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Fluids, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 24 articles

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20 pages, 3672 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Long-Wave Instability of an Evaporation/Condensation Film
by Weiyang Jiang, Ruiqi Huang, Qiang Yang and Zijing Ding
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060143 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 173
Abstract
This paper explores the stability and dynamics of a three-dimensional evaporating/condensing film while falling down a heated/cooled incline. Instead of using the Hertz–Knudsen–Langmuir relation, a more comprehensive phase-change boundary condition is employed. A nonlinear differential equation is derived based on the Benny-type equation, [...] Read more.
This paper explores the stability and dynamics of a three-dimensional evaporating/condensing film while falling down a heated/cooled incline. Instead of using the Hertz–Knudsen–Langmuir relation, a more comprehensive phase-change boundary condition is employed. A nonlinear differential equation is derived based on the Benny-type equation, which takes into account gravity, energy transport, vapor recoil, effective pressure, and evaporation. The impact of effective pressure and vapor recoil on instability is studied using a linear stability analysis. The results show that spanwise perturbations can amplify the destabilizing effects of vapor recoil, leading to instability. Energy transport along the interface has almost no effect on the stability of the system, but it does influence the linear wave speed. Nonlinear evolution demonstrates that, in contrast to the vapor recoil effect, effective pressure can improve stability and delay film rupture. The self-similar solution demonstrates that the minimal film thickness decreases as (trt)1/2 and (trt)1/3 under the dominance of evaporation and vapor recoil, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaporation, Condensation and Heat Transfer)
17 pages, 4661 KiB  
Article
Interrupter Technique Revisited: Building an Experimental Mechanical Ventilator to Assess Respiratory Mechanics in Large Animals
by Camilla Zilianti, Erfan Bashar, Anna Kyriakoudi and Matteo Pecchiari
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060142 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Large animals are increasingly used as experimental models of respiratory diseases. Precise characterization of respiratory mechanics requires dedicated equipment with specific characteristics which are difficult to find together in the same commercial device. In this work, we describe building and validation of a [...] Read more.
Large animals are increasingly used as experimental models of respiratory diseases. Precise characterization of respiratory mechanics requires dedicated equipment with specific characteristics which are difficult to find together in the same commercial device. In this work, we describe building and validation of a computer-controlled ventilator able to perform rapid airways occlusions during constant flow inflations followed by a prolonged inspiratory hold. A constant airflow is provided by a high pressure source (5 atm) connected to the breathing circuit by three proportional valves. The combined action of three 2-way valves produces the phases of the breath. During non-inspiratory breath phases, airflow is diverted to a flowmeter for precise feedback regulation of the proportional valves. A computer interface enables the user to change the breathing pattern, trigger test breaths or run predetermined breaths sequences. A respiratory system model was used to test the ability of the ventilator to correctly estimate interrupter resistance. The ventilator was able to produce a wide range of constant flows (0.1–1.6 L/s) with the selected timing. Errors in the measurement of interrupter resistance were small (1 ± 5% of the reference value). The device described reliably estimated interrupter resistance and can be useful as a measuring tool in large animal research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Flows)
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18 pages, 5813 KiB  
Article
Valveless Pumping with an Unsteady Stenosis in an Open Tank Configuration
by Christos Manopoulos and Dimitrios Mathioulakis
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060141 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 129
Abstract
This work examines the beneficial role of an unsteady stenosis, not driven by any external energy source, as a means for augmenting the flow rate of a valveless pump in a hydraulic loop, including an open tank. In contrast to our previous work, [...] Read more.
This work examines the beneficial role of an unsteady stenosis, not driven by any external energy source, as a means for augmenting the flow rate of a valveless pump in a hydraulic loop, including an open tank. In contrast to our previous work, in which the concept of the latter stenosis was introduced for the first time in a horizontal closed loop, here, gravity was taken into account. The stenosis neck cross-sectional area was controlled by the fluid pressure and the opposing force applied externally by a spring of adjustable tension. A pincher compressed and decompressed a part of the pump’s flexible tube periodically, with frequencies from 5 Hz to 11 Hz and compression ratios Ab from 24% to 65%. The presence of the stenosis increased the net flow rate by 19 times for Ab = 24% and 6.3 times for Ab = 38%; whereas for Ab = 65%, the flow rates were comparable. The volumetric efficiency varied from 30% to 40% under the presence of the stenosis, and from 2% to 20% without the stenosis. The role of the stenosis was to cause a unidirectional flow, opening during tube compression and closing during decompression. The pressure amplitudes along the flexible tube increased towards the rigid–flexible tube junction (as a result of the wave reflections), which were found to be significantly attenuated by the presence of the stenosis, whereas the flow rate pulsations did not exceed 10% of the mean at the peak net flow rates. Full article
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16 pages, 3777 KiB  
Article
Analytical Solution for Transient Electroosmotic and Pressure-Driven Flows in Microtubes
by Yu Feng, Hang Yi and Ruguan Liu
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060140 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 324
Abstract
This study focuses on deriving and presenting an infinite series as the analytical solution for transient electroosmotic and pressure-driven flows in microtubes. Such a mathematical presentation of fluid dynamics under simultaneous electric field and pressure gradients leverages governing equations derived from the generalized [...] Read more.
