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Obesities, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 7 articles

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13 pages, 1635 KiB  
Article
Intermittent Energy Restriction Combined with a High-Protein/Low-Protein Diet: Effects on Body Weight, Satiety, and Inflammation: A Pilot Study
by Nada Eid Alzhrani and Jo M. Bryant
Obesities 2023, 3(2), 180-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3020015 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Intermittent energy restricted (IER) diets have become popular as a body weight management approach. In this pilot study, we investigated if an IER diet would reduce systemic inflammation and if maintaining an elevated protein level while on an IER diet would enhance satiety. [...] Read more.
Intermittent energy restricted (IER) diets have become popular as a body weight management approach. In this pilot study, we investigated if an IER diet would reduce systemic inflammation and if maintaining an elevated protein level while on an IER diet would enhance satiety. Six healthy women, aged 33–55 years with a BMI of 27–33 kg/m2, were randomized to first adhere to either a low- or high-protein IER diet using whole foods for three weeks. They then returned to their regular diets for a week, after which they adhered to the second diet for three weeks. Each test diet consisted of three low-energy intake days followed by four isocaloric energy intake days. The diets differed only in protein content. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glucose, satiety, body weight, and waist circumference were measured at the beginning and end of each dietary intervention. Most participants showed reductions in hs-CRP levels from baseline on both IER diets but reported greater satiety when adhering to the higher protein IER diet. Overall, the IER diets reduced body weight and appeared to decrease inflammation in these overweight women, and the higher protein version enhanced satiety, which may lead to greater long-term dietary adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How to Prevent Obesity and Inflammatory Disease 2022)
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15 pages, 15313 KiB  
Article
Obesity and Residents’ Perceptions of Their Neighborhood’s Urban Amenities and Ambient Environment
by Rayman Mohamed and Bengt Arnetz
Obesities 2023, 3(2), 165-179; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3020014 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
There is a lack of research on how perceptions about urban spaces are associated with obesity. We surveyed 347 residents in a rapidly changing area of Detroit, Michigan about their perceptions of urban amenities and the ambient environment. We use principal component analysis [...] Read more.
There is a lack of research on how perceptions about urban spaces are associated with obesity. We surveyed 347 residents in a rapidly changing area of Detroit, Michigan about their perceptions of urban amenities and the ambient environment. We use principal component analysis to reduce the urban amenity and ambient environment variables to a manageable number. We use a spatial error model to account for spatial autocorrelation. We find that more urban amenities are associated with decreased obesity. A one-percent increase in residents’ perceptions of the availability of urban amenities is associated with a 0.13 percent decrease in obesity. Adverse ambient environments are associated with increased obesity. A one-percent increase in residents’ perceptions of adverse ambient environment quality is associated with a 0.12-percent increase in obesity. Addressing residents’ perceptions about urban spaces can provide planners with an additional tool to tackle obesity. Full article
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10 pages, 7805 KiB  
Article
Respiratory Muscle Strength in Brazilian Adolescents: Impact of Body Composition
by Viviane Campos de Lima, Marcelo Luis Marquezi, Paulo Roberto Alcantara, Nayara Barbosa Lopes, Caroline Santana Frientes, Thais Miriã da Silva Santos, Leonardo Ribeiro Miedes, Matheus Silva Fornel, Danielle Castro Oliveira, Patrícia Soares Rogeri, Antônio Herbert Lancha Junior, Nathalia Bernardes and Juliana Monique Lino Aparecido
Obesities 2023, 3(2), 155-164; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3020013 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1083
Abstract
