor, Aydin Altop and Guray Erener
Animals 2021, 11(2), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020364 - 1 Feb 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3552
Abstract
The effects of raw (GP) and fermented grape pomace (FGP) on the growth performance, some carcass parameters, antioxidant status, intestinal morphology, and selected bacterial species in broiler chicken were investigated in this study. Grape pomace was fermented with Aspergillus niger for 7 d. [...] Read more.
The effects of raw (GP) and fermented grape pomace (FGP) on the growth performance, some carcass parameters, antioxidant status, intestinal morphology, and selected bacterial species in broiler chicken were investigated in this study. Grape pomace was fermented with Aspergillus niger for 7 d. In total, 140 one-day-old male chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, with five replicates and seven birds each. Chickens were fed either a basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.25 g/kg synthetic antioxidants (5% butylated hydroxytoluene, 1% butylated hydroxyanisole, and 11% ethoxyquin) (AO), or 15 g/kg GP (GP), or 15 g/kg FGP (FGP) for 42 d. Dietary GP raised serum glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.031) and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.021) levels, increased ileum lamina muscularis thickness (p = 0.016), and did not affect selected bacterial species in the cecum of broiler chickens. Dietary FGP improved body weight (p = 0.003), increased the serum catalase level (p = 0.032), and decreased the cecal Clostridium perfringens count (p = 0.033) but did not affect the ileal morphology of broiler chickens. The carcass parameters, malondialdehyde level, pH, and color of the breast meat of chickens were not changed by either GP or FGP supplementation. Chickens fed with the synthetic antioxidants had similar growth performance with the chickens fed with FGP but had better body weight (p = 0.003) and feed conversion ratio (p = 0.045) compared with the chickens fed with GP. The obtained results showed that FGP can be used as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants in broiler diets. Full article

2020

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2019

13 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Effects of Fermentation on Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and Apparent Metabolizable Energy in Rapeseed Meal Fed to Broiler Chickens
by Zhengke Wu, Jiao Liu, Jiang Chen, Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado, Yang Li, Huiyi Cai and Guohua Liu
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101774 - 1 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2856
Abstract
Rapeseed meal (RSM) is a common protein ingredient in animal diets, while the proportion of RSM in diets is limited because of its anti-nutritional factors. Fermentation based on mixed microbial strains appears to be a suitable approach to improve the nutritive value of [...] Read more.
Rapeseed meal (RSM) is a common protein ingredient in animal diets, while the proportion of RSM in diets is limited because of its anti-nutritional factors. Fermentation based on mixed microbial strains appears to be a suitable approach to improve the nutritive value of rapeseed meal in animal feed. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fermentation on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in RSM fed broilers. The AME and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) values of RSM and fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) were determined by the substitution method, with RSM and FRSM proportionally replacing the energy-yielding components of the basal diet by 30%. Results show that fermentation improved AME and AMEn of RSM from 7.44 to 8.51 MJ/kg and from 7.17 to 8.26 MJ/kg, respectively. In the second experiment, two experimental diets were formulated, with RSM and FRSM being the sole sources of amino acids. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was also formulated to determine endogenous amino acids losses (EAAL). Feeding on FRSM resulted in higher (p < 0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID of alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, arginine, and phenylalanine. No significant differences between RSM and FRSM were found for AID and SID of asparagine, histidine, threonine, serine, glutamine, praline, glycine, methionine, and cystine. FRSM had greater AMEn values and SID of amino acids compared to RSM, therefore, FRSM was nutritionally superior to RSM in broiler diets. Full article
17 pages, 807 KiB  
Article
Regression Equations of Energy Values of Corn, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Bran Developed by Chemical Composition for Growing Pigs
by Pan Yang, Jian Jun Ni, Jin Biao Zhao, Gang Zhang and Cheng Fei Huang
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091490 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2983
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical compositions, digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) in corn, soybean meal (SBM) and wheat bran (WB) fed to growing pigs, and to develop regression equations for predicting DE and ME. Three separate [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical compositions, digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) in corn, soybean meal (SBM) and wheat bran (WB) fed to growing pigs, and to develop regression equations for predicting DE and ME. Three separate experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME of corn, SBM, and WB. The DE and ME in corn were determined directly using 10 barrows allotted to a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design, and the diets were formulated with one of 10 corn samples. The DE and ME in SBM and WB were determined by difference using two corn basal diets and 10 corn-SBM or 10 corn-SBM-WB diets, which were allotted to a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ten corn samples were obtained from the main corn producing areas of China. Ten SBM samples were obtained from nine different crushing facilities in nine provinces in China. Ten WB samples were collected from different feed mills of China. Samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), gross energy (GE), and soluble carbohydrates (SCHO). The best-fit equations for corn were DE (MJ/kg DM) = 20.18 − 0.76 × EE (%) and ME (MJ/kg DM) = 5.74 + 1.11 × DE (MJ/kg DM) − 0.33 × CP (%) − 0.07 × SCHO (%). The best-fit equations for SBM were DE (MJ/kg DM) = 42.91 − 3.43 × Ash (%) − 0.20 × NDF (%) + 0.09 × ADF (%) and ME (MJ/kg DM) = −21.67 + 0.89 × DE (MJ/kg DM) − 1.06 × GE (MJ/kg DM). The best-fit equations for WB were DE (MJ/kg DM) = −7.09 + 1.54 × CP (%) − 0.25 × NDF (%) − 0.32 × ADF (%) + 0.23 × Ash (%) and ME (MJ/kg DM) = 0.02 + 0.96 × DE (MJ/kg DM). The chemical composition of corn, SBM, and WB can vary substantially from zone to zone, resulting in considerable variation in its available energy value for pig. The DE and ME of corn, SBM and WB for growing pigs can be predicted based on their chemical compositions. Full article
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13 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Effects of Paper Mulberry Silage on the Milk Production, Apparent Digestibility, Antioxidant Capacity, and Fecal Bacteria Composition in Holstein Dairy Cows
by Yangyi Hao, Shuai Huang, Jingfang Si, Jun Zhang, Naren Gaowa, Xiaoge Sun, Jiaying Lv, Gaokun Liu, Yaqin He, Wei Wang, Yajing Wang and Shengli Li
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071152 - 7 Jul 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3586
Abstract
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera; PM) is an excellent and extensive type of roughage in Asia. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of PM silage on the milk production, apparent digestibility, antioxidant capacity, and fecal bacteria composition in Holstein dairy cows. [...] Read more.
Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera; PM) is an excellent and extensive type of roughage in Asia. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of PM silage on the milk production, apparent digestibility, antioxidant capacity, and fecal bacteria composition in Holstein dairy cows. Forty-five lactating Holstein dairy cows with a similar milk yield and parity were selected and randomly assigned to three groups. The control group was fed a non-PM silage diet, and the PM-treated groups were fed 4.5 and 9.0% PM silage supplementary diets for 28 days. Then, treatment groups were fed diets containing 13.5 and 18.0% PM silage for the next 28 days, respectively. PM silage increased the milk urea nitrogen and decreased the somatic cell count (p < 0.05), but did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield, apparent digestibility, and energy balance of dairy cows. PM silage can enhance the blood total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and immune globulin content (p < 0.05). The PM silage significantly decreased the relative abundance of the genera Ruminococcaceae UCG-013 and Tyzzerella-4 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, PM silage enhanced the antioxidant capacity and immunity of dairy cows, but did not influence the milk yield, dry matter digestibility, and fecal bacteria composition. Full article
15 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Isolation of a Highly Efficient Antigenic-Protein-Degrading Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Assessment of Its Safety
by Yang Li, Baozhu Guo, Chong Li, Weiwei Wang, Zhengke Wu, Guohua Liu and Huiyi Cai
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071144 - 6 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
The aims of this study were to screen and isolate a highly efficient strain from the rumen of a cow that can degrade the antigenic soy proteins in soybean meal (SBM) and improve the nutritional value of SBM by fermenting it with this [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to screen and isolate a highly efficient strain from the rumen of a cow that can degrade the antigenic soy proteins in soybean meal (SBM) and improve the nutritional value of SBM by fermenting it with this strain. The safety of this strain was investigated with an acute oral toxicity test. A Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain was successfully screened with plate tests and fermentation. After solid state fermentation of SBM with B. amyloliquefaciens for 24 h, the amounts of glycinin and β-conglycinin, two major antigenic proteins in SBM, decreased by 92.32% and 85.05%, respectively. The crude protein content in the fermented soybean meal (FSBM) increased by 17.54% compared with that in SBM. Notably, the trichloroacetic-acid-soluble protein (TCA-SP) content, particularly small peptides and free amino acids, was 9.97-fold higher in FSBM than in SBM. The in vitro dry matter digestibility and digestible energy of SBM increased from 62.91% to 72.52% and from 10.42 MJ/kg to 13.37 MJ/kg (dry matter basis), respectively, after fermentation. The acute oral toxicity test suggested that the strain exerted no harmful effects on the relative organ weights, the morphological tissue structure, or the health of mice. These results indicate that the B. amyloliquefaciens strain isolated in this study is a safe strain for animals, and could be used to improve the nutritional quality of SBM by solid-state fermentation. Full article
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12 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Comparative Effects of Stovers of Four Varieties of Common Vetch on Growth Performance, Ruminal Fermentation, and Nutrient Digestibility of Growing Lambs
by Yafeng Huang, Cory Matthew, Fei Li and Zhibiao Nan
Animals 2020, 10(4), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040596 - 1 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2715
Abstract
This study evaluated common vetch stover as a feed in mixed rations for growing lambs. Four common vetch varieties were compared with alfalfa (control) for their effects on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen retention. Male Hu lambs (n = [...] Read more.