This study focuses on deriving and presenting an infinite series as the analytical solution for transient electroosmotic and pressure-driven flows in microtubes. Such a mathematical presentation of fluid dynamics under simultaneous electric field and pressure gradients leverages governing equations derived from the generalized continuity and momentum equations simplified for laminar and axisymmetric flow. Velocity profile developments, apparent slip-induced flow rates, and shear stress distributions were analyzed by varying values of the ratio of microtube radius to Debye length and the electroosmotic slip velocity. Additionally, the “retarded time” in terms of hydraulic diameter, kinematic viscosity, and slip-induced flow rate was derived. A simpler polynomial series approximation for steady electroosmotic flow is also proposed for engineering convenience. The analytical solutions obtained in this study not only enhance the fundamental understanding of the electroosmotic flow characteristics within microtubes, emphasizing the interplay between electroosmotic and pressure-driven mechanisms, but also serve as a benchmark for validating computational fluid dynamics models for electroosmotic flow simulations in more complex flow domains. Moreover, the analytical approach aids in the parametric analysis, providing deeper insights into the impact of physical parameters on electroosmotic and pressure-driven flow behavior, which is critical for optimizing device performance in practical applications. These findings also offer insightful implications for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in healthcare, particularly enhancing the capabilities of lab-on-a-chip technologies and paving the way for future research in the development and optimization of microfluidic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Applications of Microfluidics)
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16 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Equations of Hydrodynamic Theory of Plasma
by Artur V. Dmitrenko
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060139 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Stochastic equations of the hydrodynamic theory of plasma are presented in relation to strong external fields. It is shown that the use of these stochastic equations makes it possible to obtain new theoretical solutions for plasma as a result of its heating in [...] Read more.
Stochastic equations of the hydrodynamic theory of plasma are presented in relation to strong external fields. It is shown that the use of these stochastic equations makes it possible to obtain new theoretical solutions for plasma as a result of its heating in a strong external electric field. Theoretical solutions for the conductivity of turbulent plasma when heated in an external electric field of 100 V/cm are considered. Calculated values for the electron drift velocity, electron mobility, electron collision frequency, and the Coulomb logarithm in the region of strong electric fields are obtained. Here we consider experiments on turbulent heating of hydrogen plasma in the range of electric field strength of 100 < E < 1000. The calculated dependences of plasma conductivity are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data for heating plasma in a strong electric field. It is shown that the plasma turbulence in the region of strong electric fields E ~1000 V/cm is close to 100%. For the first time, it is confirmed that the derived dependences for collision frequency, drift velocity, and other values include the degree of turbulence of plasma, which makes it possible to correctly describe experimental data for heating plasma even with strong electric fields. In addition, it was determined that the scatter of experimental data may be associated with the variability of the function in the expression for the heat flux density. For the first time, it is shown theoretically that the experimentally determined fact of the possibility of the existence of an approximate constancy of plasma conductivity in the region E = 100–1000 V/cm can occur with an error of ~30%. The results show significant advantages of the stochastic hydrodynamic plasma theory over other methods that are not yet able to satisfactorily as well as qualitatively and quantitatively predict long-known experimental data while taking into account the degree of turbulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic Equations in Fluid Dynamics, 2nd Edition)
19 pages, 1740 KiB  
Article
Correction Factors for the Use of 1D Solution Methods for Dynamic Laminar Liquid Flow through Curved Tubes
by Travis Wiens
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060138 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The modeling of transient flows of liquids through tubes is required for studies in water hammer, switched inertance hydraulic converters, and noise reduction in hydraulic equipment. While 3D gridded computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods exist for the prediction of dynamic flows and pressures [...] Read more.
