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Obesities, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 8 articles

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14 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Obesity Increases Maternal Complications in Pregnant Women of Sinop: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Lilian G. V. Pinheiro, Nathalia M. Sanches, Catharine L. R. Soares, Bruna L. O. Lima, Eduarda B. Ramos, Mariany S. Ferreira, Matheus O. Loiola, Rafaella R. Silva, João Sérgio N. Prates, Viviani C. Silva, Diogo A. Queiroz and Eveline A. I. F. Queiroz
Obesities 2024, 4(2), 118-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities4020012 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 111
Abstract
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease that can promote serious comorbidities as maternal complications. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and the incidence of maternal complications in pregnant women of Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. [...] Read more.
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease that can promote serious comorbidities as maternal complications. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and the incidence of maternal complications in pregnant women of Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. It was a retrospective cohort study with clinical and epidemiological data collected from the medical records of pregnant women diagnosed in 2020. Pregnant women were subdivided into three groups: eutrophic, overweight, and obese. Data from 700 pregnant women were evaluated, 251 in the eutrophic group, in the 220 overweight group and 229 in the obese group. The percentage of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension was significantly higher in the overweight and obesity groups when compared with the eutrophic group. The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in the overweight and obese groups when compared with the eutrophic group (p < 0.0001). The incidence of gestational arterial hypertension was also significantly higher in the overweight (6.8%) and obese (12.7%) groups when compared with the eutrophic group (1.2%) (p < 0.0001). The incidence of pre-eclampsia was also higher and statistically different in the overweight and obese groups. In conclusion, it was observed that most of the pregnant women presented with overweight/obesity and that this excess body weight contributed significantly to the incidence of several maternal complications. Full article
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12 pages, 761 KiB  
Article
Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation in Women with Metabolic Syndrome and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging—Coenzyme Q10 in Metabolic Syndrome and NAFLD
by Daniela Casagrande, Fernando Figueiredo Waib, Jorge Elias Júnior and Alceu Afonso Jordão Júnior
Obesities 2024, 4(2), 106-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities4020011 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 328
Abstract
(1) Introduction: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a component present in the transport chain of mitochondrial electrons with antioxidant property. Currently, there are limited studies which indicate the effects of its supplementation on Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). (2) Objective: [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a component present in the transport chain of mitochondrial electrons with antioxidant property. Currently, there are limited studies which indicate the effects of its supplementation on Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). (2) Objective: This work was conducted to determine the effects of CoQ10 supplementation in women with MetS and NAFLD. (3) Methodology: This double-blind randomized clinical-controlled trial was performed among 22 women with MetS and NAFLD. Patients were randomized into two groups: group A (n = 11), which received 200 mg/day of CoQ10; and group B (n = 11), which received a placebo medication for 12 weeks. The hepatic steatosis present in NAFLD, the volume of abdominal fat, and visceral fat volume were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Anthropometric, blood pressure, and marker serums that compound the MetS were also analyzed. (4) Results: A decrease in visceral fat volume (p = 0.02), abdominal circumference (p = 0.03/CI = 0.19–3.80), and increase in HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.01/CI = −9.80: −1.44) was observed in the CoQ10-supplemented group. We did not find significant changes in any of the other variables evaluated. (5) Conclusions: Supplementation with CoQ10 for 12 weeks, even if discreetly, brought some benefits for the supplemented group whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How to Prevent Obesity and Inflammatory Disease 2024)
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13 pages, 2232 KiB  
Article
High-Fat-High-Fructose Diet Elicits Brown Adipocyte Dysfunction through miRNA-103 Induced miRNA Biogenesis Pathway
by Nitya Shree, Sunitha Meruvu, Min Hi Park and Mahua Choudhury
Obesities 2024, 4(2), 93-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities4020010 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Background: Obesity is a critical public health concern with its prevalence growing at an alarming rate worldwide. The Western diet that typically includes high-fat or high-fructose components is one of the leading contributing factors of obesity. Recent findings demonstrate the essential role of [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is a critical public health concern with its prevalence growing at an alarming rate worldwide. The Western diet that typically includes high-fat or high-fructose components is one of the leading contributing factors of obesity. Recent findings demonstrate the essential role of BAT in regulating whole-body metabolism. However, the explicit mechanism through which BAT maintains homeostasis is still unknown. Methods: Six-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHFD) for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Results: We observed a significant increase in BAT weight under HFHFD along with BAT whitening in a time-dependent manner. This was also accompanied by a significant decrease in UCP1 and PGC1α protein, as well as a significant increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as early as 12 weeks, indicating increased apoptosis under HFHFD. Interestingly, miRNA-103 expression that holds a seed sequence within the miRNA biogenesis machinery, Dicer, was significantly upregulated after 12 and 20 weeks of HFHFD. Dicer and another biogenesis regulator, TRBP2, exhibited significant upregulation at 4 weeks of HFHFD. Conversely, those gene expressions were significantly downregulated at 12 and 20 weeks of HFHFD, followed by a significant decrease in the protein level at 12 weeks. To confirm the mechanistic connection, miRNA-103 knockdown in vitro significantly upregulated Dicer and the TRBP2 gene. However, only Dicer exhibited a significant increase at the translational level. Conclusion: Overall, we conclude that HFHFD may elicit BAT dysfunction by inhibiting Dicer via miRNA-103. Full article
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8 pages, 453 KiB  
Brief Report
Serum Cobalt Concentration and DNA Methylation Signatures in Women with Obesity
by Natália Yumi Noronha, Luísa Maria Diani, Guilherme da Silva Rodrigues, Isabela Harumi Yonehara Noma, Vanessa Aparecida Batista Pereira, Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Lígia Moriguchi Watanabe, Déborah Araújo Morais, Fernando Barbosa, Jr. and Carla Barbosa Nonino
Obesities 2024, 4(2), 85-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities4020009 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Obesity, a multifactorial disorder, has been associated with alterations in metal metabolismand epigenetic modifications. This pilot case–control study aimed to investigate serum cobalt concentrations and associated DNA methylation patterns in women with obesity. Serum cobalt levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass [...] Read more.