This study evaluated common vetch stover as a feed in mixed rations for growing lambs. Four common vetch varieties were compared with alfalfa (control) for their effects on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen retention. Male Hu lambs (n = 50) aged 3 months, with a mean body weight of 17.5 ± 0.34 kg were allocated randomly to one of the five dietary treatments, making 10 lambs per treatment. The experiment lasted 67 days with a 10-day adaptation period and a 50-day fattening period, and with the final 7 days used for a nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance trial. All diets contained 30.0% maize straw and 50.0% concentrate, with different forage sources (on a fed basis): 20.0% alfalfa hay (control), 20.0% local common vetch variety 333A (C333A) stover, or 20.0% stover of one of three improved common vetch varieties: Lanjian No. 1 (CLJ1), Lanjian No. 2 (CLJ2), or Lanjian No. 3 (CLJ3). For stover quality, CLJ1 stover had the greatest crude protein (CP), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), and metabolizable energy (ME) content and the least cell wall contents, while C333A stover had the least CP, IVOMD, and ME contents and the greatest cell wall contents. Sheep fed the control diet had a greater average daily gain (ADG), apparent digestibility of organic matter (DOM), neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen retention, and greater ruminal total volatile fatty acids concentration than lambs fed the C333A or CLJ3 diet, but similar performance to lambs fed the CLJ1 and CLJ2 diets. The feed conversion ratio and predicted CH4 emission per unit of DOM intake and ADG of the control, CLJ1, and CLJ2 diets was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the other diets. Based on these results, stovers of varieties CLJ1 and CLJ2 can be recommended as an alternative to alfalfa hay and for use in a legume crop rotation with cereals on the Tibetan plateau. Full article
11 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Hemp Seed and Flaxseed on Growth Performance, Meat Fatty Acid Compositions, Liver Tocopherol Concentration and Bone Strength of Cockerels
by Miloš Skřivan, Michaela Englmaierová, Tomáš Taubner and Eva Skřivanová
Animals 2020, 10(3), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030458 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3653
Abstract
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of hemp seed (HS) of the nonpsychotropic variety Futura and extruded flaxseed (EF) in the diet of cockerels on cockerel growth performance, breast muscle and liver α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations, breast muscle fatty [...] Read more.
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of hemp seed (HS) of the nonpsychotropic variety Futura and extruded flaxseed (EF) in the diet of cockerels on cockerel growth performance, breast muscle and liver α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations, breast muscle fatty acid concentrations and tibia strength. Five hundred and forty one-day-old male Ross 308 cockerels are equally allocated into six groups. Each group has three replicates of 30 cockerels in pens with litter. The formulated diets are isoenergetic (the metabolisable energy ranged from 12.4 to 12.8 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenic (the protein concentration ranged from 209.7 to 210.9 g/kg) and provided ad libitum. During the experiment, which lasts 35 days, the control group is fed a diet without EF or HS. Rapeseed oil was the lipid source in the control diet. The diet for the second group contains EF at 60 g/kg, the diet for the third group contains HS at 40 g/kg, and the diets for the fourth to sixth groups contain HS and EF at 30 and 60 g/kg, 40 and 60 g/kg and 50 and 60 g/kg, respectively. At the end of the experiment, 15 cockerels of average weight are slaughtered per group, and the breast muscle, liver and tibia bone are dissected for chemical analyses. The all dietary combination of HS and EF increases (p < 0.001) cockerel body weight (2375–2493 g) more than HS alone (2174 g) or EF alone (2254 g). A similar finding is observed for the diet composition and tocopherol content in the liver, but the doses of HS required to achieve this effect are higher (40 and 50 g/kg). The tocopherol content in the breast muscle is not influenced by the diet. The dietary combination of 60 g/kg EF and 40 g/kg HS results in the most promising findings of the experiment, since it leads to the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (p < 0.001; 1.75). Incorporation of HS into the diet increases cockerel tibia strength (p < 0.001), which is of great practical importance due to the frequent occurrence of limb fractures. To conclude, the dietary supplementation with 40 g/kg HS and 60 g/kg EF improves cockerel performance, meat and bone quality and deposition of α-tocopherol in the liver. Full article
25 pages, 1831 KiB  
Review
Can Agro-Industrial By-Products Rich in Polyphenols be Advantageously Used in the Feeding and Nutrition of Dairy Small Ruminants?
by Fabio Correddu, Mondina Francesca Lunesu, Giovanna Buffa, Alberto Stanislao Atzori, Anna Nudda, Gianni Battacone and Giuseppe Pulina
Animals 2020, 10(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010131 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 122 | Viewed by 9151
Abstract
Recently, the interest in industrial by-products produced at the local level in Mediterranean areas, resulting from fruit and vegetable processes, has increased because of their considerable amounts of bioactive compounds, including polyphenols. In this review, we analyze the most recent scientific results concerning [...] Read more.
Recently, the interest in industrial by-products produced at the local level in Mediterranean areas, resulting from fruit and vegetable processes, has increased because of their considerable amounts of bioactive compounds, including polyphenols. In this review, we analyze the most recent scientific results concerning the use of agro-industrial by-products, naturally rich in polyphenols (BPRP), in the diets of small dairy ruminants. Effects on milk production, milk and rumen liquor fatty acid profile, metabolic parameters, and methane production are reviewed. The feed intake and digestibility coefficients were generally depressed by BPRP, even though they were not always reflected in the milk yield. The main observed positive effects of BPRP were on quality of the milk’s FA profile, antioxidant activity in milk and blood, a reduction of rumen ammonia, and, consequently, a reduction of milk and blood urea. The expected beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols in small ruminants were not always observed because of their complex and variable matrices. However, owing to the large quantities of these products available at low prices, the use of BPRB in small ruminant nutrition offers a convenient solution to the valorization of residues arising from agricultural activities, reducing feed costs for farmers and conferring added value to dairy products at the local level, in a sustainable way. Full article
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2019

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8 pages, 196 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Different Dietary Levels of Defatted Rice Bran on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters, and Relative Weights of the Viscera in Geese
by Xiaoshuai Chen, Haiming Yang and Zhiyue Wang
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121040 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3195
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of different dietary levels of defatted rice bran (DFRB) on growth performance, slaughter performance, and relative weights of the viscera in geese. A total of 300 28-day-old healthy male Yangzhou goslings with similar body weights were randomly divided [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of different dietary levels of defatted rice bran (DFRB) on growth performance, slaughter performance, and relative weights of the viscera in geese. A total of 300 28-day-old healthy male Yangzhou goslings with similar body weights were randomly divided into five groups, with six replicates per group and 10 geese per replicate. The geese were fed diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% DFRB for 42 days. Over the 29-d to 70-d trial period, no significant difference was observed in the average daily feed intake in geese (p > 0.05). However, 30% and 40% DFRB reduced body weights of geese at 70 d (p < 0.01) and average daily gain from 28 d to 70 d (p < 0.05) were observed, and 20%, 30%, and 40% DFRB increased feed-to-gain ratios from 28 d to 70 d (p < 0.01). Birds in the 30% and 40% DFRB groups had reduced breast yields (p < 0.05), and birds in the 40% DFRB group had increased thigh yields (p < 0.05). Birds in the 20%, 30%, and 40% DFRB groups had increased proventriculus weights (p < 0.01). The results suggested that a high level of DFRB affected growth performance, slaughter performance, and visceral development. Under the experimental conditions, we recommend that the dietary level of DFRB should not exceed 20% to avoid negative effects on geese. Full article
13 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Effects of Increasing Levels of Defatted Rice Bran on Intestinal Physical Barrier and Bacteria in Finishing Pigs
by Huan Wang, Pinghua Li, Taoran Du, Guang Pu, Lijuan Fan, Chen Gao, Peipei Niu, Chengwu Wu, Wuduo Zhou and Ruihua Huang
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121039 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2971
Abstract
The aims of this study were to assess the effects of increasing levels of DFRB as a replacement for corns on intestinal physical barrier function and bacteria of finishing pigs. A total of 35 castrated finishing pigs (age: 158.5 ± 2.0 d, initial [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to assess the effects of increasing levels of DFRB as a replacement for corns on intestinal physical barrier function and bacteria of finishing pigs. A total of 35 castrated finishing pigs (age: 158.5 ± 2.0 d, initial body weight: 62.9 ± 0.8 kg) were randomly divided into five dietary treatments (seven replicates/treatment) for a 28-day experimental period, i.e., a control diet with basal diet, and four experimental diets in which maize was replaced by 7%, 14%, 21%, and 28% DFRB, respectively. The results showed that serum endotoxins concentration and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity were both increased (linear, p = 0.0004, 0.001, respectively) with DFRB level. However, compared with control group, serum endotoxins concentration and DAO activity were not different in pigs fed with 7% DFRB in the diet. There was a quadratic response in serum D-lactate concentration to the increased DFRB (quadratic, p = 0.021). In the cecum, thickness of the intestinal wall significantly increased with increasing levels of DFRB in the diets (linear, p = 0.033), while crypt depth/thickness of the intestinal wall ratio significantly decreased with increasing level of DFRB in the diets (linear, p = 0.043). In the jejunum, total bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Bifidobacterium all responded quadratically to increasing levels of DFRB in the diets (quadratic, p = 0.003, 0.001, 0.006, respectively). Additionally, there was no difference in Escherichia coli in pigs fed 0%, 7%, and 14% DFRB diets. In the colon, there were quadratic responses in C. perfringens to the increased DFRB (quadratic, p = 0.023). C. perfringens reduced as the DFRB concentration increased from 0% to 14% and then increased. When D-lactate, total bacteria, Escherichia coli, Bifidobacterium, and C. perfringens were considered, the optimal substitution level of DFRB were 12.00%, 11.84%, 7.50%, 8.92%, and 15.92%, respectively. In conclusion, 7% DFRB had a beneficial effect on intestinal wall thickness, Bifidobacterium and C. perfringens, and had no adverse effect on intestinal permeability and Escherichia coli. Full article
19 pages, 2362 KiB  
Article
Effect of Fermented Cottonseed Meal on the Lipid-Related Indices and Serum Metabolic Profiles in Broiler Chickens
by Jun-Li Niu, Jun Zhang, Lian-Qing Wei, Wen-Ju Zhang and Cun-Xi Nie
Animals 2019, 9(11), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110930 - 7 Nov 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3249
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the changes of lipid-related gene and serum metabolites in broiler chickens fed with fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) diet, through quantitative real-time PCR and metabolomics analysis. Totally, 180 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to two groups with six [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the changes of lipid-related gene and serum metabolites in broiler chickens fed with fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) diet, through quantitative real-time PCR and metabolomics analysis. Totally, 180 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to two groups with six replicates of 15 birds in each. The two diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with 0% FCSM (CON group) and an experimental diet with 6% FCSM (fermented by Candida tropicalis) replacing the soybean meal (FCSM group). The results showed that both abdominal fat content and subcutaneous fat thickness significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in response to dietary FCSM supplementation at the age of 21 d. Serum concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05) in FCSM fed broilers compared with CON fed broilers, while the levels of epinephrine and growth hormone in serum, liver and abdominal fat tissue were higher (p < 0.05) in FCSM than in CON fed broilers. The activity of hormone-sensitive esterase and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the liver and abdominal fat were higher (p < 0.05) in FCSM than CON group. Additionally, compared with the CON group (p < 0.05), the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and LPL genes were upregulated in the livers of FCSM group broilers. Gene expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase and LPL in the abdominal fat tissue were also upregulated (p < 0.05) with the broilers fed with FCSM diets. A total of 20 significantly different metabolites were obtained in the serum of different dietary FCSM supplemented fed broilers. The mainly altered pathways were clustered into organic acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. These results not only provide a better understanding of broilers’ lipid metabolism with FCSM but also can be helpful in further improvement of the broilers’ healthy production and utilization of FCSM. Full article
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11 pages, 250 KiB  
Article
High Fiber Cakes from Mediterranean Multipurpose Oilseeds as Protein Sources for Ruminants
by Francesco Serrapica, Felicia Masucci, Emiliano Raffrenato, Maura Sannino, Alessandro Vastolo, Carmela Maria Assunta Barone and Antonio Di Francia
Animals 2019, 9(11), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110918 - 4 Nov 2019
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 5099
Abstract
Fifteen oilseed cakes from sunflower, pomegranate, cardoon, tobacco and hemp were characterized with regard to chemical composition, Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) fractionation, in vitro digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein. All the cakes presented low moisture, [...] Read more.