The modeling of transient flows of liquids through tubes is required for studies in water hammer, switched inertance hydraulic converters, and noise reduction in hydraulic equipment. While 3D gridded computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods exist for the prediction of dynamic flows and pressures in these applications, they are computationally costly, and it is more common to use 1D methods such as the method of characteristics (MOC), transmission line method (TLM), or frequency domain methods. These 1D methods give good approximations of results but require many orders of magnitude less computation time. While these tubes are typically curved or coiled in practical applications, existing 1D solution methods assume straight tubes, often with unknown deviation from the curved tube solution. This paper uses CFD simulations to determine the correction factors that can be used for existing 1D methods with curved tubes. The paper also presents information that can be used to help evaluate the expected errors resulting from this approximation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pipe Flow: Research and Applications)
15 pages, 6336 KiB  
Article
Advanced RBF Methods for Mapping Aerodynamic Loads onto Structures in High-Fidelity FSI Simulations
by Andrea Chiappa, Andrea Lopez and Corrado Groth
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060137 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 292
Abstract
The reliable exchange of data is a crucial issue for the loose coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural mechanics (CSM) modules in fluid–structure interaction (FSI) applications. This paper presents a comparison between two methods for mapping the traction field across [...] Read more.
The reliable exchange of data is a crucial issue for the loose coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural mechanics (CSM) modules in fluid–structure interaction (FSI) applications. This paper presents a comparison between two methods for mapping the traction field across mismatching grids, namely the RIBES method and the preCICE algorithm, both based on radial basis function (RBF) interpolation. The two methods demonstrate different degrees of control over balance preservation during mapping, with the RIBES algorithm exhibiting greater efficacy. Test benches are a parametric double curved geometry and a wind tunnel mock-up. In this second case, forces from mapping are used to load a CSM model to retrieve stress and displacement fields. Differences in FEM results are appreciable although not significant, showing a correlation between the accuracy of balance preservation during data mapping and the structural output. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radial Basis Functions and their Applications in Fluids)
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16 pages, 3875 KiB  
Article
Pump System Model Parameter Identification Based on Experimental and Simulation Data
by Sheldon Wang, Dalong Gao, Alexandria Wester, Kalyb Beaver, Shanae Edwards and Carrie Anne Taylor
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060136 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 237
Abstract
In this paper, the entire downhole fluid-sucker rod-pump system is replaced with a viscoelastic vibration model, namely a third-order differential equation with an inhomogeneous forcing term. Both Kelvin’s and Maxwell’s viscoelastic models can be implemented along with the dynamic behaviors of a mass [...] Read more.
In this paper, the entire downhole fluid-sucker rod-pump system is replaced with a viscoelastic vibration model, namely a third-order differential equation with an inhomogeneous forcing term. Both Kelvin’s and Maxwell’s viscoelastic models can be implemented along with the dynamic behaviors of a mass point attached to the viscoelastic model. By employing the time-dependent polished rod force measured with a dynamometer as the input to the viscoelastic dynamic model, we have obtained the displacement responses, which match closely with the experimental measurements in actual operations, through an iterative process. The key discovery of this work is the feasibility of the so-called inverse optimization procedure, which can be utilized to identify the equivalent scaling factor and viscoelastic system parameters. The proposed Newton–Raphson iterative method, with some terms in the Jacobian matrix expressed with averaged rates of changes based on perturbations of up to two independent parameters, provides a feasible tool for optimization issues related to complex engineering problems with mere information of input and output data from either experiments or comprehensive simulations. The same inverse optimization procedure is also implemented to model the entire fluid delivery system of a very viscous non-Newtonian polymer modeled as a first-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) system similar to the transient entrance developing flow. The convergent parameter reproduces transient solutions that match very well with those from fully fledged computational fluid dynamics models with the required inlet volume flow rate and outlet pressure conditions. Full article
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19 pages, 8513 KiB  
Article
Laminar Boundary Layer over a Serrated Backward-Facing Step
by Real J. KC, Trevor C. Wilson, Nicholas A. Lucido, Aaron S. Alexander, Jamey D. Jacob and Brian R. Elbing
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060135 - 2 Jun 2024
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Laminar flow over a modified backward-facing step (BFS) was studied experimentally and computationally, with the results compared to a flight test on a Piper Cherokee wing. The BFS was modified with a serrated spanwise variation while maintaining a constant step height, and this [...] Read more.