Obesity, a multifactorial disorder, has been associated with alterations in metal metabolismand epigenetic modifications. This pilot case–control study aimed to investigate serum cobalt concentrations and associated DNA methylation patterns in women with obesity. Serum cobalt levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), revealing significantly higher cobalt concentrations in participants with normal weight than in participants with obesity. Additionally, DNA methylation analysis identified differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with cobalt exposure, and DMPs between groups highlighted hypomethylation in the top DMPs in individuals with obesity. Functional enrichment analysis of these DMPs unveiled potential pathways implicated in apoptosis, cancer, and metabolic signaling, warranting further investigation into the mechanistic links. This study provides preliminary insights into the interplay between cobalt exposure, DNA methylation, and potential implications for obesity management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How to Prevent Obesity and Inflammatory Disease 2024)
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12 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
Mitigating Weight Stigma: A Randomized Controlled Trial Addressing Obesity Prejudice through Education among Healthcare Undergraduates
by Karen Marina López-Lara, Ana Carolina Cruz-Millán, Laura Fernanda Barrera-Hernandez, Edith Valbuena-Gregorio, Moisés Omar Ayala-Burboa, Marco Antonio Hernández-Lepe and Francisco Javier Olivas-Aguirre
Obesities 2024, 4(2), 73-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities4020008 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Beyond the challenges presented by obesity itself, a considerable portion of the population encounters prejudice and discriminatory behavior based on their weight and size. This phenomenon, termed weight stigma and weight bias, appears to be perpetuated not only by the broader society but [...] Read more.
Beyond the challenges presented by obesity itself, a considerable portion of the population encounters prejudice and discriminatory behavior based on their weight and size. This phenomenon, termed weight stigma and weight bias, appears to be perpetuated not only by the broader society but also by healthcare providers, leading to distrust and alienation among individuals with obesity, thereby exacerbating a global issue. Recognizing weight stigma as a violation of human rights and its association with declining health outcomes, there is a pressing need to explore evidence-based strategies for mitigating it within healthcare. This is especially crucial at the early stages of professional development. Methodology: A randomized controlled trial employing a 60 min lecture experimental design was conducted to evaluate changes in conceptions, beliefs, and prejudices toward obesity among healthcare undergraduates (n = 242). Results: Semantic network analysis revealed participants’ conceptualization of obesity as a condition closely linked to diet and sedentary habits. Moreover, three out of four healthcare students considered obesity a disease for which the individual is responsible. While individuals with obesity were described as weak, lazy, and having a high affinity for food, these prejudices decreased following the educational intervention. Conclusion: Following an educational intervention based on the multifactorial nature of obesity and weight stigma, it was possible to modify prejudices and conceptions about obesity among future healthcare professionals. Full article
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7 pages, 220 KiB  
Brief Report
Exploring the Relationship between Food Addiction, Overweight, Obesity, and Telomere Length
by Trina Aguirre and Kosuke Niitsu
Obesities 2024, 4(2), 66-72; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities4020007 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Background: Individuals with food addiction (FA) compose a distinct subset of people with obesity who are less responsive to weight loss interventions. An emerging field of study explores the role of telomere length in disease processes. Some evidence suggests that obesity is associated [...] Read more.