Fifteen oilseed cakes from sunflower, pomegranate, cardoon, tobacco and hemp were characterized with regard to chemical composition, Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) fractionation, in vitro digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein. All the cakes presented low moisture, rather variable ether extract contents and medium to high levels of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The cakes significantly differed in terms of CNCPS partitioning and in vitro digestibility. Tobacco and hemp cakes presented high contents of slow degradable fractions of crude protein and carbohydrate joined to good post-ruminal protein digestibility. Cardoon cakes presented the highest rumen protein degradability. Based on crude protein content and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein, cakes of tobacco and hemp showed the better potential as alternative protein supplements for ruminants, while pomegranate appears to be the least suitable for ruminant feeding. Full article
21 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Meat Production from Dairy Breed Lambs Due to Slaughter Age and Feeding Plan Based on Wheat Bran
by Antonino Di Grigoli, Adriana Bonanno, Mansour Rabie Ashkezary, Barbara Laddomada, Marco Alabiso, Francesca Vitale, Francesca Mazza, Giuseppe Maniaci, Paolo Ruisi and Giuseppe Di Miceli
Animals 2019, 9(11), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110892 - 1 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
This experiment aimed to investigate the possibility to increase the carcass weight of dairy breed lambs and produce moderate-fat meat by applying inexpensive feeding strategies based on restriction and through the use of a fibrous byproduct such as the durum wheat bran (DWB). [...] Read more.
This experiment aimed to investigate the possibility to increase the carcass weight of dairy breed lambs and produce moderate-fat meat by applying inexpensive feeding strategies based on restriction and through the use of a fibrous byproduct such as the durum wheat bran (DWB). Sixty-five 45-day-old lambs of the Valle del Belice breed, divided into 6 groups, were fed alfalfa hay supplemented with concentrate feeds including DWB at 0% or 20% (DWB0, DWB20), supplied ad libitum (L) or restricted at 75% (R), and slaughtered at 90 or 120 days of age. The groups were as follows: DWB0-90L (n = 14), DWB20-90L (n = 14), DWB0-120R (n = 10), DWB20-120R (n = 9), DWB0-120L (n = 9), DWB20-120L (n = 9). The diet did not affect feed intake, growth or carcass weight of lambs fed ad libitum, whereas 120-day-old lambs fed DWB associated to restriction showed the lowest weight gain (105 vs. 170, 185 and 190 g/day in DWD20-120R, DWB0-120R, DWB0-120L and DWB20-120L; p = 0.04). The incidence of fat tissue in the hind leg increased (p < 0.0001) from 90L (5.82 and 5.45% with DWB0 and DWB20) to 120R (8.80 and 8.43% with DWB0 and DWB20) and 120L lambs (10.7 and 11.8% with DWB0 and DWB20). Older lambs’ meat, compared to that of 90L lambs, showed analogous levels of intramuscular fat, higher water retention, tenderness and lightness, and a more intense red colour. In meat from 120-day-old lambs, DWB intake tended to reduce the fat level (p = 0.009) and increased polyphenol content (1.10 vs. 1.62, and 1.02 vs. 1.65 g GAE/kg dry matter (DM) in 120R and 120L lambs; p = 0.02), antioxidant capacity (12.8 vs. 14.9, and 12.8 vs. 15.7 mmol trolox eq/kg DM in 120R and 120L lambs; p = 0.02), and the presence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) (1.61 vs. 2.81, and 1.43 vs. 2.61 g/100 g FA in 120R and 120L lambs; p = 0.007), thereby improving the meat’s health properties. The panelists perceived the effects of DWB inclusion as well as the feeding level with triangle tests. Full article
13 pages, 770 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, In Vitro Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation Kinetics of Agro-Industrial By-Products
by Jairo García-Rodríguez, María José Ranilla, James France, Héctor Alaiz-Moretón, María Dolores Carro and Secundino López
Animals 2019, 9(11), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110861 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5174
Abstract
The nutritive value of 26 agro-industrial by-products was assessed from their chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and rumen fermentation kinetics. By-products from sugar beet, grape, olive tree, almond, broccoli, lettuce, asparagus, green bean, artichoke, peas, broad beans, tomato, pepper, apple pomace and citrus [...] Read more.
The nutritive value of 26 agro-industrial by-products was assessed from their chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and rumen fermentation kinetics. By-products from sugar beet, grape, olive tree, almond, broccoli, lettuce, asparagus, green bean, artichoke, peas, broad beans, tomato, pepper, apple pomace and citrus were evaluated. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and fermentation kinetics varied largely across the by-products. Data were subjected to multivariate and principal component analyses (PCA). According to a multivariate cluster analysis chart, samples formed four distinctive groups (A–D). Less degradable by-products were olive tree leaves, pepper skins and grape seeds (group A); whereas the more degradable ones were sugar beet, orange, lemon and clementine pulps (group D). In the PCA plot, component 1 segregated samples of groups A and B from those of groups C and D. Considering the large variability among by-products, most of them can be regarded as potential ingredients in ruminant rations. Depending on the characteristic nutritive value of each by-product, these feedstuffs can provide alternative sources of energy (e.g., citrus pulps), protein (e.g., asparagus rinds), soluble fibre (e.g., sugar beet pulp) or less digestible roughage (e.g., grape seeds or pepper skin). Full article
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12 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Inulin Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality in Growing–Finishing Pigs
by Weikang Wang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Zhiqing Huang, Yuheng Luo, Ping Zheng, Xiangbin Mao, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo and Jun He
Animals 2019, 9(10), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100840 - 21 Oct 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3923
Abstract
Inulin is one of the commercially feasible dietary fibers that has been implicated in regulating the gut health and metabolism of animals. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inulin supplementation on growth performance and meat quality in growing–finishing pigs. [...] Read more.
Inulin is one of the commercially feasible dietary fibers that has been implicated in regulating the gut health and metabolism of animals. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inulin supplementation on growth performance and meat quality in growing–finishing pigs. Thirty-six Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire White growing barrows (22.0 ± 1.0 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments consisting of a basal control diet (CON) or basal diet supplemented with 0.5% inulin (INU). Results showed that inulin supplementation tended to increase the average daily gain (ADG) at the fattening stage (0.05 < p < 0.10). Inulin significantly increased the dressing percentage (p < 0.05) and tended to increase the loin-eye area. The serum concentrations of insulin and IGF-I were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the INU group than in the CON group. Moreover, inulin supplementation significantly elevated the expression level of myosin heavy chain II b (MyHC IIb) in the longissimus dorsi (p < 0.05). Inulin significantly upregulated the expression of mammalian rapamycin target protein (mTOR) but decreased (p < 0.05) the expression level of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase MuRF-1. These results show the beneficial effect of inulin supplementation on the growth performance and carcass traits in growing–finishing pigs, and will also facilitate the application of inulin in swine production. Full article
11 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract (GSPE) Improves Goat Sperm Quality When Preserved at 4 °C
by Fei Wen, Yu Li, Tianyu Feng, Yeqing Du, Fa Ren, Likun Zhang, Ning Han, Shulan Ma, Fangzhou Li, Peng Wang and Jianhong Hu
Animals 2019, 9(10), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100810 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4390
Abstract
Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been shown to possess antioxidative effects. This experiment was designed to study the effect of GSPE during the liquid storage of goat semen. Semen samples were collected from six sexually mature goats. The samples were treated with [...] Read more.
Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been shown to possess antioxidative effects. This experiment was designed to study the effect of GSPE during the liquid storage of goat semen. Semen samples were collected from six sexually mature goats. The samples were treated with different concentrations of GSPE (10, 30, 50, and 70 mg/L) in basic diluent and stored at 4 °C for 120 h; samples without GSPE were used as the control group. The results showed that sperm motility, acrosome membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, plasma membrane integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the treatment groups were significantly higher than in the control group, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the treatment group, sperm quality in the 30 mg/L GSPE group was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.05). Furthermore, artificial insemination (AI) results showed that litter sizes were higher in the 30 mg/L GSPE group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In summary, this experiment showed that adding GSPE to the basic diluent improved sperm quality and that 30 mg/L of GSPE was the most suitable concentration for the liquid preservation of goat semen at 4 °C. Full article
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14 pages, 569 KiB  
Article
Use of Cold-Pressed Sunflower Cake in the Concentrate as a Low-Input Local Strategy to Modify the Milk Fatty Acid Profile of Dairy Cows
by Idoia Goiri, Izaro Zubiria, Hanen Benhissi, Raquel Atxaerandio, Roberto Ruiz, Nerea Mandaluniz and Aser Garcia-Rodriguez
Animals 2019, 9(10), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100803 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3246
Abstract
Cold-pressed sunflower cake (CPSC) is a cheap by-product of oil-manufacturing. Supplementing diets with CPSC, rich in fat and linoleic acid, could be an effective tool for increasing healthy fatty acids (FA) in milk. To test this hypothesis, 10 cows were used in a [...] Read more.