Laminar flow over a modified backward-facing step (BFS) was studied experimentally and computationally, with the results compared to a flight test on a Piper Cherokee wing. The BFS was modified with a serrated spanwise variation while maintaining a constant step height, and this modification is termed a serrated BFS (sBFS). A scaling law was proposed and then used to develop the experimental operation conditions. The experiments showed evidence that the transition to turbulence was delayed over the forward part of the serration (termed the valley). The boundary layer growth and characterization were used to validate the computational model, which was then used to examine details not available from the experiment, including the wall shear stress distribution and streamlines as they go over the sBFS. The wall shear stress showed the formation of low-shear diamonds downstream of the sBFS valley that were associated with laminar flow, which confirmed previous assumptions about the low-shear diamonds observed in the flight tests. The length of the low-shear diamonds was scaled with the sBFS geometry. Finally, the streamlines showed that the near-wall flow forward of the sBFS is pumped towards the sBFS peak, where it rapidly transitions to turbulence at that location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Manipulation Techniques: Advances, Challenges and Perspectives)
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22 pages, 3502 KiB  
Article
AI-Based Detection of Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Compressors via Dynamic Model Parameter Estimation
by Sara Zanotti, Davide Ceschini and Michele Ferlauto
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060134 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Compressors are an essential component of aircraft engines. Their design and operation must be extremely reliable as engine safety and performance depend greatly on these elements. Axial compressors exhibit instabilities, such as surge or rotating stall, in a region close to the peak [...] Read more.
Compressors are an essential component of aircraft engines. Their design and operation must be extremely reliable as engine safety and performance depend greatly on these elements. Axial compressors exhibit instabilities, such as surge or rotating stall, in a region close to the peak of their performance curves. These fluid dynamic instabilities can cause drops in efficiency, stress on the blades, fatigue, and even failures. Compressors are handled therefore by operating with a safety margin far from the surge line. Moreover, models able to predict onset instabilities and to reproduce them are of great interest. A dynamic system able to describe successfully both surge and rotating stall is the model presented by Moore and Greitzer That model has also been used for developing control laws of the compressor dynamics. The present work aims at developing an artificial neural network (ANN) approach able to predict either the permanence of the system in stable working condition or the onset instabilities from a time sequence of the compressor dynamics. Different solutions were tried to find the most suitable model for identifying the system, as well as the effects of the duration of the time sequence on the accuracy of the predicted compressor working conditions. The network was further tried for sequences with different initial values in order to perform a system analysis that included multiple variations from the initial database. The results show how it is possible to identify with high accuracy both rotating stall and surge with the ANN approach. Moreover, the presence of an underlying fluid dynamic model shares some similarities with physically informed AI procedures. Full article
22 pages, 7830 KiB  
Review
Convergence towards High-Speed Steady States Using High-Order Accurate Shock-Capturing Schemes
by Juan C. Assis, Ricardo D. Santos, Mateus S. Schuabb, Carlos E. G. Falcão, Rômulo B. Freitas and Leonardo S. de B. Alves
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060133 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Creating time-marching unsteady governing equations for a steady state in high-speed flows is not a trivial task. Residue convergence in time cannot be achieved when using most low- and high-order spatial discretization schemes. Recently, high-order, weighted, essentially non-oscillatory schemes have been specially designed [...] Read more.
Creating time-marching unsteady governing equations for a steady state in high-speed flows is not a trivial task. Residue convergence in time cannot be achieved when using most low- and high-order spatial discretization schemes. Recently, high-order, weighted, essentially non-oscillatory schemes have been specially designed for steady-state simulations. They have been shown to be capable of achieving machine precision residues when simulating the Euler equations under canonical coordinates. In the present work, we review these schemes and show that they can also achieve machine residues when simulating the Navier–Stokes equations under generalized coordinates. This is carried out by considering three supersonic flows of perfect fluids, namely the flow upstream a cylinder, the flow over a blunt wedge, and the flow over a compression ramp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fluid Mechanics: Feature Papers, 2024)
13 pages, 4096 KiB  
Article
Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer Intensification for Selective Alkyne Semi-Hydrogenation with an Advanced Elastic Catalytic Foam-Bed Reactor
by Mohamad Fayad, Maïté Michaud, Han Peng, Vincent Ritleng and David Edouard
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060132 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 207
Abstract
The Elastic Catalytic Foam-bed Reactor (EcFR) technology was used to enhance a model catalytic hydrogenation reaction by improving gas–liquid mass transfer. This advanced technology is based on a column packed with a commercial elastomeric polyurethane open-cell foam, which also acts as a catalyst [...] Read more.
