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Obesities, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 8 articles

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11 pages, 662 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight Low-Income Schoolchildren: A Complex System Perspective
by Thaynã Bezerra, Anastácio Souza Filho, Natália Quirino, Paulo Bandeira, Luciana Cabral, Cézane Reuter, Clarice Martins and Ferdinando Carvalho
Obesities 2023, 3(1), 86-96; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3010008 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1497
Abstract
Background: This study analysed through the perspective of networks the association between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight low-income schoolchildren from the perspective of complex systems. Methods: The sample consisted of 41 overweight children between 6 and [...] Read more.
Background: This study analysed through the perspective of networks the association between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight low-income schoolchildren from the perspective of complex systems. Methods: The sample consisted of 41 overweight children between 6 and 10 years old (56% girls). PA and SB were analysed by accelerometer, and the measures of cardiovascular factor risk were: anthropometric and hemodynamic measurements, body fat, lipid profile and glucose, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), left ventricular mass (LVM), and Sokolow–Lyon. Network analysis with Bootstrap-1000 was performed to analyse the association between PA, SB and the cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Moderate-to-vigorous PA was positive related to waist circumference (WC; 0.499), HDL-C (0.307), and CRF (0.276), and negatively associated with BMI (−0.251) and Fat (−0.341). For SB, positive associations were seen with WC (0.326), CRF (0.296), LVM (0.250) and Sokolow (0.215). In addition, the centrality indicators highlighted WC as the most important variable in the network. Conclusion: Interventions that aim to mitigate the harmful effects of obesity on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight children should consider WC as an important variable in the system. Full article
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10 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Temporal Trend of Multimorbidity of Noncommunicable Diseases among Brazilian Adults, 2006–2021
by Thaís C. M. Caldeira, Taciana M. Sousa, Marcela M. Soares, Izabella P. A. Veiga, Luiza E. S. Silva and Rafael M. Claro
Obesities 2023, 3(1), 76-85; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3010007 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
We aimed to identify the temporal trend of multimorbidity of noncommunicable disease (NCDs) among Brazilian adults (n = 784,479) over a 16-year period of time. This is a time series of cross-sectional studies based on data from the Surveillance System of Risk and [...] Read more.
We aimed to identify the temporal trend of multimorbidity of noncommunicable disease (NCDs) among Brazilian adults (n = 784,479) over a 16-year period of time. This is a time series of cross-sectional studies based on data from the Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel) from 2006 to 2021. The presence of multimorbidity was assessed from the co-occurrence of (1) obesity and diabetes; (2) obesity and hypertension; and (3) obesity and diabetes and/or hypertension. Linear regression models (Prais–Winsten) were used to identify significant trends for the complete period (2006–2021) and the most recent quinquennium (2017–2021). Multimorbidity of obesity and diabetes and/or hypertension increased in the complete period (5.5% to 9.6%; 0.22 pp/year) and the most recent period (8.3% to 9.6%; 0.40 pp/year) studied. The highest increase occurred especially among men, older adults, and those with fewer years of education. Additionally, there was a high prevalence and an intense increase in multimorbidity among adults with poor self-rated health. These results reinforce the need for expanding and strengthening public health actions focused on individuals with multimorbidity especially with obesity. Full article
17 pages, 681 KiB  
Review
Disrupting the Mood and Obesity Cycle: The Potential Role of Metformin
by Stacey N. Doan, Sunita K. Patel, Bin Xie, Rebecca A. Nelson and Lisa D. Yee
Obesities 2023, 3(1), 59-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3010006 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6037
Abstract
Mounting evidence links obesity, metabolic dysfunction, mood, and cognition. Compromised metabolic health and psychological functioning worsen clinical outcomes, diminish quality of life, and contribute to comorbid conditions. As a medication with both insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects, metformin affords the exciting opportunity to abrogate [...] Read more.
Mounting evidence links obesity, metabolic dysfunction, mood, and cognition. Compromised metabolic health and psychological functioning worsen clinical outcomes, diminish quality of life, and contribute to comorbid conditions. As a medication with both insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects, metformin affords the exciting opportunity to abrogate the bidirectional relationship between poor metabolic health and psychological function. In the current paper, we review the literature linking metformin to mood and cognitive function, examine potential underlying mechanisms, and suggest new directions for investigating the role of metformin in increasing adherence to health behavior recommendations. Full article
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13 pages, 682 KiB  
Review
Why Are Obese People Predisposed to Severe Disease in Viral Respiratory Infections?
by Rafia Aziz, Afak Yusuf Sherwani, Saeed Al Mahri, Shuja Shafi Malik and Sameer Mohammad
Obesities 2023, 3(1), 46-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3010005 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Obesity is one of the most pressing healthcare concerns of the twenty-first century. Obesity prevalence has risen dramatically in recent decades, and in 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and 650 million were obese (BMI [...] Read more.
