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Vet. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 78 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study reports the outcome of dogs with a congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt treated with a ‘complete ligation where possible’ philosophy and compares the outcome between dogs able to tolerate complete acute ligation of their shunt to dogs only able to tolerate partial thin-film-band partial closure of their shunt. The findings demonstrate that dogs receiving either complete acute shunt ligation or partial thin-film-band shunt closure are expected to have an excellent long-term clinical outcome and there is no reason to suggest that a dog able to tolerate complete acute shunt closure should be denied the benefit of this. However, dogs receiving thin-film-band partial shunt closure had a greater number of unchanged bile acid concentrations after surgery, were more likely to remain under medical management after surgery and underwent a greater number of revision surgeries. View this paper
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8 pages, 722 KiB  
Communication
Condemnation of Porcine Carcasses: A Two-Year Long Survey in an Italian High-Throughput Slaughterhouse
by Alfonso Rosamilia, Giorgio Galletti, Stefano Benedetti, Chiara Guarnieri, Andrea Luppi, Stefano Capezzuto, Marco Tamba, Giuseppe Merialdi and Giuseppe Marruchella
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070482 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection at slaughter are performed by Official Veterinarians and it is essential to identify alterations/lesions, which can make organs/carcasses unsuitable for human consumption. Obviously, carcass condemnation must be regarded as a highly undesirable event for the entire swine industry chain, [...] Read more.
Ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection at slaughter are performed by Official Veterinarians and it is essential to identify alterations/lesions, which can make organs/carcasses unsuitable for human consumption. Obviously, carcass condemnation must be regarded as a highly undesirable event for the entire swine industry chain, as it represents the total failure of a long period of challenging work. Therefore, it seems valuable to estimate the prevalence and causes of carcasses condemnation, in order to preserve consumers’ health and pig farming profitability. Bearing that in mind, the present study aimed at providing a reliable picture of the condemnation of porcine carcasses in Italy, with a special emphasis being placed upon pathological findings. Data were collected in a high-throughput abattoir located in northern Italy, where a total of 2,062,278 pigs were slaughtered during the period of study (2021–2022). Overall, 1362 pigs were considered unfit for slaughtering after ante-mortem inspection, mostly because of death during transportation or in resting pens, after their arrival at the abattoir. Moreover, 2007 carcasses were condemned after post-mortem inspection. The most common causes of condemnation were severe and diffuse peritonitis, disseminated abscesses, jaundice, and erysipelas. In our opinion, the present survey may provide useful and updated information about the condemnation of pig carcasses in Italy. At the same time, it highlights the need to collect data in a more systematic and standardized way, thus making possible their comparison over time and among different geographic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Food Safety and Zoonosis)
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15 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Identification, and Whole Genome Analysis of Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus in an Outbreak of Disease in Adult Layer Hens
by Yueyan Zeng, Hui Zhang and Huanrong Zhang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070481 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) poses a significant threat to the chicken industry in China. Due to its non-specific symptoms, the disease is often overlooked. This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the etiology and pathology of CIA in Guangxi Province, China. [...] Read more.
Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) poses a significant threat to the chicken industry in China. Due to its non-specific symptoms, the disease is often overlooked. This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the etiology and pathology of CIA in Guangxi Province, China. Three strains of the chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) were isolated from liver samples of diseased 20-week-old chickens. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and experiments on specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks revealed that the GX21121 strain exhibited high virulence. Histopathological examination of the deceased chickens showed liver cell necrosis, fibrous serous exudation, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage in liver tissues, and congestion in lung and renal tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed that the three strains had a close genetic relationship to the Heilongjiang wild-type strain (GenBank KY486144). The genetic evolution of their VP1 genes indicated that all three CIAV isolates belonged to genotype IIIc. In summary, this study demonstrated the genomic diversity of three CIAV strains in adult layer hens. The isolation and characterization of the GX21121 strain as a highly virulent isolate provide valuable information for further investigations into the etiology, molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution of CIAV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Pathogenesis and Pathology of Virus Infection in Poultry)
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13 pages, 1083 KiB  
Article
Prospective Study Comparing Outcome following Complete Polypropylene Suture Ligation versus Partial Thin Film Band Attenuation of Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in Dogs
by Victoria Lipscomb, Chloe Cassie, Ben Ritchie, Stephen Greenhalgh and Mickey Tivers
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070480 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The main objective was to conduct a prospective study reporting the outcome for dogs with an extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) treated with a ‘complete ligation where possible’ philosophy. The second aim was to compare the outcomes following complete (C) polypropylene suture ligation [...] Read more.