The Elastic Catalytic Foam-bed Reactor (EcFR) technology was used to enhance a model catalytic hydrogenation reaction by improving gas–liquid mass transfer. This advanced technology is based on a column packed with a commercial elastomeric polyurethane open-cell foam, which also acts as a catalyst support. A simple and efficient crankshaft-inspired system applied in situ compression/relaxation movements to the foam bed. For the first time, the catalytic support parameters (i.e., porosity, tortuosity, characteristic length, etc.) underwent cyclic and controlled changes over time. These dynamic cycles have made it possible to intensify the transfer of gas to liquid at a constant energy level. The application chosen was the selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene to styrene in an alcoholic solution using a palladium-based catalyst under hydrogen bubble conditions. The conversion observed with this EcFR at 1 Hz as cycle frequency was compared with that observed with a conventional Fixed Catalytic Foam-bed Reactor (FcFR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Transfer in Multiphase Reactors)
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16 pages, 6505 KiB  
Article
Passive Control of Vortices in the Wake of a Bluff Body
by Marek Pátý, Michael Valášek, Emanuele Resta, Roberto Marsilio and Michele Ferlauto
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060131 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Vortices belong to the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics and play an essential role in many engineering applications. They can act detrimentally by harnessing the flow energy and reducing the efficiency of an aerodynamic device, whereas in other cases, their presence can [...] Read more.
Vortices belong to the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics and play an essential role in many engineering applications. They can act detrimentally by harnessing the flow energy and reducing the efficiency of an aerodynamic device, whereas in other cases, their presence can be exploited to achieve targeted flow conditions. The control of the vortex parameters is desirable in both cases. In this paper, we introduce an optimization strategy for the control of vortices in the wake of a bluff body. Flow modelling is based on RANS and DES computations, validated by experimental data. The algorithm for vortex identification and characterization is based on the triple decomposition of motion. It produces a quantitative measure of vortex strength which is used to define the objective function in the optimization procedure. It is shown how the shape of an aerodynamic device can be altered to achieve the desired characteristics of vortices in its wake. The studied case is closely related to flame holders for combustion applications, but the conceptual approach has a general applicability to vortex control. Full article
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17 pages, 14922 KiB  
Article
Improving the Energy Efficiency of Vehicles by Ensuring the Optimal Value of Excess Pressure in the Cabin Depending on the Travel Speed
by Ivan Panfilov, Alexey N. Beskopylny and Besarion Meskhi
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060130 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 271
Abstract
This work is devoted to the study of gas-dynamic processes in the operation of climate control systems in the cabins of vehicles (HVAC), focusing on pressure values. This research examines the issue of assessing the required values of air overpressure inside the locomotive [...] Read more.
This work is devoted to the study of gas-dynamic processes in the operation of climate control systems in the cabins of vehicles (HVAC), focusing on pressure values. This research examines the issue of assessing the required values of air overpressure inside the locomotive cabin, which is necessary to prevent gas exchange between the interior of the cabin and the outside air through leaks in the cabin, including protection against the penetration of harmful substances. The pressure boost in the cabin depends, among other things, on the external air pressure on the locomotive body, the power of the climate system fan, and the ratio of the input and output deflectors. To determine the external air pressure, the problem of train movement in a wind tunnel is considered, the internal and external fluids domain is considered, and the air pressure on the cabin skin is determined using numerical methods CFD based on the Navier–Stokes equations, depending on the speed of movement. The finite-volume modeling package Ansys CFD (Fluent) was used as an implementation. The values of excess internal pressure, which ensures the operation of the climate system under different operating modes, were studied numerically and on the basis of an approximate applied formula. In particular, studies were carried out depending on the speed and movement of transport, on the airflow of the climate system, and on the ratio of the areas of input and output parameters. During a numerical experiment, it was found that for a train speed of 100 km/h, the required excess pressure is 560 kPa, and the most energy-efficient way to increase pressure is to regulate the area of the outlet valves. Full article
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29 pages, 8011 KiB  
Article
Hartmann Flow of Two-Layered Fluids in Horizontal and Inclined Channels
by Arseniy Parfenov, Alexander Gelfgat, Amos Ullmann and Neima Brauner
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060129 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 275
Abstract
The effect of a transverse magnetic field on two-phase stratified flow in horizontal and inclined channels is studied. The lower heavier phase is assumed to be an electrical conductor (e.g., liquid metal), while the upper lighter phase is fully dielectric (e.g., gas). The [...] Read more.