Cold-pressed sunflower cake (CPSC) is a cheap by-product of oil-manufacturing. Supplementing diets with CPSC, rich in fat and linoleic acid, could be an effective tool for increasing healthy fatty acids (FA) in milk. To test this hypothesis, 10 cows were used in a crossover design with two experimental diets fed during two 63-day periods. Cows’ milk production was recorded and samples were taken for fat, protein, lactose, and for FA composition analysis. Dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter apparent digestibility (DMD) were estimated using two markers. Milk acceptance test was carried out. CPSC decreased milk C12:0 (10%, p = 0.023) and C16:0 (5%, p = 0.035) and increased C18:1 cis-12 (37%, p = 0.006), C18:1 trans-11 (32%, p = 0.005), C18:2 cis-9 cis-12 (13%, p = 0.004), and cis-9 trans-11 CLA (35%, p = 0.004). CPSC increased total trans-monounsaturated FA (21%, p = 0.003), total CLA (31%, p = 0.007), and PUFA:SFA ratio (18%, p = 0.006). CPSC did not affect milk production, DMD, DMI and milk composition, but reduced fat yield (9%, p = 0.013) and FCM (7%, p = 0.013). CPSC improved milk overall acceptability. In conclusion, CPSC could modify milk FA profile without a detrimental effect on digestibility, production performance, or milk acceptance. Full article
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11 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Growth Stages of Amaranth Silage on the Rumen Degradation of Dairy Cows
by Jian Ma, Guoqing Sun, Ali Mujtaba Shah, Xue Fan, Shengli Li and Xiong Yu
Animals 2019, 9(10), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100793 - 12 Oct 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2956
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the rumen degradation characteristic of amaranth silage (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) including four kinds of growing stages (budding stage (BS), 50 d after planting (DAP); early flowering stage (ES), 58 DAP; peak flowering stage (PS), [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the rumen degradation characteristic of amaranth silage (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) including four kinds of growing stages (budding stage (BS), 50 d after planting (DAP); early flowering stage (ES), 58 DAP; peak flowering stage (PS), 70 DAP; heading stage (HS), 90 DAP). Four Holstein dairy cows with permanent ruminal cannulas were used as experimental animals. Nylon-bag method was used to assess the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The results showed that the concentration of DM in HS was significantly higher than other stages (p < 0.05), whereas the contents of CP, were lower than in other stages (p < 0.05). With the extension of the growing period, the DM effective degradability of amaranth silage decreased gradually, and the difference was significant (p < 0.05). The ruminal CP degradation of 72 h was more than 80%, and compared with ES and HS, the degradation rate of BS and PS was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Compared to BS, the effective degradability of CP was increased (p < 0.05) in ES and HS. For ruminal NDF degradability, the effective degradability of HS was minimum, and it had a noticeable difference with BS and ES (p < 0.05). Thus, the different quality of amaranth growth stage including chemical contents and rumen degradation should be taken into consideration when making amaranth silage. In the present study, the optimal growth stage of amaranth was from the peak flowering stage to heading stage for ensiling. Full article
13 pages, 587 KiB  
Article
Effects of Corn Supplementation into PKC-Urea Treated Rice Straw Basal Diet on Hematological, Biochemical Indices and Serum Mineral Level in Lambs
by Osama Anwer Saeed, Awis Qurni Sazili, Henny Akit, Abdul Razak Alimon and Anjas Asmara Samsudin
Animals 2019, 9(10), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100781 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3209
Abstract
Twenty-seven Dorper lambs were used to determine the effect of supplementing corn as a source of energy into the palm kernel cake (PKC) urea-treated rice straw basal diet on the blood metabolic profile and metals in lambs. The lambs were randomly allotted to [...] Read more.
Twenty-seven Dorper lambs were used to determine the effect of supplementing corn as a source of energy into the palm kernel cake (PKC) urea-treated rice straw basal diet on the blood metabolic profile and metals in lambs. The lambs were randomly allotted to three experimental treatments according to their initial body weight for a 120 day trial. Dietary treatments were: T1 (control diet) = 75.3% of PKC + 0% corn, T2 = 70.3% of PKC + 5% corn, and T3 = 65.3% of PKC + 10% corn. The results of this study indicated that copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentration intake, retention, and its absorption from the gut and apparent mineral digestibility were highly significant for the levels of corn supplementation. The biochemical and hematological parameters remained within normal levels with the treatments, but the white blood cell, eosinophil count, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were significantly higher in T3. Treatment 3 significantly increased the concentration of Se and Fe, while Zn was reduced in the blood serum of lambs on day 120. The result shows that the inclusion of corn has no effect on the hematological and biochemical parameters of lambs after incorporating corn into the PKC-based diet at 5% and 10%. Full article
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16 pages, 869 KiB  
Review
Pumpkin Waste as Livestock Feed: Impact on Nutrition and Animal Health and on Quality of Meat, Milk, and Egg
by Laura Patricia Valdez-Arjona and Mónica Ramírez-Mella
Animals 2019, 9(10), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100769 - 8 Oct 2019
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 12264
Abstract
Meat, milk, and egg contribute positively to the nutrition and health of humans; however, livestock requires a large number of resources, including land for fodder and grains. Worldwide millions of tons of vegetable waste are produced without any further processing, causing pollution and [...] Read more.
Meat, milk, and egg contribute positively to the nutrition and health of humans; however, livestock requires a large number of resources, including land for fodder and grains. Worldwide millions of tons of vegetable waste are produced without any further processing, causing pollution and health risks. Properly managed vegetable waste could provide a source of feed for livestock, thus reducing feeding costs. In this regard, pumpkin waste (Cucurbita sp.) is an alternative. Research on pumpkin waste on animal nutrition is scarce, however, it has potential as animal feed not only for its nutritional value but also for its antioxidants, pigments, and polysaccharides content that could enhance quality of meat, milk, and egg, as well animal health. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of livestock as a result of greater demand for food of animal origin, including the importance of the consumption of animal foods in human nutrition and health. Moreover, we emphasize the potential of plant residues and, particularly, on the characteristics of pumpkins and how their use as feedstuff for livestock could improve productivity and modify the composition of meat, milk, and egg. Full article
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18 pages, 3124 KiB  
Article
Effect of Feeding Cold-Pressed Sunflower Cake on Ruminal Fermentation, Lipid Metabolism and Bacterial Community in Dairy Cows
by Izaro Zubiria, Aser Garcia-Rodriguez, Raquel Atxaerandio, Roberto Ruiz, Hanen Benhissi, Nerea Mandaluniz, Jose Luis Lavín, Leticia Abecia and Idoia Goiri
Animals 2019, 9(10), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100755 - 1 Oct 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3588
Abstract
Cold-pressed sunflower cake (CPSC), by-product of oil-manufacturing, has high crude fat and linoleic acid concentrations, being a promising supplement to modulate rumen fatty acid (FA) profile. This trial studied CPSC effects on ruminal fermentation, biohydrogenation and the bacterial community in dairy cows. Ten [...] Read more.
Cold-pressed sunflower cake (CPSC), by-product of oil-manufacturing, has high crude fat and linoleic acid concentrations, being a promising supplement to modulate rumen fatty acid (FA) profile. This trial studied CPSC effects on ruminal fermentation, biohydrogenation and the bacterial community in dairy cows. Ten cows were used in a crossover design with two experimental diets and fed during two 63-day periods. The cows were group fed forage ad libitum and the concentrate individually. The concentrates, control and CPSC, were isoenergetic, isoproteic and isofat. The ruminal samples collected at the end of each experimental period were analyzed for short-chain fatty acid, FA and DNA sequencing. CPSC decreased butyrate molar proportion (4%, p = 0.005). CPSC decreased C16:0 (28%, p < 0.001) and increased C18:0 (14%, p < 0.001) and total monounsaturated FA, especially C18:1 trans-11 (13%, p = 0.023). The total purine derivative excretion tended to be greater (5%, p = 0.05) with CPSC, resulting in a 6% greater daily microbial N flow. CPSC did not affect the diversity indices but increased the relative abundances of Treponema and Coprococcus, and decreased Enterococcus, Ruminococcus and Succinivibrio. In conclusion, the changes in ruminal fermentation and the FA profile were not associated with changes in microbial diversity or abundance of dominant populations, however, they might be associated with less abundant genera. Full article
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19 pages, 358 KiB  
Review
Feeding Canola, Camelina, and Carinata Meals to Ruminants
by Eduardo Marostegan Paula, Lorrayny Galoro da Silva, Virginia Lucia Neves Brandao, Xiaoxia Dai and Antonio Pinheiro Faciola
Animals 2019, 9(10), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100704 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 6668
Abstract
Soybean meal (SBM) is a byproduct from the oil-industry widely used as protein supplement to ruminants worldwide due to its nutritional composition, high protein concentration, and availability. However, the dependency on monocultures such as SBM is problematic due to price fluctuation, availability and, [...] Read more.
Soybean meal (SBM) is a byproduct from the oil-industry widely used as protein supplement to ruminants worldwide due to its nutritional composition, high protein concentration, and availability. However, the dependency on monocultures such as SBM is problematic due to price fluctuation, availability and, in some countries, import dependency. In this context, oilseeds from the mustard family such as rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris), camelina (Camelina sativa), and carinata (Brassica carinata) have arisen as possible alternative protein supplements for ruminants. Therefore, the objective of this comprehensive review was to summarize results from studies in which canola meal (CM), camelina meal (CMM), and carinata meal (CRM) were fed to ruminants. This review was based on published peer-reviewed articles that were obtained based on key words that included the oilseed plant in question and words such as “ruminal fermentation and metabolism, animal performance, growth, and digestion”. Byproducts from oil and biofuel industries such as CM, CMM, and CRM have been evaluated as alternative protein supplements to ruminants in the past two decades. Among the three plants reviewed herein, CM has been the most studied and results have shown an overall improvement in nitrogen utilization when animals were fed CM. Camelina meal has a comparable amino acids (AA) profile and crude protein (CP) concentration to CM. It has been reported that by replacing other protein supplements with CMM in ruminant diets, similar milk and protein yields, and average daily gain have been observed. Carinata meal has protein digestibility similar to SBM and its CP is highly degraded in the rumen. Overall, we can conclude that CM is at least as good as SBM as a protein supplement; and although studies evaluating the use of CMN and CRM for ruminants are scarce, it has been demonstrated that both oilseeds may be valuable feedstuff for livestock animals. Despite the presence of erucic acid and glucosinolates in rapeseed, no negative effect on animal performance was observed when feeding CM up to 20% and feeding CMN and CRM up to 10% of the total diet. Full article
19 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Oxidative Status, Milk and Cheese Production, and Food Sustainability Indexes by Addition of Durum Wheat Bran to Dairy Cows’ Diet
by Adriana Bonanno, Antonino Di Grigoli, Massimo Todaro, Marco Alabiso, Francesca Vitale, Adriana Di Trana, Daniela Giorgio, Luca Settanni, Raimondo Gaglio, Barbara Laddomada and Giuseppe Di Miceli
Animals 2019, 9(9), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090698 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4243
Abstract
Durum wheat bran (DWB) is a by-product mostly used in feeding ruminants, contributing to decrease in the utilization of feeds suitable as foods for human consumption, thus improving the sustainability of livestock production. However, the potential benefits of DWB, due to its content [...] Read more.