(1) Introduction: Studies on respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in adolescents are controversial. Few studies so far have investigated respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian adolescents and the impact of body composition on it. (2) Objective: to evaluate the respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian adolescents [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: Studies on respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in adolescents are controversial. Few studies so far have investigated respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian adolescents and the impact of body composition on it. (2) Objective: to evaluate the respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian adolescents and compare this with nationally and internationally predicted normality values. (3) Method: A cross-sectional study (CAEE: 34634414.5.0000.5479) was carried out with 98 adolescents, where both sexes were divided into four groups: eutrophic (n = 44); overweight (n = 15), obese (n = 25), and severely obese (n = 14). All were submitted to an anthropometric assessment, body composition analysis and manovacuometry. To interpret the results, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Turkey’s post hoc test was used. The Kruskal–Wallis test and Friedman’s post hoc test were used to compare the observed vs. proposed results. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. (4) Results: There were no differences among the groups for maximal inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures. However, when considering the total sample, we could say that RMS was higher among boys, and there were no significant differences in RMS in relation to the maturational stage. The values obtained for MIP were lower than those suggested for the national equation and higher than those proposed for the international equation. Similarly, the values obtained for MEP were lower than those suggested for the national and international equation. (5) Conclusions: RMS was similar in adolescents with different body compositions and different maturation stages. Adiposity did not interfere with RMS in adolescents. Boys had higher MIP and MEP values compared to girls. Therefore, the reference values proposed by the equations do not consistently match RMS in the adolescents studied. This context reinforces the need for new studies that are related to RMS to establish normality values and propose equations that represent the youth population. Full article
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10 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Trend in Hypertension Prevalence and Health Behaviors among the Brazilian Adult Population: 2006–2019
by Thaís C. M. Caldeira, Ana Claudia R. A. Sereno, Marcela M. Soares, Emanuella G. Maia and Rafael M. Claro
Obesities 2023, 3(2), 145-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3020012 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Our objective was to analyze temporal trends in the prevalence of self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults and to investigate differences in health behaviors between individuals with and without hypertension between 2006 and 2019. Data from the Surveillance System for Risk Factors and Protection [...] Read more.
Our objective was to analyze temporal trends in the prevalence of self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults and to investigate differences in health behaviors between individuals with and without hypertension between 2006 and 2019. Data from the Surveillance System for Risk Factors and Protection for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey were analyzed (n = 730,309). Prais–Winsten regression was used to identify linear trends in the prevalence of hypertension for the entire period (2006–2019) and for the past 5 years. Poisson regression models were used to investigate the differences in health behaviors among individuals with and without hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension (approximately 24.0%) remained stable from 2006 to 2019 and decreased from 25.1% to 24.6% from 2015 to 2019. In the adjusted analyses, individuals with hypertension showed a significant association with unhealthy lifestyle habits: lower recommended intake of fruits and vegetables (APR = 0.97; p = 0.022), lower regular intake of fruits (APR = 0.98; p < 0.001), lower regular intake of beans (APR = 0.97; p < 0.001), lower leisure-time exercising (APR = 0.89; p < 0.001), higher abusive consumption of alcoholic beverages (APR = 1.04; p = 0.004), higher prevalence of overweight (APR = 1.40; p < 0.001), and higher prevalence of obesity (APR = 2.17; p < 0.001). Hypertension prevalence has remained stable during the entire period and decreased in the most recent period. Individuals with hypertension reported unfavorable scenarios for healthy habits. Full article
13 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Co-Designing and Refining a Home-Based Exercise Programme for Adults Living with Overweight and Obesity: Insight from People with Lived Experience
by Sofie Power, Nikita Rowley, Michael Duncan and David Broom
Obesities 2023, 3(2), 132-144; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3020011 - 01 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Undertaking a home-based exercise programme should be a positive, health-enhancing lifestyle behaviour, particularly for adults living with overweight and obesity. However, exercise programmes are seldom designed in collaboration with people with lived experience, limiting adherence, efficacy, and effectiveness. Two focus groups (in-person n [...] Read more.