The effect of a transverse magnetic field on two-phase stratified flow in horizontal and inclined channels is studied. The lower heavier phase is assumed to be an electrical conductor (e.g., liquid metal), while the upper lighter phase is fully dielectric (e.g., gas). The flow is defined by prescribed flow rates in each phase, so the unknown frictional pressure gradient and location of the interface separating the phases (holdup) are found as part of the whole solution. It is shown that the solution of such a two-phase Hartmann flow is determined by four dimensionless parameters: the phases’ viscosity and flow-rate ratios, the inclination parameter, and the Hartmann number. The changes in velocity profiles, holdups, and pressure gradients with variations in the magnetic field and the phases’ flow-rate ratio are reported. The potential lubrication effect of the gas layer and pumping power reduction are found to be limited to low magnetic field strength. The effect of the magnetic field strength on the possibility of obtaining countercurrent flow and multiple flow states in concurrent upward and downward flows, and the associated flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, back-flow phenomena, and pressure gradient, are explored. It is shown that increasing the magnetic field strength reduces the flow-rate range for which multiple solutions are obtained in concurrent flows and the flow-rate range where countercurrent flow is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modeling and Experimental Studies of Two-Phase Flows)
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12 pages, 1695 KiB  
Article
Measuring Turbulent Flows: Analyzing a Stochastic Process with Stochastic Tools
by Evangelos Rozos, Jörg Wieland and Jorge Leandro
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060128 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Assessing drag force and Reynolds stresses in turbulent flows is crucial for evaluating the stability and longevity of hydraulic structures. Yet, this task is challenging due to the complex nature of turbulent flows. To address this, physical models are often employed. Nonetheless, this [...] Read more.
Assessing drag force and Reynolds stresses in turbulent flows is crucial for evaluating the stability and longevity of hydraulic structures. Yet, this task is challenging due to the complex nature of turbulent flows. To address this, physical models are often employed. Nonetheless, this practice is associated with difficulties, especially in the case of high sampling frequency where the inherent randomness of velocity fluctuations becomes mixed with the measurement noise. This study introduces a stochastic approach, which aims to mitigate bias from measurement errors and provide a probabilistic estimate of extreme stress values. To accomplish this, a simple experimental setup with a hydraulic jump was employed to acquire long-duration velocity measurements. Subsequently, a modified first-order autoregressive model was applied through ensemble simulations, demonstrating the benefits of the stochastic approach. The analysis highlights its effectiveness in estimating the uncertainty of extreme events frequency and minimizing the bias induced by the noise in the high-magnitude velocity measurements and by the limited length of observations. These findings contribute to advancing our understanding of turbulent flow analysis and have implications for the design and assessment of hydraulic structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Turbulence)
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70 pages, 4695 KiB  
Review
Numerical Dissipation Control in High-Order Methods for Compressible Turbulence: Recent Development
by H. C. Yee and Björn Sjögreen
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060127 - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 273
Abstract
This comprehensive overview presents our continued efforts in high-order finite difference method (FDM) development for adaptive numerical dissipation control in the long-time integration of direct numerical simulation (DNS), large eddy simulation (LES), and implicit LES (ILES) computations of compressible turbulence for gas dynamics [...] Read more.
This comprehensive overview presents our continued efforts in high-order finite difference method (FDM) development for adaptive numerical dissipation control in the long-time integration of direct numerical simulation (DNS), large eddy simulation (LES), and implicit LES (ILES) computations of compressible turbulence for gas dynamics and MHD. The focus is on turbulence with shock wave numerical simulations using the adaptive blending of high-order structure-preserving non-dissipative methods (classical central, Padé (compact), and dispersion relation-preserving (DRP)) with high-order shock-capturing methods in such a way that high-order shock-capturing methods are active only in the vicinity of shock/shear waves, and high-gradient and spurious high-frequency oscillation regions guided via flow sensors. Any efficient and high-resolution high-order shock-capturing methods are good candidates for the blending of methods procedure. Typically, the adaptive blending of more than one method falls under two camps: hybrid methods and nonlinear filter methods. They are applicable to unstructured finite volume, finite element, discontinuous Galerkin, and spectral element methods. This work represents the culmination of over 20 years of high-order FDM developments and hands-on experience by the authors and collaborators in adaptive numerical dissipation control using the “high order nonlinear filter approach”. Extensions of these FDM versions to curvilinear nonuniform, freestream-preserving moving grids and time-varying deforming grids were also developed. By examining the construction of these two approaches using the high-order multistage type of temporal discretization, the nonlinear filter approach is made more efficient and less CPU-intensive while obtaining similar accuracy. A representative variety of test cases that compare the various blending of high-order methods with standalone standard methods is illustrated. Due to the fact that our nonlinear filter methods are not well known in compressible turbulence with shock waves, the intent of this comprehensive overview is for general audiences who are not familiar with our nonlinear filter methods. For readers interested in the implementation of our methods into their computer code, it is hoped that the long overview will be helpful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Methods for Turbulent Flows)
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27 pages, 18300 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis of Bubble Parameters from a Model Bubble Column with and without Counter-Current Flow
by P. Kováts and K. Zähringer
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060126 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Bubble columns are widely used in numerous industrial processes because of their advantages in operation, design, and maintenance compared to other multiphase reactor types. In contrast to their simple design, the generated flow conditions inside a bubble column reactor are quite complex, especially [...] Read more.