Durum wheat bran (DWB) is a by-product mostly used in feeding ruminants, contributing to decrease in the utilization of feeds suitable as foods for human consumption, thus improving the sustainability of livestock production. However, the potential benefits of DWB, due to its content in phenolic acids, mainly consisting of ferulic acid with antioxidant properties, have not been well clarified yet. Accordingly, in this experiment, 36 lactating cows divided into three groups received, over a period of 100 days, one of three concentrates including DWB at 0% (DWB0), 10% (DWB10), or 20% (DWB20). The concentrates were formulated to be isoproteic and isoenergetic and, to balance the higher fiber content of the concentrates with DWB, the hay in the diets was slightly reduced. During the trial, the group feed intake and the individual milk production were monitored, and cheese was made with bulk milk from each group. Milk yield and microbiological characteristics of milk and cheese were similar among groups, indicating no DWB effect on cows performance and fermentation process. Milk from DWB20 group resulted slightly higher in casein and curd firmness (a2r). In cows fed DWB, the higher polyphenol intake was responsible for higher blood contents of these bioactive compounds, that seemed to have contributed in reducing the level of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), which were higher in DWB0 cows. DWB20 cheeses showed a higher polyphenol content, lower number of peroxides, and higher antioxidant capacity than DWB0 cheeses. DWB20 and DWB10 diets resulted less expensive. In addition, the DWB20 group showed the best indexes heFCE (human edible feed conversion efficiency = milk/human edible feed) and NFP (net food production = milk − human edible food), expressed as crude protein or gross energy. In conclusion, the DWB fed to dairy cows at 12% of diet dry matter (DM) can lead to benefits, such as the improvement of oxidative status of cows, milk quality, shelf-life, and functional properties of cheese, and might contribute to reduce the feeding cost and limit the human-animal competition for feeding sources. Full article
11 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Dietary Inclusion of Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) Stem Waste on Growth Performance, Antibody Response, Immune Status, and Serum Cholesterol in Broiler Chickens
by Shad Mahfuz, Tengfei He, Sujie Liu, Di Wu, Shenfei Long and Xiangshu Piao
Animals 2019, 9(9), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090692 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 4687
Abstract
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stem waste (MW) on growth performance, antibody response, immune status, and serum cholesterol in broiler chickens. A total of 252 1 day old Arbor Acres (AA) male broiler [...] Read more.
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stem waste (MW) on growth performance, antibody response, immune status, and serum cholesterol in broiler chickens. A total of 252 1 day old Arbor Acres (AA) male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four treatments with seven replications of nine chicks each. The duration of experimental period was total 42 days. Dietary treatments includes a standard basal diet as negative control (NC) group; control diet with antibiotics (Chlortetracycline) considered as positive control (PC) group; 1% mushroom stem waste (MW) fed group; and 2% MW fed group. No significant differences (p > 0.05) was observed on average daily feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio among experimental groups. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) were higher (p < 0.05) in 2% MW fed group than NC and PC fed groups. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was higher (p < 0.05) in both levels of MW fed groups than in the NC and PC. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), were higher (p < 0.05) in 2% MW fed groups than in the NC and PC fed groups. Total cholesterol concentration was lower (p < 0.05) in both levels MW fed groups than in the NC. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) was lower (p < 0.05) in both levels of MW fed groups than that of NC and PC fed groups. MW at 2% level can be used as potential phytogenic feed supplement in broilers. Full article
10 pages, 212 KiB  
Article
Steam Explosion Treatment of Byproduct Feedstuffs for Potential Use as Ruminant Feed
by Yue Liu, Xiaoxuan Ren, Hao Wu, Qingxiang Meng and Zhenming Zhou
Animals 2019, 9(9), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090688 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2876
Abstract
Although many byproducts of milling industries have potential as a ruminant feed, they have not been widely used due to their low nutritive value, especially high-fiber content and difficult processing techniques. Steam explosion can increase the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin and [...] Read more.
Although many byproducts of milling industries have potential as a ruminant feed, they have not been widely used due to their low nutritive value, especially high-fiber content and difficult processing techniques. Steam explosion can increase the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin and make byproduct feedstuffs more suitable as ruminant feed. Five byproduct feedstuffs: cassava alcohol residue (CAR), distillers’ grains (DG), cottonseed meal (CM), rapeseed meal (RM) and potato starchy residues (PSR), were steam-exploded using five different processing parameters and the effects on the chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, energy value, and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System composition were assessed in order to provide a theoretical basis for the technique’s development and utilization for ruminant feed production. In this study, after steam-explosion treatment, the nutritive value and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of CAR, DG, RM and PSR were improved (p < 0.05), while there was no effect on nutritive value of CM (p > 0.05). Specifically, steam explosion treatment decreased the contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, available cell wall, and slowly degraded protein, and increased the total digestible nutrients, digestible energy, metabolic energy, net energy for maintenance, and net energy for gain, sugar, non-structural carbohydrate and IVDMD. Therefore, steam-explosion treatment offers the potential to improve the suitability of byproduct feedstuffs as ruminant feed. Full article
9 pages, 216 KiB  
Article
Effects of Phytonutrients on Ruminal Fermentation, Digestibility, and Microorganisms in Swamp Buffaloes
by Thiwakorn Ampapon, Kampanat Phesatcha and Metha Wanapat
Animals 2019, 9(9), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090671 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3262
Abstract
This experiment aimed to use dietary sources containing phytonutrients (PTN) such as mangosteen peel powder (MSP) and banana flower powder (BFP) as sources of phytonutrients. Four swamp buffalo bulls fitted with rumen fistulae were used as experimental animals. A digestion trial covering four [...] Read more.
This experiment aimed to use dietary sources containing phytonutrients (PTN) such as mangosteen peel powder (MSP) and banana flower powder (BFP) as sources of phytonutrients. Four swamp buffalo bulls fitted with rumen fistulae were used as experimental animals. A digestion trial covering four periods was used according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four treatments: Treatment 1 (T1) = control (Cont), T2 = supplementation of PTN1 fed at 100 g/d, T3 = supplementation of PTN2 fed at 100 g/d, and T4 = supplementation of PTN3 fed at 100 g/d. The experiment was conducted for four periods; each period lasted for 21 days. All animals were fed a concentrate mixture at 0.5% body weight, while rice straw, water, and mineral blocks were fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant increases in the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), while no changes in dry matter feed consumption occurred due to PTN supplementation. Rumen fermentation end-products, such as total volatile fatty acids (TVFA), propionic acid (C3), and butyric acid (C4), were notably enhanced (p < 0.05) and there were the highest in PTN2 and PTN3, whilst acetic acid (C2) was significantly decreased with PTN supplementation groups. Furthermore, the rumen protozoal population was suppressed (p < 0.05), which resulted in decreased rumen methane production (p < 0.05), while the bacterial population was enhanced. Using PTN sources can improve rumen fermentation as well as mitigating rumen methane production. Full article
15 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
Microbial Mechanistic Insights into the Role of Sweet Potato Vine on Improving Health in Chinese Meishan Gilt Model
by Shengyu Xu, Pan Zhang, Meng Cao, Yanpeng Dong, Jian Li, Yan Lin, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Bin Feng, Yong Zhuo, Jianping Wang, Zhihua Ren and De Wu
Animals 2019, 9(9), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090632 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
This study explored the impact of fresh sweet potato vine on the growth as well as the metabolites and colon microbial composition in Chinese Meishan gilt. Twenty Meishan gilts (body weight 30 ± 0.18 kg, n = 10 per treatment) were randomly assigned [...] Read more.
This study explored the impact of fresh sweet potato vine on the growth as well as the metabolites and colon microbial composition in Chinese Meishan gilt. Twenty Meishan gilts (body weight 30 ± 0.18 kg, n = 10 per treatment) were randomly assigned to a control (CON) or sweet potato vine (SPV) supplementation diet treatment. Gilts were housed in individual stalls. In the SPV treatment, 2 kg fresh sweet potato vine was used instead of 0.18 kg basal diet which provided the same amount of digestive energy and crude protein with the exception of crude fiber (CON, 51.00 g/d vs. SPV, 73.94 g/d) in terms of dry matter intake. Gilts were slaughtered and samples were collected on day 19 after the third estrus cycle. The SPV treatment tended to increase slaughter weight of gilts (p = 0.07); it also increased (p < 0.05) gastrointestinal tract weight and intestinal muscle layer thickness. SPV treatment also decreased (p < 0.05) carcass yield and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The concentration of zonulin and endotoxin in plasma was decreased (p < 0.05) as the gilt consumed the SPV diet. Colonic fecal concentrations of endotoxin, lipocalin-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were decreased (p < 0.05), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased (p < 0.05) in the SPV treatment. Butyric acid and acetate concentration in colonic content as well as acetate concentration in caecal content were increased (p < 0.05) in the SPV treatment. Furthermore, the expression of carnitine palmityl transferase (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in gilt liver in SPV treatment was increased (p < 0.05) in comparison with CON treatment. Meanwhile, the composition of the colon microbes was also altered by SPV; representative changes included an increase in Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Roseburia, and Lachnospira. These results indicate that gilt fed with sweet potato vine had decreased gut permeability, endotoxin and pro-inflammatory cytokines concentrations; colonic fecal microbiota was also changed, which may be further beneficial to the intestinal health of Chinese Meishan gilt. Full article
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11 pages, 227 KiB  
Article
Effects of Supplementation with Royal Poinciana Seed Meal (Delonix regia) on Ruminal Fermentation Pattern, Microbial Protein Synthesis, Blood Metabolites and Mitigation of Methane Emissions in Native Thai Beef Cattle
by Anusorn Cherdthong, Rittikeard Prachumchai, Metha Wanapat, Suban Foiklang and Pin Chanjula
Animals 2019, 9(9), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090625 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3389
Abstract
The object of this present work was to determine the effects of supplementation with pellets containing royal poinciana seed meal (PEREM) on feed use, ruminal fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis, blood metabolites and mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions in cattle. The [...] Read more.