The main objective was to conduct a prospective study reporting the outcome for dogs with an extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) treated with a ‘complete ligation where possible’ philosophy. The second aim was to compare the outcomes following complete (C) polypropylene suture ligation versus partial thin film band (TFB) attenuation of a CPSS in dogs. Dogs that could not tolerate acute complete shunt ligation at surgery received partial shunt attenuation with TFB. Peri-operative complications, mortality, follow-up imaging findings, pre- and post-operative bile acid stimulation test results and details of any revision surgery performed were recorded. A follow-up health-related quality of life questionnaire enabled the calculation of a postoperative clinical shunt score, a quality of life score, and determined if any dogs were still on a hepatic diet and/or other medical management at a minimum of 6 months after surgery. Of the 110 dogs enrolled, 57 received complete ligation and 53 received partial TFB attenuation. Peri-operative mortality, the occurrence of post-attenuation neurological complications, the occurrence of multiple acquired shunts, the postoperative clinical shunt score and quality of life score were not significantly different between the two groups. Dogs in the C group were older, heavier and demonstrated a greater number of shunt classifications where the entry into the systemic circulation was the phrenic vein or azygous vein. Dogs in the TFB group had a greater number of unchanged bile acid concentrations after surgery, were more likely to remain on the hepatic diet and/or medical management after surgery and underwent a greater number of revision surgeries. There was variability in the precision of both ultrasound and computed tomographic angiography follow-up imaging compared to intra-operative mesenteric portovenography findings at revision surgery. Overall, dogs with an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt receiving either complete acute shunt ligation or partial TFB shunt attenuation are expected to have an excellent long-term clinical outcome and there is no reason to suggest that a dog able to tolerate complete acute shunt closure should be denied the benefit of this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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12 pages, 11876 KiB  
Systematic Review
Meta-Analysis on the Global Prevalence of Tetracycline Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Beef Cattle
by Yohannes E. Messele, Gebremeskel Mamu Werid and Kiro Petrovski
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070479 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging global concern, with the widespread use of antimicrobials in One Health contributing significantly to this phenomenon. Among various antimicrobials, tetracyclines are extensively used in the beef cattle industry, potentially contributing to the development of resistance in bacterial [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging global concern, with the widespread use of antimicrobials in One Health contributing significantly to this phenomenon. Among various antimicrobials, tetracyclines are extensively used in the beef cattle industry, potentially contributing to the development of resistance in bacterial populations. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the association between tetracycline use in beef cattle and the development of tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli isolates. A comprehensive search was conducted using multiple databases to gather relevant observational studies evaluating tetracycline use and tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from beef cattle. The rate of tetracycline resistance from each study served as the effect measure and was pooled using a random-effects model, considering possible disparities among studies. The meta-analysis of 14 prospective longitudinal studies resulted in a 0.31 prevalence of tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli in non-intervention (no exposure), contrasting numerically elevated resistance rates in the intervention (exposed) groups of 0.53 and 0.39 in those receiving tetracyclines via feed or systemically, respectively. Despite the observed numerical differences, no statistically significant differences existed between intervention and non-intervention groups, challenging the conventional belief that antimicrobial use in livestock inherently leads to increased AMR. The findings of this study underscore the need for additional research to fully understand the complex relationship between antimicrobial use and AMR development. A considerable degree of heterogeneity across studies, potentially driven by variations in study design and diverse presentation of results, indicates the intricate and complex nature of AMR development. Further research with standardized methodologies might help elucidate the relationship between tetracycline use and resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from beef cattle. Full article
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20 pages, 3639 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Pathways before and after a 2-Month-Long Hydrolyzed Fish and Rice Starch Hypoallergenic Diet Trial in Pruritic Dogs
by Chiara Noli, Antonella Varina, Caterina Barbieri, Alessandra Pirola and Daniela Olivero
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070478 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1767
Abstract
Intestinal microbiota alterations were described in allergic individuals and may improve with diets. Farmina Ultra Hypo (FUH), a hydrolyzed fish/rice starch hypoallergenic diet, is able to improve clinical signs in allergic dogs. Study objectives were to determine microbiota differences in allergic dogs before [...] Read more.