Undertaking a home-based exercise programme should be a positive, health-enhancing lifestyle behaviour, particularly for adults living with overweight and obesity. However, exercise programmes are seldom designed in collaboration with people with lived experience, limiting adherence, efficacy, and effectiveness. Two focus groups (in-person n = 6 and virtual n = 7) were undertaken in the United Kingdom, to glean feedback and further refine a home-based exercise programme, developed from previously conducted semi-structured interviews with adults living with overweight and obesity. Both focus groups provided an opportunity for participants to discuss the proposed programme, highlighting strengths and areas for further improvement. Three key priorities were identified for consideration throughout the design process, specifically for adults living with overweight and obesity: (1) individualisation—a person-centred programme was non-negotiable; (2) motivation—integration of motivational features affected adherence and engagement; (3) more than just weight loss—consideration of other outcomes aside from solely numerical weight loss. These priorities provide direction for further refinement of the proposed home-based exercise programme, in an effort to ensure the final intervention is truly population-specific and needs-sensitive. Following completion, the programme will be assessed using a feasibility randomised controlled trial design. Full article
13 pages, 718 KiB  
Article
Temporal Trend of Severe Obesity in Brazilian State Capitals (2006–2021)
by Flávia Santos Batista Dias, Tiago Feitosa da Silva, Yara de Moura Magalhães Lima, Luana Silva de Farias, Jhonatan Gomes Gadelha and Alanderson Alves Ramalho
Obesities 2023, 3(2), 119-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3020010 - 01 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the trend of severe obesity in the capitals of the Brazilian states and the Federal District, from 2006 to 2021. For this purpose, a time-series, population-based, observational study was designed using data from the VIGITEL [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the trend of severe obesity in the capitals of the Brazilian states and the Federal District, from 2006 to 2021. For this purpose, a time-series, population-based, observational study was designed using data from the VIGITEL Survey. The dependent variable of this study was the prevalence of severe obesity, which was defined as a body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m2. Time series analysis was conducted using Joinpoint Regression Analysis Software v.4.9.1.0. In this study, a normal distribution was assumed, and the average annual percentage change (AAPC) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were presented. In total, 778,445 individuals participated in the study (38.2% were male and 61.8% were female). The prevalence of severe obesity has increased from 1.1% in 2006 to 1.9% in 2021. The average annual percentage change indicates an upward trend for the period (AAPC: 4.7; 95% CI: 3.8; 5.7). When stratifying the trend of severe obesity by sex, a significant upward trend was observed for females (AAPC: 4.3; 95% CI: 1.9; 6.8). There was a significant upward trend for all age groups, skin colors, and education levels. However, the older age groups and those with less education had lower AAPC. Full article
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22 pages, 1684 KiB  
Article
The Role of Women’s and Men’s Body Shapes in Explicit and Implicit Fat Stigma
by Jaimie Arona Krems and Jarrod E. Bock
Obesities 2023, 3(2), 97-118; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3020009 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3841
Abstract
Beyond being painful, fat stigma might facilitate pernicious consequences; over and above one’s weight, fat stigma is associated with lesser wellbeing, poorer health, greater all-cause mortality, and weight gains that perpetuate the weight-stigma cycle. To combat fat stigma effectively requires an understanding of [...] Read more.
Beyond being painful, fat stigma might facilitate pernicious consequences; over and above one’s weight, fat stigma is associated with lesser wellbeing, poorer health, greater all-cause mortality, and weight gains that perpetuate the weight-stigma cycle. To combat fat stigma effectively requires an understanding of the perceptual calculus underlying it. Here, we seized upon new work asserting that importance of a previously overlooked variable in this calculus—fat deposition location (body shape)—and we examine basic but fundamental open questions about the role of body shape in fat stigma via two experiments (one pre-registered). We replicate and extend work investigating how body shape—over and above body size—drives stigma toward women, using a figure set created specifically to test predictions about the role of body shape as well as size. We asked: (1) Are findings of greater explicit stigma toward adult women with abdominal (gut) versus gluteofemoral fat depositions (hips, thighs, buttocks) replicated—and (2) does this same finding hold for implicit stigma?; (3) Are male targets similarly stigmatized as a function of shape? (4) Do individual difference factors known to predict anti-fat stigma, e.g., Protestant Work Ethic, play a role here? We examined these questions by presenting American participants with women and men targets varying in both body size and shape—assessing participants’ explicit stigma (via self-report) and implicit stigma (via the Attitude Misattribution Procedure; AMP). We replicated the pattern that explicit fat stigma toward women is shape-sensitive and extend that to implicit stigma—finding, for example, that, of two women with the same exact heights and higher weights, the woman with abdominal fat deposition is more stigmatized than the woman with gluteofemoral fat deposition. We found no consistent results regarding the role of body shape in driving fat stigma toward men. We also found that some individual difference factors predicting anti-fat stigma were also attuned to body shape as well as body size. The results underscore the importance of integrating body shape into future work on fat stigma (toward women). Full article
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