The object of this present work was to determine the effects of supplementation with pellets containing royal poinciana seed meal (PEREM) on feed use, ruminal fermentation efficiency, microbial protein synthesis, blood metabolites and mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions in cattle. The animals used in this experiment were four male Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with initial body weights (BWs) of 125 ± 5.0 kg. Each of the animals were randomly assigned to receive PEREM doses at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/d, respectively, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Concentrates were fed at 0.5% BW daily, and rice straw was fed ad libitum. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) on intakes of rice straw, concentrate and total diet. The intake of nutrients did not change among the levels of PEREM supplementation (p > 0.05), except for an intake of crude protein, which was linearly enhanced when increasing the dose of PEREM (p < 0.05). The inclusion of different doses of PEREM did not adversely affect the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (p > 0.05). Adding various doses of PEREM did not alter ruminal pH and ruminal temperature, while concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen were significantly increased with an increased dose of PEREM supplementation (p < 0.01). The increasing doses of PEREM linearly reduced protozoal numbers (p < 0.01), with the lowest concentration when PEREM was added at 150 g. PEREM supplementation did not change (p > 0.05) the concentration of acetic acid or butyric acid or the ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid. Nevertheless, the total volatile fatty acid and propionic acid content were changed among PEREM levels (p < 0.05), which were linearly increased with an increasing dose of PEREM. At 4 h post feeding, the CH4 concentrations in the rumen of the animal were linearly reduced when the dose of pellets was increased (p < 0.01). In addition, the inclusion of PEREM did not adversely affect other blood metabolites, namely total protein, creatinine and albumin (p > 0.05). Furthermore, microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial N synthesis were linearly enhanced when increasing levels of PEREM were added. The feeding of PEREM at 150 g/d might be an alternative with the potential to improve rumen fermentation efficiency and reduce the environmental effects produced by ruminants. Full article
16 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Aged Maize with Oxidized Fish Oil on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Intestinal Health in Weaned Piglets
by Bin Luo, Daiwen Chen, Gang Tian, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Jun He, Xiangbin Mao, Yuheng Luo, Junqiu Luo, Zhiqing Huang and Bing Yu
Animals 2019, 9(9), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090624 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary aged maize with supplementation of different levels of oxidized fish oil on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant activity and gut health in piglets. Forty-two piglets were arranged in 2 × 3 factorial treatments [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary aged maize with supplementation of different levels of oxidized fish oil on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant activity and gut health in piglets. Forty-two piglets were arranged in 2 × 3 factorial treatments in a complete randomized block design with seven replicates per treatment and one pig per replicate for 28 d. Diets included twp types of maize (normal maize or aged maize) and three levels of oxidized fish oil (OFO) (3% non-oxidized fish oil (0% OFO), 1.5% OFO and 1.5% non-oxidized fish oil (1.5% OFO), and 3% OFO (3% OFO). Results showed that dietary aged maize did not affect growth performance, diarrhea, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in piglets (p > 0.05). However, aged maize increased malonaldehyde (MDA) content and decreased total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum on both 14th and 28th days (p < 0.05) compared to the normal maize groups. Meanwhile, compared with normal maize, dietary aged maize showed a slight, but not significant (p > 0.10) decrease in total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity and VE content in serum on the 14th day. In addition, aged maize significantly decreased GLUT2 mRNA expression (p < 0.05) and tended to increase (p < 0.10) TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in jejunal mucosa. Compared with non-oxidized fish oil, oxidized fish oil resulted in the decrease of the 14–28 d and 0–28 d ADG, as well as the ATTD of dry matter (DM), ether extract (EE), organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05), whereas the increase in diarrhea index (p < 0.05) and F/G of the whole period (p < 0.05). Oxidized fish oil decreased serum T-AOC on both the 14th and the 28th days (p < 0.05), and decreased serum T-SOD activity and VE content on the 28th day (p < 0.05), whereas increased serum MDA content on the 28th day (p < 0.05) and 14th day (p < 0.10) compared with fresh fish oil. Meanwhile, MUC2 (p < 0.05) and SGLT1 (p < 0.10) mRNA expression in jejunal mucosa were decreased compared with non-oxidized fish oil. In addition, dietary oxidized fish oil tended to decrease 14–28 d ADFI and the ATTD of CP (p < 0.10), and piglets fed oxidized fish oil significantly decreased 14–28 d ADFI, the ATTD of CP, GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA expressions in jejunal mucosa when piglet also fed with aged maize (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicated that dietary oxidized fish oil decreased growth performance and nutrients digestibility of piglets fed with aged maize. This nutrient interaction may be mediated by inhibiting intestinal nutrient transporter, inducing intestinal inflammation, and reducing antioxidant capacity. Full article
14 pages, 1333 KiB  
Article
Sweet Corn Stalk Treated with Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Alone or in Combination with Lactobacillus Plantarum: Nutritional Composition, Fermentation Traits and Aerobic Stability
by Xiaoling Zhou, Zhu Ouyang, Xiaoli Zhang, Yuqing Wei, Shaoxun Tang, Zhiyuan Ma, Zhiliang Tan, Nong Zhu, Tsegay Teklebrhan and Xuefeng Han
Animals 2019, 9(9), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090598 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4283
Abstract
This study examined the effects of a high-dose Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculant alone or jointly with Lactobacillus plantarum on nutrient preservation, fermentation quality, and aerobic stability of sweet corn stalk silage. Fresh stalks (231 g dry matter (DM)/kg) were chopped and subjected to the [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of a high-dose Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculant alone or jointly with Lactobacillus plantarum on nutrient preservation, fermentation quality, and aerobic stability of sweet corn stalk silage. Fresh stalks (231 g dry matter (DM)/kg) were chopped and subjected to the following treatments: (1) deionized water (Uninoculated; U); (2) S. cerevisiae at 1 × 108 cfu/g of fresh forage (S); and (3) S. cerevisiae at 1 × 108 cfu/g plus L. plantarum at 1 × 105 cfu/g (SL). Treated stalks were ensiled in 5-litre laboratory silos for 30, 60, and 90 day. The S and SL silages had a greater (p < 0.001) pH and greater crude protein, ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and ethanol contents at all three ensiling periods than the U silage. Acetate, propionate and volatile fatty acids in the S and SL silages after 30 and 90 day of ensiling were greater (p < 0.05) than those in the U silage, but they were lower (p < 0.05) in the S and SL silages than in the U silage after 60 day. The lactate and V-score of the S and SL silages were lower (p < 0.001) than those of the U silage at all three ensiling periods. Compared with the U group, the aerobic stability of the S silage after 90 day of ensiling decreased (p < 0.05), and the aerobic stability of the SL silage was unaffected (p > 0.05). Overall, the quality of sweet corn stalk silage was not improved by inoculation with 108 cfu/g of S. cerevisiae alone or in combination with 1 × 105 cfu/g of L. plantarum. Full article
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14 pages, 692 KiB  
Article
Effects of Supplementation of Branches and Leaves Trimmed from Tea Plant on Growth Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Meat Composition of Nanjiang Yellow Goats
by Ali Mujtaba Shah, Yimin Cai, Huawei Zou, Xiangfei Zhang, Lizhi Wang, Bai Xue, Peiqiang Yu, Zhisheng Wang and Quanhui Peng
Animals 2019, 9(9), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090590 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3427
Abstract
Thirty-two 6-month-old, healthy Nanjiang Yellow goats (34.6 ± 4.16 kg) were randomly divided into four treatments to evaluate the supplementary effects of branches and leaves trimmed from tea tree (BLTT) on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and meat composition in fattening goats. The [...] Read more.
Thirty-two 6-month-old, healthy Nanjiang Yellow goats (34.6 ± 4.16 kg) were randomly divided into four treatments to evaluate the supplementary effects of branches and leaves trimmed from tea tree (BLTT) on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and meat composition in fattening goats. The control goats were fed a basal diet. Treatments 1, 2 and 3 were fed 2%, 4% and 6% of BLTT respectively. After a 60 d feeding trial, blood samples were collected for the analysis of the antioxidant profile and goats were slaughtered to obtain the rumen fluid and carcass samples for determination of rumen fermentation characteristics and meat composition perameters. Increased final body weight was observed in goats fed 4% BLTT compared with control. The activity of superoxide dismutase was increased in the 4% BLTT-treated group, while glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde followed the quadratic curve. Quadratic curves were also observed for villus height, crypt depth and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum. The quadratic effect was obtained for total essential amino acids, and individual amino acids threonine and leucine. The saturated fatty acid C16:0 was decreased with 4% of BLTT supplementation, and a quadratic effect was observed for polyunsaturated fatty acid C18:3 (n−3). To sum up, our findings revealed that BLTT supplementation has a positive effect on body antioxidative status, gastrointestinal development, rumen fermentation characteristics and overall growth performance and meat quality in goats. Full article
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13 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Brassica Vegetables as Potential Feed for Ruminants
by Trinidad de Evan, Andrea Vintimilla, Carlos N. Marcos, María José Ranilla and María Dolores Carro
Animals 2019, 9(9), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090588 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3552
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition, in vitro ruminal fermentation, and intestinal digestibility of discarded samples of four Brassica vegetables: Brussels sprouts (BS), white cabbage, Savoy cabbage, and red cabbage, and to assess the effects of including increasing [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition, in vitro ruminal fermentation, and intestinal digestibility of discarded samples of four Brassica vegetables: Brussels sprouts (BS), white cabbage, Savoy cabbage, and red cabbage, and to assess the effects of including increasing amounts of BS in the concentrate of a dairy sheep diet on in vitro fermentation, CH4 production, and in situ degradation of the diets. All cabbages had low dry matter content (DM; <16.5%), but their DM had high crude protein (19.5–24.8%) and sugars (27.2–41.4%) content and low neutral detergent fiber (17.5–28%) and was rapidly and extensively fermented in the rumen. Rumen degradability of protein at 12 h of in situ incubation was greater than 91.5% for all cabbages, and in vitro intestinal digestibility of protein ranged from 61.4 to 90.2%. Replacing barley, corn, and soybean meal by 24% of dried BS in the concentrate of a diet for dairy sheep (40:60 alfalfa hay:concentrate) increased in vitro diet fermentation and in situ degradability of DM and protein, and reduced in vitro CH4/total volatile fatty acid ratio. In vivo trials are necessary to confirm these results. Full article
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8 pages, 215 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Weissella Cibaria JW15 Probiotic Derived from Fermented Korean Vegetable Product Supplementation in Diet on Performance Characteristics in Adult Beagle Dog
by Hao Yang Sun, Kun Phil Kim, Chun Ho Bae, Ae Jin Choi, Hyun Dong Paik and In Ho Kim
Animals 2019, 9(8), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080581 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4006
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Weissella cibaria JW15 (WJW15) isolated from traditional Korean fermented vegetable product (kimchi) as a probiotic feed additive on nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, feces noxious gas emission, and feces Escherichia coli and [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Weissella cibaria JW15 (WJW15) isolated from traditional Korean fermented vegetable product (kimchi) as a probiotic feed additive on nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, feces noxious gas emission, and feces Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus counts in adult Beagle dogs. In total, 15 Beagle dogs with an average initial body weight of 10.20 ± 0.38 kg were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments in a 14-day feeding trial. Dietary treatments consisted of basal diet (CON); MJW = CON + 50 g of WJW15 (3.0 × 108 cfu/g); and BJW = CON + 50 g WJW15 (3.0 × 109 cfu/g). At the end of the experiment, the serum concentration of triglycerides and feces ammonia emissions were decreased (P < 0.05) with the increasing level of WJW15 supplementation. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum and feces lactic acid bacteria count was improved (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of WJW15. In conclusion, WJW15 isolated from kimchi supplementation in adult Beagle dog diet may have beneficial effects as a probiotic feed additive. Full article
13 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation of Dried Grape Pomace Increases the Amount of Linoleic Acid in Beef, Reduces the Lipid Oxidation and Modifies the Volatile Profile
by Andrea Ianni, Alessio Di Luca, Camillo Martino, Francesca Bennato, Elettra Marone, Lisa Grotta, Angelo Cichelli and Giuseppe Martino
Animals 2019, 9(8), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080578 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with dried grape pomace on beef quality. Ten Friesian calves were divided into two groups, a control group that received a standard diet, and an experimental group that was administered [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with dried grape pomace on beef quality. Ten Friesian calves were divided into two groups, a control group that received a standard diet, and an experimental group that was administered the dietary supplementation. At the end of the 75 days of the trial, animals were slaughtered, and meat samples analyzed for physical and chemical properties, fatty acids composition, lipid oxidation, volatile compounds, and biogenic amines. The fatty acid profile resulted affected by dietary supplementation, since an increase in concentration of linoleic acid was observed. Furthermore, a reduction of lipid oxidation was found in the same samples. With reference to volatile compounds a reduction of hexanal and an increase of 2-3 octanedione was evidenced, while no effects were induced by diets on the synthesis of biogenic amines. The grape pomace exploitation as a dietary supplement in bovine diet did not have negative effects on the quality of beef and showed the potential to extend shelf life due to marked improvement in oxidative stability. Overall, the present study showed a viable way for the recovery and the valorization of the main by-product of the oenological industry. Full article