Background: Individuals with food addiction (FA) compose a distinct subset of people with obesity who are less responsive to weight loss interventions. An emerging field of study explores the role of telomere length in disease processes. Some evidence suggests that obesity is associated with telomere shortening; however, we are not aware of studies examining telomere length in obesity subtypes. Therefore, we explored whether FA and levels of obesity were associated with telomere shortening. Methods: We enrolled 120 adults (aged 19–70) with overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25); half were positive for severe food addiction (FA+), and half were negative for food addiction (FA−) (Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0). Participants completed a demographic form and provided a saliva sample (Oragene saliva DNA collection kit). Telomere length was analyzed using the monoplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and ANOVAs (α = 0.05). Results: Participants with overweight (mean = 1.40 t/s, SD = 0.40) had longer telomeres (p = 0.013) than those with morbid obesity (mean = 1.15 t/s, SD = 1.29). Telomere length did not differ (p = 0.306) between persons who were FA− (mean = 1.26 t/s, SD = 0.26) and those who were FA+ (mean = 1.32 t/s, SD = 0.34). The youngest participants (mean = 1.39 t/s, SD = 0.33) had longer telomeres (p = 0.006) than the oldest participants (mean = 1.18 t/s, SD = 0.19). Conclusion: Those who were morbidly obese had the shortest telomere lengths. Interestingly, however, there were not significant telomere length differences in the food addicted vs. nonfood-addicted subtypes. Full article
11 pages, 826 KiB  
Article
Anthropometric and Body Composition Changes over Five Years after Bariatric Surgery in Patients with Obesity, Diagnosed or Not Diagnosed with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) in the Preoperative Period
by Heitor Bernardes Pereira Delfino, Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Flávia Campos Ferreira, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Sofia Teixeira Prates de Oliveira, Lidia Barbieri Belarmino Baumgartner, Caroline Rossi Welendorf, Thaís Alves de Azevedo Chaves Pastore, Carolina Hunger Malek-Zadeh, Ligia Moriguchi Watanabe, Natália Yumi Noronha, Wilson Salgado Junior and Carla Barbosa Nonino
Obesities 2024, 4(2), 55-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities4020006 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Obesity is a complex disease with a multifactorial etiology and could be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as Binge Eating Disorder (BED), characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of compensatory behaviors. The present study aimed to analyze anthropometric and [...] Read more.
Obesity is a complex disease with a multifactorial etiology and could be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as Binge Eating Disorder (BED), characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of compensatory behaviors. The present study aimed to analyze anthropometric and body composition changes over five years after bariatric surgery in patients diagnosed or not diagnosed with BED, depression, and anxiety in the preoperative period. One hundred and eighteen patients undergoing bariatric surgery were evaluated and divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of BED. The patients were submitted to anthropometric and body composition evaluation. We also analyzed BED diagnosis, depression, and anxiety according to the DSM-5 and validated questionnaires. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov, t-test, Fisher’s, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Over five years after bariatric surgery, only the BED group exhibited an increased weight and BMI (p < 0.05). In the preoperative period, patients with BED had severe depression (13,11%, p = 0.0079) and a higher frequency of moderate (22.95%, p < 0.01) or severe (14.75%, p < 0.01) anxiety. In conclusion, patients with BED had more intense symptoms of depression and anxiety in the preoperative period, and this disorder may persist in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery, contributing to weight gain and increased BMI. Full article
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10 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
Ability of Hypocaloric Diets to Change Nutrient–Phyla Associations after 8 Weeks of Intervention
by Natália Yumi Noronha, Luzânia dos Santos Martins, Lígia Moriguchi Watanabe, Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Guilherme da Silva Rodrigues, Isabelle Mello Schneider, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Heitor Bernardes Pereira Delfino, Daniela Carlos and Carla Barbosa Nonino
Obesities 2024, 4(2), 45-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities4020005 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Background: Previous studies have suggested that changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota may be influenced by dietary quality. Objective: This study aimed to assess the impact of a hypocaloric diet on the relationship between microbiota and clinical/dietary variables. Methods: This was a [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies have suggested that changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota may be influenced by dietary quality. Objective: This study aimed to assess the impact of a hypocaloric diet on the relationship between microbiota and clinical/dietary variables. Methods: This was a longitudinal study. Ten women with obesity (Obese Group, ObG) participated in an 8-week home-based hypocaloric diet intervention. Anthropometric, dietary intake, biochemical, and gut microbiota assessments were conducted before and after the intervention. Microbiota relative abundance was determined using real-time PCR in triplicate. Results: In the ObG, the hypocaloric diet intervention led to significant weight loss (before: 119.5 ± 10.3 kg; after: 114.9 ± 10.2 kg; p = 0.003). Following the intervention, positive correlations were observed between nutrient intake and phyla composition: Actinobacteria phylum with fibers (r = 0.787; p = 0.012), Firmicutes phylum with proteins (r = 0.736; p = 0.024), and Proteobacteria phylum with lipids (r = 0.669; p = 0.049). Conclusions: The hypocaloric diet intervention improved health parameters associated with obesity and its comorbidities, demonstrating associations between nutrient intake and specific phyla. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How to Prevent Obesity and Inflammatory Disease 2024)
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