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Obesities, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2023) – 6 articles

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12 pages, 2218 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbiota Profiles of Children with Obesity or Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index Is a Lead Actor
Obesities 2023, 3(3), 253-264; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3030021 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 577
Abstract
The worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased threefold over the last five decades. Among children, this trend is alarming due to the premature onset of MetS. The data regarding how the structure and composition of gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota [...] Read more.
The worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) has increased threefold over the last five decades. Among children, this trend is alarming due to the premature onset of MetS. The data regarding how the structure and composition of gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota either promote or attenuate obesity and MetS are limited. Objectives: We carried out this study to investigate the relationship between microbial profiles and diagnosis of MetS among children with obesity. Fifty subjects with a diagnosis of obesity or Mets were enrolled. We collected clinical information, demographic data, dietary records, and stool specimens. Overall, there was no significant difference in the diversity of GIT microbiota between the two subgroups of children with obesity or MetS. We also found no differences in the diversity of GIT microbiota between the sexes and blood pressure categories. However, we observed a significant difference between the structure, composition, and diversity of the gut microbiome when the subjects were stratified using a BMI cut-off of 30. Subjects with a BMI ≥ 30 had a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes and a greater abundance of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes compared to those with a BMI value of less than 30. This gut microbiota signature is more like the GIT microbiome profile of adults with obesity and may represent accelerated changes among children. Additional studies are needed to investigate the role of obesity in the maturation of gut microbiota in children with morbid obesity. Full article
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10 pages, 537 KiB  
Review
The Roles of MicroRNAs in Obesity: Emphasizing Links with Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disorders
Obesities 2023, 3(3), 243-252; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3030020 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Obesity has become a global epidemic, contributing to the development of numerous chronic diseases, including diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in various biological processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and tissue remodeling, making them pivotal [...] Read more.
Obesity has become a global epidemic, contributing to the development of numerous chronic diseases, including diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in various biological processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and tissue remodeling, making them pivotal players in obesity-related pathologies. This review aims to provide comprehensive insights into the roles of miRNAs in obesity, with a particular emphasis on their involvement in the pathogenesis of CKD and cardiovascular disorders. We highlight the involvement of specific miRNAs in adipose tissue development, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance, contributing to the pathogenesis of obesity. Moreover, we explore the impact of miRNAs on renal fibrosis and inflammation, giving clues on their roles in the development and progression of CKD. Additionally, we discuss the influence of miRNAs on endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiac remodeling, emphasizing their contribution to obesity-related cardiovascular disorders. Understanding the regulatory functions of miRNAs in these interconnected conditions holds promise for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic interventions. Indeed, miRNAs are potential diagnostic biomarkers for obesity-related diseases, although challenges remain to be elucidated before their clinical translation. Furthermore, we highlight the emerging strategies that target miRNAs as therapeutic interventions to mitigate the detrimental effects of obesity on kidney and cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolism and Health)
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18 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Profile of Liver Transplant Recipients and Determinants of their Body Fat Distribution
Obesities 2023, 3(3), 225-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3030019 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Obesity and diabetes mellitus epidemics exert a measurable impact on the liver transplant (Ltx) population. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic profile of Ltx recipients and its association with body fat distribution. Adults who underwent de novo elective cadaveric-donor Ltx were eligible. [...] Read more.
Obesity and diabetes mellitus epidemics exert a measurable impact on the liver transplant (Ltx) population. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic profile of Ltx recipients and its association with body fat distribution. Adults who underwent de novo elective cadaveric-donor Ltx were eligible. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed based on the adapted International Diabetes Federation, the American Heart Association, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines. We recruited 100 patients with a mean age of 54 years, of whom 70% were men. Overall, 54% met the criteria for MS, most of which comprised new-onset cases. Excessive fat accumulation in liver donors was found to be associated with an increased metabolic risk in liver recipients. Haemoglobin A1C (OR: 8.962, 95% CI: 2.188–84.545, p = 0.013), ferritin (OR: 1.024, 95% CI: 1.005–1.054, p = 0.038), and de novo hypertriglycaeridemia (OR 27.957, 95% CI: 2.626–752.121, p = 0.014) were found to be independently associated with de novo MS. After a step-wise multivariate analysis, only the anthropometric obesity indices were significantly associated with abdominal fat distribution in Ltx recipients. Metabolic complications were common in liver recipients. Both pre- and post-Ltx factors impacted MS development in liver recipients and determined abdominal fat distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metabolism and Health)
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7 pages, 518 KiB  
Review
Time-Restricted Feeding and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Mini Review on the Impacts on Skeletal Muscle Mass
Obesities 2023, 3(3), 218-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3030018 - 02 Aug 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Across the globe, obesity is a significant concern for public health, a disease characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat, with a negative impact on health. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which food accessibility is restricted to a variable period of 8–10 h, especially [...] Read more.