Bubble columns are widely used in numerous industrial processes because of their advantages in operation, design, and maintenance compared to other multiphase reactor types. In contrast to their simple design, the generated flow conditions inside a bubble column reactor are quite complex, especially in continuous mode with counter-current liquid flow. For the design and optimization of such reactors, precise numerical simulations and modelling are needed. These simulations and models have to be validated with experimental data. For this reason, experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale bubble column using shadow imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques with and without counter-current liquid flow. In the experiments, two types of gases—relatively poorly soluble air and well-soluble CO2—were used and the bubbles were generated with three different capillary diameters. With changing gas and liquid flow rates, overall, 108 different flow conditions were investigated. In addition to the liquid flow fields captured by PIV, shadow imaging data were also statistically evaluated in the measurement volume and bubble parameters such as bubble diameter, velocity, aspect ratio, bubble motion direction, and inclination. The bubble slip velocity was calculated from the measured liquid and bubble velocities. The analysis of these parameters shows that the counter-current liquid flow has a noticeable influence on the bubble parameters, especially on the bubble velocity and motion direction. In the case of CO2 bubbles, remarkable bubble shrinkage was observed with counter-current liquid flow due to the enhanced mass transfer. The results obtained for bubble aspect ratio are compared to known correlations from the literature. The comprehensive and extensive bubble data obtained in this study will now be used as a source for the development of correlations needed in the validation of numerical simulations and models. The data are available from the authors on request. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Transfer in Multiphase Reactors)
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14 pages, 1561 KiB  
Article
Effects of Partial Premixing and Coflow Temperature on Flame Stabilization of Lifted Jet Flames of Dimethyl Ether in a Vitiated Coflow Based on Stochastic Multiple Mapping Conditioning Approach
by Sanjeev Kumar Ghai, Rajat Gupta and Santanu De
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060125 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 295
Abstract
The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)-based stochastic multiple mapping conditioning (MMC) approach has been used to study partially premixed jet flames of dimethyl ether (DME) introduced into a vitiated coflowing oxidizer stream. This study investigates DME flames with varying degrees of partial premixing within a [...] Read more.
The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)-based stochastic multiple mapping conditioning (MMC) approach has been used to study partially premixed jet flames of dimethyl ether (DME) introduced into a vitiated coflowing oxidizer stream. This study investigates DME flames with varying degrees of partial premixing within a fuel jet across different coflow temperatures, delving into the underlying flame structure and stabilization mechanisms. Employing a turbulence k-ε model with a customized set of constants, the MMC technique utilizes a mixture fraction as the primary scalar, mapped to the reference variable. Solving a set of ordinary differential equations for the evolution of Lagrangian stochastic particles’ position and composition, the molecular mixing of these particles is executed using the modified Curl’s model. The lift-off height (LOH) derived from RANS-MMC simulations are juxtaposed with experimental data for different degrees of partial premixing of fuel jets and various coflow temperatures. The RANS-MMC methodology adeptly captures LOH for pure DME jets but exhibits an underestimation of flame LOH for partially premixed jet scenarios. Notably, as the degree of premixing escalates, a conspicuous underprediction in LOH becomes apparent. Conditional scatter and contour plots of OH and CH2O unveil that the propagation of partially premixed flames emerges as the dominant mechanism at high coflow temperatures, while autoignition governs flame stabilization at lower coflow temperatures in partially premixed flames. Additionally, for pure DME flames, autoignition remains the primary flame stabilization mechanism across all coflow temperature conditions. The study underscores the importance of considering the degree of premixing in partially premixed jet flames, as it significantly impacts flame stabilization mechanisms and LOH, thereby providing crucial insights into combustion dynamics for various practical applications. Full article
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25 pages, 1755 KiB  
Article
Subgrid Turbulent Flux Models for Large Eddy Simulations of Diffusion Flames in Space Propulsion
by Daniel Martinez-Sanchis, Andrej Sternin, Sagnik Banik, Oskar Haidn and Martin Tajmar
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060124 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Subgrid scale models for unresolved turbulent fluxes are investigated, with a focus on combustion for space propulsion applications. An extension to the gradient model is proposed, introducing a dependency on the local burning regimen. The dynamic behaviors of the model’s coefficients are investigated, [...] Read more.