12 pages, 631 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Fermentation and Chemical Characteristics of Mediterranean By-Products for Swine Nutrition
by Alessandro Vastolo, Serena Calabró, Luigi Liotta, Nadia Musco, Ambra Rita Di Rosa, Monica Isabella Cutrignelli and Biagina Chiofalo
Animals 2019, 9(8), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080556 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4000
Abstract
The purpose of the study is to determine the nutritional characteristics of some by-products derived from fruit juice and olive oil production to evaluate their use in pig nutrition. Five by-products of citrus fruit (three citrus fruit pulp and two molasses) and three [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study is to determine the nutritional characteristics of some by-products derived from fruit juice and olive oil production to evaluate their use in pig nutrition. Five by-products of citrus fruit (three citrus fruit pulp and two molasses) and three by-products of olive oil (olive cake) obtained by different varieties are analysed for chemical composition. The fermentation characteristics are evaluated in vitro using the gas production technique with swine faecal inoculum. All the citrus by-products are highly fermentable, producing gas and a high amount of short-chain fatty acids. The fermentation kinetics vary when comparing pulps and molasses. Citrus fruit pulps show lower and slower fermentation rates than molasses. The olive oil by-products, compared to citrus fruits ones, are richer in NDF and ADL. These characteristics negatively affect all the fermentation parameters. Therefore, the high concentration of fiber and lipids represents a key aspect in the nutrition of fattening pigs. The preliminary results obtained in this study confirm that the use of by-products in pig nutrition could represent a valid opportunity the reduce the livestock economic cost and environmental impact. Full article
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16 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
Goats’ Feeding Supplementation with Acacia farnesiana Pods and Their Relationship with Milk Composition: Fatty Acids, Polyphenols, and Antioxidant Activity
by Claudia Delgadillo-Puga, Mario Cuchillo-Hilario, Luis León-Ortiz, Amairani Ramírez-Rodríguez, Andrea Cabiddu, Arturo Navarro-Ocaña, Aurora Magdalena Morales-Romero, Omar Noel Medina-Campos and José Pedraza-Chaverri
Animals 2019, 9(8), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080515 - 1 Aug 2019
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 5387
Abstract
Background: Research efforts have focused on the evaluation of the bioactive quality of animal products (milk, cheese, meat, and other by-products) contrasting various feeding strategies coming from different ecological zones. The study aimed to describe the fatty acids (FA), polyphenols (P), bioactive compounds [...] Read more.
Background: Research efforts have focused on the evaluation of the bioactive quality of animal products (milk, cheese, meat, and other by-products) contrasting various feeding strategies coming from different ecological zones. The study aimed to describe the fatty acids (FA), polyphenols (P), bioactive compounds (BC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of goat’s milk. Methods: Dairy goats were fed with five systems: (1) Grazing; (2) conventional diet (CD); (3) CD + 10% of Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods; (4) CD + 20% AF; and (5) CD + 30% AF. The fatty acid profile, health promoting and thrombogenic indexes were calculated. Milk extracts were evaluated by HPLC to determent phenolic compounds (gallic, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin). Antioxidant activity of goat’s milk extract was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Results: Conventional diet showed the highest content of polyunsaturated fatty acids while grazing showed the best n-6:n-3 and the linoleic:alpha linolenic acid ratio. Similarly, grazing and AF boosted the polyphenol content. Conclusions: Acacia farnesiana inclusion in the goats’ diets increased the presence of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity while diminishing the cholesterol content of goat’s milk. Full article
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10 pages, 1177 KiB  
Article
Whole Blood Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Positive Effects of Dried Olive Pomace-Supplemented Diet on Inflammation and Cholesterol in Laying Hens
by Marco Iannaccone, Andrea Ianni, Solange Ramazzotti, Lisa Grotta, Elettra Marone, Angelo Cichelli and Giuseppe Martino
Animals 2019, 9(7), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070427 - 7 Jul 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
Olive pomace (OP) represents one of the by-products of the olive industry and represents an important source of bioactive compounds. This characteristic makes OP a potential feed supplement in livestock nutrition. Thus, in the last years, several studies have been published to evaluate [...] Read more.
Olive pomace (OP) represents one of the by-products of the olive industry and represents an important source of bioactive compounds. This characteristic makes OP a potential feed supplement in livestock nutrition. Thus, in the last years, several studies have been published to evaluate the productive traits following OP supplementation in animal diets; however, relatively little is known from a molecular biology standpoint. Therefore, in this study, we report the RNA-sequencing analysis of laying hens fed with a 10% dried OP (DOP) supplementation. Applying a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05 and a Log2Fc either less than −1.5 or higher than +1.5, we identified 264 differentially regulated genes (DEGs) between the non-supplemented diet control group (CTR) and the DOP group. Using the 264 DEGs to identify enriched biological pathways, we noted that cholesterol biosynthesis showed the highest enrichment followed by several pathways related to immune response and inflammation. As a consequence, when we quantified the cholesterol amount in yolk egg, we found a significant reduction in the DOP vs. the CTR group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that DPO affects gene expression in laying hens, which is directly correlated with cholesterol decrease and can potentially ameliorate health status influencing immune response and inflammation. Full article
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16 pages, 2871 KiB  
Article
Moringa Extract Attenuates Inflammatory Responses and Increases Gene Expression of Casein in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells
by Wei Nee Cheng, Chang Hee Jeong, Han Geuk Seo and Sung Gu Han
Animals 2019, 9(7), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070391 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6206
Abstract
Bovine mastitis is a common inflammatory disease in the udder of dairy cows that causes economic loss to dairy industries. The development of alternative strategies, especially the utilization of natural products, e.g., Moringa oleifera, has gained a lot of interests. The objective [...] Read more.
Bovine mastitis is a common inflammatory disease in the udder of dairy cows that causes economic loss to dairy industries. The development of alternative strategies, especially the utilization of natural products, e.g., Moringa oleifera, has gained a lot of interests. The objective of the current study was to investigate the protective effects of moringa extract (ME) in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T) in in vitro settings. Radical scavenging capacities and anti-inflammatory properties of ME were examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged MAC-T cells. ME showed significant radical scavenging activities. In addition, ME decreased reactive oxygen species produced by LPS in cells. ME also attenuated inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by LPS by down-regulating NF-κB signaling cascade. Moreover, ME ameliorated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, ME up-regulated mRNA expression levels of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1, and thioredoxin reductase 1. Importantly, ME promoted differentiated MAC-T cells by increasing mRNA expression levels of α-casein S1, α-casein S2, and β-casein. In conclusion, ME has beneficial effects in bovine mammary epithelial cells through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and casein production properties. Our study provides evidence that ME could be a good candidate for a feed supplement to decrease inflammatory responses due to bovine mastitis. Full article
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15 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Nutritive Value of Tomato Pomace for Ruminants and Its Influence on In Vitro Methane Production
by Carlos N. Marcos, Trinidad de Evan, Eduarda Molina-Alcaide and M. D. Carro
Animals 2019, 9(6), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060343 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3747
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the variability in nutritive value for ruminants of tomato pomace (TP) samples and analyze its effect on in vitro fermentation when it was included in a high-concentrate diet. Twelve TP samples were obtained from two [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the variability in nutritive value for ruminants of tomato pomace (TP) samples and analyze its effect on in vitro fermentation when it was included in a high-concentrate diet. Twelve TP samples were obtained from two processing plants at weekly intervals and analyzed for chemical composition, in vitro rumen fermentation, and intestinal digestibility. The chemical composition of TP did not differ between processing plants and only slight variations were observed among sampling times. Tomato pomace had a low dry matter content (<300 g/kg), a high content of neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, and ether extract (572, 160, and 82.7 g/kg dry matter on average, respectively), and was rapidly fermented in the rumen. Protein degradability at 16 h in situ incubation was 510 g/kg and in vitro intestinal digestibility of protein was low (430–475 g/kg). Replacing soybean meal and barley straw by dried TP increased the in vitro fermentation rate and the production of volatile fatty acids and reduced NH3-N concentrations without affecting CH4. In summary, TP samples showed little variability in nutritive value over sampling time and TP of up to 180 g/kg could be included in high-concentrate diets without negatively affecting rumen fermentation. Full article
11 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sweet Potato Vine on the Onset of Puberty and Follicle Development in Chinese Meishan Gilts
by Pan Zhang, Meng Cao, Jian Li, Yan Lin, Zhengfeng Fang, Lianqiang Che, Bin Feng, Yong Zhuo, Jianping Wang, De Wu and Shengyu Xu
Animals 2019, 9(6), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060297 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sweet potato vine on the onset of puberty and the follicular development in the ovaries of Chinese Meishan gilts. A total of 20 Meishan gilts (initial body weight at 30 ± 0.18 kg) were [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sweet potato vine on the onset of puberty and the follicular development in the ovaries of Chinese Meishan gilts. A total of 20 Meishan gilts (initial body weight at 30 ± 0.18 kg) were randomly fed a control (CON) or sweet potato vine (SPV) supplemented diet until 19 days following the third estrous. Sweet potato vine was instead of part of basal diet with the same amount of energy and protein in the sweet potato vine group. The results indicate that gilts fed with sweet potato vine reached puberty 9.4 days later. The development of ovaries was enhanced by sweet potato vine supplementation, characterized by an increase (p < 0.05) in the relative weight of the ovaries and the number of large follicles (>5 mm). Sweet potato vine supplementation increased (p < 0.05) the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and reduced (p < 0.05) the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of the gilts. Also, the expression of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) mRNA in the granulosa cells from the large follicle (>5 mm) of gilts in the SPV group were increased (p < 0.05) as compared with the CON group. These results indicate that gilts fed with sweet potato vine exhibited delayed puberty as well as improved follicular development, which may contribute to the reproductive performance of Chinese Meishan gilts. Full article
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9 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Effects of Licorice Extract Supplementation on Feed Intake, Digestion, Rumen Function, Blood Indices and Live Weight Gain of Karakul Sheep
by Xuefeng Guo, Long Cheng, Junfeng Liu, Sujiang Zhang, Xuezhao Sun and Omar Al-Marashdeh
Animals 2019, 9(5), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050279 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5029
Abstract
This study was designed to investigate the effects of licorice extract supplemented to a cottonseed hull-based diet on rumen function, blood indices and growth of Karakul sheep. Twelve rumen-fistulated 1.5-year-old sheep were blocked in pairs by live weight. Sheep within pairs were randomly [...] Read more.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of licorice extract supplemented to a cottonseed hull-based diet on rumen function, blood indices and growth of Karakul sheep. Twelve rumen-fistulated 1.5-year-old sheep were blocked in pairs by live weight. Sheep within pairs were randomly allocated to feed either on a cottonseed hull basal diet (control group) or on a basal diet containing 4.5% of licorice extract on dry matter (DM) basis (supplemented group). Sheep were housed individually and fed for 60 days, with a 15-day adaptation period and a 45-day measurement period. Feed intake and live weight gain were quantified. Rumen and blood samples were taken during the measurement period. The DM intake was lower for the supplemented group than for the control group. The mean ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate were lower, while the levels of propionate and butyrate were higher for the supplemented group than for the control group. Average daily live weight gain, digestible energy intake, apparent nutrient digestibility and feed conversion efficiency did not differ between the two treatments. The serum concentrations of immunoglobulin A and G were 2.1 and 1.8 times greater, and total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase increased by 1.8 and 1.2 times in the supplemented group compared with the control group. These results indicated that licorice extract supplementation in the diet at 4.5% of DM had a limited impact on rumen function but improved blood immunoglobulin and anti-oxidative status of Karakul sheep, without impairment of feed conversion efficiency or live weight gain. Full article
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11 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaf Powder in Concentrate on the Rumen Fermentation and Ruminal Epithelium in Fattening Hu Sheep
by Jialiang Ouyang, Mengzhi Wang, Qirui Hou, Dan Feng, Yu Pi and Weiguo Zhao
Animals 2019, 9(5), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050218 - 6 May 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4619
Abstract
Mulberry leaves have been used as a protein source in replacing concentrates of domestic animals, however, little is known about the relationship between supplementation level and the development of rumen epithelium. This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of different proportions of mulberry [...] Read more.