Obesity is one of the most pressing healthcare concerns of the twenty-first century. Obesity prevalence has risen dramatically in recent decades, and in 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and 650 million were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). About 50% of the world’s population is anticipated to be obese/overweight within the next decade. Obesity is a major risk factor for a variety of non-communicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and a variety of malignancies. Obesity has emerged as a substantial risk factor for hospitalization and death from viral respiratory infections such as influenza A and the ongoing pandemic SARS-CoV-2. Several independent studies have indicated that obese/overweight patients are at a higher risk of severe disease and death from these respiratory diseases. Excess fat, particularly visceral fat, contributes to the development of a variety of metabolic disorders, including persistent systemic inflammation and decreased immunological function. As a result, the immunological response to infectious pathogens is weakened, resulting in poorer outcomes post-infection. Additionally, the poor lung mechanics associated with obesity may increase the risk of more serious respiratory infections. In this review, we address the likely mechanism(s) that predispose obese people to severe diseases caused by viral respiratory infections. Full article
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10 pages, 1123 KiB  
Article
Twenty-Four-Hour Movement Behaviors, Fitness, and Adiposity in Preschoolers: A Network Analysis
by Alyce Rodrigues Souza, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Morgana Alves Correia da Silva, Glacithane Lins da Cunha, Daniel Fernandes Pereira and Clarice Martins
Obesities 2023, 3(1), 36-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3010004 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
The present study aimed to verify the associations between compliance with the 24-h movement behavior recommendations, fitness, and adiposity markers in preschoolers, considering the non-linear nature of these associations. The sample was comprised of 253 preschoolers. Preschoolers were assessed for anthropometric data and [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to verify the associations between compliance with the 24-h movement behavior recommendations, fitness, and adiposity markers in preschoolers, considering the non-linear nature of these associations. The sample was comprised of 253 preschoolers. Preschoolers were assessed for anthropometric data and wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported in a face-to-face interview. The PREFIT test battery was used to assess physical fitness components (lower-body strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and speed/agility). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the variables, and a network analysis was conducted to assess the emerging pattern of associations between the variables. Preschoolers’ greatest compliance with recommendations was observed for physical activity, while the lowest compliance was observed for the screen time recommendation. Among children aged three years, only 2.2% complied with all recommendations; only 1.0% of the four-year-olds and 1.3% of the five-year-olds complied with all recommendations. The results of the network analysis and centrality measures emphasized that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and compliance with movement behavior recommendations were the most critical variables to address in preschoolers, reinforcing the importance of intervention programs focused on intense activities. Full article
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23 pages, 605 KiB  
Review
Methods to Evaluate the Antiobesity Effects of Medicinal Plants Using Enzyme Assays
by Subhani Bandara, Shelby Devereaux and Aruna Weerasooriya
Obesities 2023, 3(1), 13-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3010003 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
Obesity is a chronic disease affecting both adults and children worldwide. One major cause of obesity is high-calorie intake due to overconsumption of foods rich in fat and carbohydrates. Hence, obesity can be controlled by controlling the diet and by other lifestyle changes [...] Read more.
Obesity is a chronic disease affecting both adults and children worldwide. One major cause of obesity is high-calorie intake due to overconsumption of foods rich in fat and carbohydrates. Hence, obesity can be controlled by controlling the diet and by other lifestyle changes that increase energy expenditure. However, this is not always possible for individuals who are already overweight and suffering from other diseases. Therefore, certain drugs have been developed to assist with weight reduction. One major avenue for drug development involves the inhibition of enzymes that break down fat and carbohydrates from the diet. This can reduce the bioavailability and absorption of dietary lipids and carbohydrates, allowing for the management of obesity. Although there are synthetic drugs available on the market to inhibit these enzymes, plant-based natural drugs may provide a better alternative to treat obesity due to fewer side effects and a lower cost. In this review, different methods that can be used to screen medicinal plant extracts for inhibitors of those digestive enzymes and certain limitations of those methods are discussed. Currently, there is limited research on the effects of varying conditions on enzyme assays, and this is an area that can be addressed in future research. Full article
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1 pages, 177 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Obesities in 2022
by Obesities Editorial Office
Obesities 2023, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3010002 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
11 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
A Simple Estimate of Visceral Fat Area by Multifrequency Bioimpedance Analysis Is Associated with Multiple Biomarkers of Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Disease: A Pilot Study
by Chantal A. Vella and Megan C. Nelson
Obesities 2023, 3(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3010001 - 07 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1803
Abstract
There is a need for identifying whether simple techniques for estimating visceral fat can accurately predict inflammatory and cardiometabolic disease (CMD) biomarkers in various populations. We aimed to determine whether a simple estimate of visceral fat area by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) [...] Read more.
There is a need for identifying whether simple techniques for estimating visceral fat can accurately predict inflammatory and cardiometabolic disease (CMD) biomarkers in various populations. We aimed to determine whether a simple estimate of visceral fat area by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) was independently associated with multiple biomarkers of inflammation and CMD. Seventy-eight men and women (mean ± SD: age 52.0 ± 10.8 y; visceral fat area 105.6 ± 55.0 cm2) self-reported their medical histories and activity levels. Visceral fat area was estimated with MFBIA, CMD and inflammatory biomarkers were measured by fasting blood draw, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Associations were assessed using multivariable linear regression. With adjustment for age, sex, height, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and smoking, a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase in visceral fat (55 cm2) was associated with higher levels of insulin (60.4%), triglycerides (43.6%), C-reactive protein (38.7%), interleukin-6 (33.9%), leptin (77.9%), and HOMA-IR (51.8%, p < 0.01 for all). These associations were attenuated but remained significant when physical activity and sedentary behavior were entered into the model (p ≤ 0.01). These findings suggest that a simple estimate of visceral fat area by MFBIA may be a good indicator of increased CMD risk and may be useful in clinical practice. Full article
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