Subgrid scale models for unresolved turbulent fluxes are investigated, with a focus on combustion for space propulsion applications. An extension to the gradient model is proposed, introducing a dependency on the local burning regimen. The dynamic behaviors of the model’s coefficients are investigated, and scaling laws are studied. The discussed models are validated using a DNS database of a high-pressure, turbulent, fuel-rich methane–oxygen diffusion flame. The operating point and turbulence characteristics are selected to resemble those of modern combustors for space propulsion applications to support the future usage of the devised model in this context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Combustion)
24 pages, 7806 KiB  
Article
Simulation on the Separation of Breast Cancer Cells within a Dual-Patterned End Microfluidic Device
by Diganta Dutta, Xavier Palmer, Jung Yul Lim and Surabhi Chandra
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060123 - 25 May 2024
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Microfluidic devices have long been useful for both the modeling and diagnostics of numerous diseases. In the past 20 years, they have been increasingly adopted for helping to study those in the family of breast cancer through characterizing breast cancer cells and advancing [...] Read more.
Microfluidic devices have long been useful for both the modeling and diagnostics of numerous diseases. In the past 20 years, they have been increasingly adopted for helping to study those in the family of breast cancer through characterizing breast cancer cells and advancing treatment research in portable and replicable formats. This paper adds to the body of work concerning cancer-focused microfluidics by proposing a simulation of a hypothetical bi-ended three-pronged device with a single channel and 16 electrodes with 8 pairs under different voltage and frequency regimes using COMSOL. Further, a study was conducted to examine the frequencies most effective for ACEO to separate cancer cells and accompanying particles. The study revealed that the frequency of EF has a more significant impact on the separation of particles than the inlet velocity. Inlet velocity variations while holding the frequency of EF constant resulted in a consistent trend showing a direct proportionality between inlet velocity and net velocity. These findings suggest that optimizing the frequency of EF could lead to more effective particle separation and targeted therapeutic interventions for breast cancer. This study hopefully will help to create targeted therapeutic interventions by bridging the disparity between in vitro and in vivo models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physics and Applications of Microfluidics)
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30 pages, 13990 KiB  
Article
N-Symmetric Interaction of N Hetons, II: Analysis of the Case of Arbitrary N
by Konstantin V. Koshel, Mikhail A. Sokolovskiy, David G. Dritschel and Jean N. Reinaud
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060122 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 389
Abstract
This paper seeks and examines N-symmetric vortical solutions of the two-layer geostrophic model for the special case when the vortices (or eddies) have vanishing summed strength (circulation anomaly). This study is an extension [Sokolovskiy et al. Phys. Fluids 2020, 32, 09660], where [...] Read more.
This paper seeks and examines N-symmetric vortical solutions of the two-layer geostrophic model for the special case when the vortices (or eddies) have vanishing summed strength (circulation anomaly). This study is an extension [Sokolovskiy et al. Phys. Fluids 2020, 32, 09660], where the general formulation for arbitrary N was given, but the analysis was only carried out for N=2. Here, families of stationary solutions are obtained and their properties, including asymptotic ones, are investigated in detail. From the point of view of geophysical applications, the results may help interpret the propagation of thermal anomalies in the oceans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics)
12 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Novel Pour Point Depressants for Crude Oil Derived from Polyethylene Solution in Hexane and Coal Fly Ash
by Kazim Nadirov, Manap Zhantasov, Tlek Ketegenov, Zhanna Nadirova, Aisulu Batkal, Kaster Kamunur, Gulmira Bimbetova and Rashid Nadirov
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060121 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Oil transportation becomes much more complicated due to the solidification of paraffins in them at low temperatures and the resulting increase in oil viscosity. To solve this problem, special additives as pour point depressants (PPDs) are used to prevent the agglomeration of paraffin [...] Read more.
Oil transportation becomes much more complicated due to the solidification of paraffins in them at low temperatures and the resulting increase in oil viscosity. To solve this problem, special additives as pour point depressants (PPDs) are used to prevent the agglomeration of paraffin crystals. In this work, 15 PPDs were obtained and tested, consisting of a solution of polyethylene in hexane and also, in some cases, from magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) extracted from coal fly ash. The most effective result was observed with a mixture of 0.25% polyethylene in hexane and 2% MNPs, which managed to lower the oil’s pour point from 18 °C to −17 °C. Full article
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3 pages, 144 KiB  
Editorial
Environmental Hydraulics, Turbulence, and Sediment Transport, Second Edition
by Jaan H. Pu, Manish Pandey and Prashanth Reddy Hanmaiahgari
Fluids 2024, 9(6), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9060120 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Within river systems, the process of bed-forming is intricate, dynamic and is shaped by different factors [...] Full article
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