Mulberry leaves have been used as a protein source in replacing concentrates of domestic animals, however, little is known about the relationship between supplementation level and the development of rumen epithelium. This experiment aimed to investigate the effects of different proportions of mulberry leaf powder (MLP) in dietary concentrate on rumen fermentation and rumen epithelium morphology in fattening Hu sheep. Forty three-month-old male Hu sheep with an initial body weight of 16.5 ± 0.6 kg (BW ± SD) were chosen and randomly divided into five treatments: 0% (control), 15% (T15), 30% (T30), 45% (T45) and 60% (T60) of MLP in concentrate, respectively. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) in treatments T15 and T30 have no significant difference with respect to the control treatment, but DMI and ADG in treatments T45 and T60 were lower than the control treatment (p < 0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) increased linearly and quadraticly as MLP supplementation increased (p < 0.05). The concentration of ammonia (NH3-N) trended to decrease linearly with the increase of MLP supplementation (p < 0.1), whereas the microbial protein (MCP) concentration increased linearly as MLP supplementation increased (p < 0.05). In the results of rumen epithelium morphology, the width of stratum corneum was reduced, whereas the width of ruminal papillae increased (p < 0.05), and the width of stratum granulosum and stratum basale also increased as MLP increased. In summary, MLP supplementation could improve nutrient digestibility, the development of rumen papillae and stratum basale. However, high content MLP (45%–60%) supplementation decreased the growth and food intake performance of fattening Hu sheep. Therefore, 30% MLP is recommended to supplement in concentrate for fattening Hu sheep. Full article
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17 pages, 492 KiB  
Article
Supplementing Tropical Cattle for Improved Nutrient Utilization and Reduced Enteric Methane Emissions
by Asep I. M. Ali, Shimels E. Wassie, Daniel Korir, Lutz Merbold, John P. Goopy, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Uta Dickhoefer and Eva Schlecht
Animals 2019, 9(5), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050210 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4927
Abstract
Given their high nitrogen (N) concentration and low costs, sweet potato vine silage (SPVS) and urea-molasses blocks (UMB) are recommended supplements for tropical regions; therefore, they were investigated in this study. Six heifers were allocated to three diets: the roughage diet (R) consisted [...] Read more.
Given their high nitrogen (N) concentration and low costs, sweet potato vine silage (SPVS) and urea-molasses blocks (UMB) are recommended supplements for tropical regions; therefore, they were investigated in this study. Six heifers were allocated to three diets: the roughage diet (R) consisted of wheat straw (0.61) and Rhodes grass hay (0.39; on dry matter (DM) basis); R + SPVS combined R (0.81) and SPVS (0.19); and with R + UMB animals had access to UMB. During two experimental periods, feed intake, feces and urine excretion, digesta passage, and rumen microbial protein synthesis were determined during seven days and methane emissions during three days. There was no treatment effect (p > 0.05) on DM and N intake. Apparent DM digestibility of R + SPVS (510 g/kg) was higher (p < 0.05) than of R (474 g/kg). Digesta passage and duodenal microbial N flow were similar for all diets (p > 0.05), while N retention was highest with R + SPVS (p > 0.05). Methane emissions per unit of digested feed (g CH4/kg dDM) were lower (p < 0.05) for R + SPVS (55.2) than for R (64.7). Hence, SPVS supplementation to poor–quality roughage has the potential to increase diet digestibility and N retention while reducing CH4 emissions. Full article
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16 pages, 448 KiB  
Article
Vegetable Oils Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation of Dairy Cows’ Diets: Effects on Productive and Reproductive Performance
by Teresa Castro, Diego Martinez, Beatriz Isabel, Almudena Cabezas and Vicente Jimeno
Animals 2019, 9(5), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050205 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5563
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation can affect the productive and reproductive performance in dairy cows subjected to a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol under farm conditions. One hundred and ninety-eight Holstein non-pregnant cows were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation can affect the productive and reproductive performance in dairy cows subjected to a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol under farm conditions. One hundred and ninety-eight Holstein non-pregnant cows were used. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CON), without added oil, and two diets supplemented with either 2.3% soybean oil (SOY) or 2.3% linseed oil (LIN) as dry matter. The diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isoproteic. Dry matter intake and milk yield were similar among treatments (p > 0.05). Both the percentage of fat (p = 0.011) and protein (p = 0.022) were higher in milk from animals not fed with oil (CON). The greatest saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration (p < 0.0001) was observed in milk from cows fed the control diet, without added oil. The monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), PUFA, and the n-3 PUFA content was higher (p < 0.0001) in the milk from animals fed with oil with respect to the control treatment. The C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 in the milk of animals fed with oil supplements was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in that of the control group. Animals supplemented with linseed oil tended to show higher plasma progesterone level (p = 0.09) and a higher number of pregnant cows on the first artificial insemination (p = 0.07). These animals tended to reduce the number of TAI (p = 0.08). In brief, results showed that vegetable oils rich in PUFA supplementation considerably improve the nutritional profile of milk. PUFA n-3 supplementation slightly improves some reproductive parameters in dairy cows subjected to the fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. Full article
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19 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Hemp Seed on Oxidative Status in Sows during Late Gestation and Lactation and Their Offspring
by Laurentiu Mihai Palade, Mihaela Habeanu, Daniela Eliza Marin, Veronica Sanda Chedea, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Iulian Alexandru Grosu, Anca Gheorghe, Mariana Ropota and Ionelia Taranu
Animals 2019, 9(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040194 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6002
Abstract
This study shows the antioxidant effect of a dietary hemp seed diet rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on oxidative status in sows during late gestation and lactation and their offspring. Ten pregnant sows were divided into two groups and fed either [...] Read more.
This study shows the antioxidant effect of a dietary hemp seed diet rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on oxidative status in sows during late gestation and lactation and their offspring. Ten pregnant sows were divided into two groups and fed either a control diet (CD) or a hemp diet (HD) containing 2% hemp seed meal for a period of 10 days before farrowing and 5% throughout the lactation period (21 d). After farrowing, 16 of their resulting piglets were divided into two groups: control group CD (eight piglets derived from control sows) and HD group (eight piglets derived from HD sows), respectively. Blood collected from sows and piglets at day 1, 7 and 21 was used for the measurement of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GPx)), nitric oxide production (NO), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances—TBARS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma. The results showed a significant improvement in the oxidative status of sows fed HD throughout lactation compared with CD. Similarly, in piglets, HD positively influenced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, TAC and NO levels and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma until weaning, in comparison with the CD group. This study suggests the potential of hemp seed diet to improve the overall antioxidant status of the lactating sows and their progeny. Full article
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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Variability in the Chemical Composition and In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Olive Cake By-Products
by Carlos N. Marcos, Paloma García-Rebollar, Carlos de Blas and María Dolores Carro
Animals 2019, 9(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030109 - 22 Mar 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3249
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the variability in the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of olive cake (OC) by-products. Forty-two OC samples with different storage times (1–14 months) and processing (25 crude (COC), 9 exhausted (EOC) and 9 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the variability in the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation of olive cake (OC) by-products. Forty-two OC samples with different storage times (1–14 months) and processing (25 crude (COC), 9 exhausted (EOC) and 9 cyclone (CYOC)) were fermented in vitro with sheep ruminal fluid. Exhausted OC samples had a lower ether extract content than COC and CYOC (15.9, 110 and 157 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively), but greater neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 645, 570 and 441 g/kg DM) and acid insoluble nitrogen (9.76, 8.10 and 8.05 g/kg DM) content. Exhausted OC had the greatest (p < 0.05) average gas production rate (AGPR), whereas the greatest fermented organic matter (FOM) was obtained for EOC and CYOC. The best single predictor of the AGPR was total sugars content (R2 = 0.898), whereas NDF was the best one for FOM (R2 = 0.767; p < 0.001). Statistical models using storage time as a predictor variable had lower accuracy and R2 values than those from the chemical composition. In summary, the nutritive value of OC was highly dependent on its processing, but its ether extract content did not negatively affect ruminal fermentation parameters, which could be estimated from either carbohydrate composition or storage time. Full article
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