Across the globe, obesity is a significant concern for public health, a disease characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat, with a negative impact on health. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which food accessibility is restricted to a variable period of 8–10 h, especially in the active phase, inducing a prolonged fasting period, is a strategy with potential effects in preventing obesity. Evidence in preclinical studies demonstrated that TRF attenuates the impacts of metabolic disturbances related to high-fat diet feeding in rodents. Through these discoveries, there has been growing interest in revealing the effects associated with TRF in preventing obesity and its comorbidities, as well as investigating its effects in humans. Although TRF is a promising alternative to reduce the impact of obesity, it is necessary to investigate the results on skeletal muscle tissue. Muscle tissue is important for body energy expenditure; however, caloric restriction can negatively impact protein turnover and induce loss of muscle mass, influencing the basal metabolic rate and weight loss. This mini review examined the scientific literature exploring the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) on muscle mass. Although still incipient, the findings related to TRF applied to obese individuals highlight the importance of carrying out dietary control, as well as the consumption and fractionation of proteins, to maintain a balanced protein turnover and, consequently, muscle mass. Full article
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11 pages, 268 KiB  
Case Report
Eating Causes Clinically Significant Distress: Food Addiction as a Disordered Belief in Anorexia Nervosa?
Obesities 2023, 3(3), 207-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3030017 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by an intense fear of weight gain, dietary restriction resulting in a significant weight loss compared with what is expected, and a disturbance in body image on a psychological basis. Recently, cases of AN associated with food addiction [...] Read more.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by an intense fear of weight gain, dietary restriction resulting in a significant weight loss compared with what is expected, and a disturbance in body image on a psychological basis. Recently, cases of AN associated with food addiction (FA) were described in almost all patients (69%), bringing a controversial aspect to the restrictive subtype (AN-r) that, in theory, even in the absence of binge eating, would present difficulties regarding control. Objectives: To report a case of an adolescent with AN-r associated with FA. Methods: Clinical history, current status, psychiatric diagnosis, and scores on scales to assess FA, food craving, and binge eating were analyzed. Results: This case report emphasizes the importance of new diagnostic tools to identify FA and whether it exists in people with AN-r beyond distress regarding eating behavior, cravings, and guilt. Eating behavior also presents a negative value that delays the elaboration process and the emergence of food cravings. In addition, an analysis of the association between the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder, binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa with the Yale Food Addiction Scale statements and criteria was discovered. Conclusions: Based on the characteristics of AN, emotional dysregulation and eating difficulties seem to overlap with FA symptoms. Full article
14 pages, 906 KiB  
Review
Green Tea Induces the Browning of Adipose Tissue—Systematic Review
Obesities 2023, 3(3), 193-206; https://doi.org/10.3390/obesities3030016 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Several foods and nutrients are being studied extensively because they have a positive effect on thermogenesis and the browning of white adipose tissue. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate, through a systematic review, the effect of green tea for inducing browning of adipose [...] Read more.
Several foods and nutrients are being studied extensively because they have a positive effect on thermogenesis and the browning of white adipose tissue. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate, through a systematic review, the effect of green tea for inducing browning of adipose tissue. The systematic review was built following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyze. We searched the following electronic databases: PubMed (Medline), Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. We included ten experimental articles that used green tea to treat induced obesity in rodents. Green tea reduced the weight of white and brown adipose tissue, positively regulated gene expression and microRNA that regulate the metabolism of adipose tissue, and morphological changes were identified as beige tissue. According to the results found, the factors involved in this induction to browning are PPARγ, PGC-1α, UCP1, CPT, and PRDM16. Therefore, green tea promotes the browning of adipose tissue in rodents. It is important to emphasize the need for studies in obese humans to identify whether the same metabolic response occurs. Full article
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