Intestinal microbiota alterations were described in allergic individuals and may improve with diets. Farmina Ultra Hypo (FUH), a hydrolyzed fish/rice starch hypoallergenic diet, is able to improve clinical signs in allergic dogs. Study objectives were to determine microbiota differences in allergic dogs before and after feeding with FUH for eight weeks. Forty skin allergic dogs were evaluated clinically before and after the diet. Unresponsive dogs were classified as canine atopic dermatitis (CAD); responsive dogs relapsing after challenge with previous foods were classified as being food reactive (AFR), and those not relapsing as doubtful (D). Sequencing of feces collected pre- and post-diet was performed, with comparisons between and within groups, pre- and post-diet, and correlations to possible altered metabolic pathways were sought. Microbiota in all dogs was dominated by Bacteroidota, Fusobacteriota, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, albeit with large interindividual variations and with some prevalence changes after the diet. In general, bacteria producing short-chain fatty acids were increased in all samples. CAD dogs showed pre-and post-diet microbiota patterns different from the other two groups. Bacteria taxa were enriched post-diet only in the AFR group. Changes in metabolic pathways were observed mainly in the CAD group. FUH may be able to improve intestinal microbiota and thus clinical signs of skin allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Diet on Small Animal Health)
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16 pages, 1985 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus Involved in the 2021 Outbreaks in Backyard Poultry Farms in Tanzania
by Charlie F. Amoia, Jean N. Hakizimana, Nisha K. Duggal, Augustino A. Chengula, Mohammed A. Rohaim, Muhammad Munir, James Weger-Lucarelli and Gerald Misinzo
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070477 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
Newcastle disease virus is a significant avian pathogen with the potential to decimate poultry populations all over the world and cause enormous economic losses. Distinct NDV genotypes are currently causing outbreaks worldwide. Due to the high genetic diversity of NDV, virulent strains that [...] Read more.
Newcastle disease virus is a significant avian pathogen with the potential to decimate poultry populations all over the world and cause enormous economic losses. Distinct NDV genotypes are currently causing outbreaks worldwide. Due to the high genetic diversity of NDV, virulent strains that may result in a lack of vaccine protection are more likely to emerge and ultimately cause larger epidemics with massive economic losses. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the circulating NDV genotypes is critical to reduce Newcastle disease (ND) burden. In this study, NDV strains were isolated and characterized from backyard poultry farms from Tanzania, East Africa in 2021. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on fusion (F) gene amplification was conducted on 79 cloacal or tracheal swabs collected from chickens during a suspected ND outbreak. Our results revealed that 50 samples out 79 (50/79; 63.3%) were NDV-positive. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the selected NDV isolates showed that 39 isolates belonged to subgenotype VII.2 and only one isolate belonged to subgenotype XIII.1.1. Nucleotide sequences of the NDV F genes from Tanzania were closely related to recent NDV isolates circulating in southern Africa, suggesting that subgenotype VII.2 is the predominant subgenotype throughout Tanzania and southern Africa. Our data confirm the circulation of two NDV subgenotypes in Tanzania, providing important information to design genotype-matched vaccines and to aid ND surveillance. Furthermore, these results highlight the possibility of the spread and emergence of new NDV subgenotypes with the potential of causing future ND epizootics. Full article
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10 pages, 235 KiB  
Review
Sarcoma Predisposition in Dogs with a Comparative View to Human Orthologous Disease
by Maja L. Arendt and Jane M. Dobson
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070476 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Sarcomas are malignant tumors arising from the embryonic mesodermal cell lineage. This group of cancers covers a heterogenous set of solid tumors arising from soft tissues or bone. Many features such as histology, biological behavior and molecular characteristics are shared between sarcomas in [...] Read more.
Sarcomas are malignant tumors arising from the embryonic mesodermal cell lineage. This group of cancers covers a heterogenous set of solid tumors arising from soft tissues or bone. Many features such as histology, biological behavior and molecular characteristics are shared between sarcomas in humans and dogs, suggesting that human sarcoma research can be informative for canine disease, and that dogs with sarcomas can serve as relevant translational cancer models, to aid in the understanding of human disease and cancer biology. In the present paper, risk factors for the development of sarcoma in dogs are reviewed, with a particular focus on recent advances in clinical genetics, and on the identification of simple and complex genetic risk factors with a comparison with what has been found in human orthologous disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft-Tissue Sarcomas in Dogs)
9 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Axillary versus Rectal Temperature Timing in Canine and Feline Patients
by Olivia Beyer, Ashlynn Lueck and Cord Brundage
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070475 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3170
Abstract
Research on alternatives to rectal thermometry in canine and feline patients has focused on equipment and measurement location but not procedure duration. In a crossover clinical scenario, we evaluated the time prior to (Pre-TempT) and after (Post-TempT) rectal and axillary thermometry in a [...] Read more.
Research on alternatives to rectal thermometry in canine and feline patients has focused on equipment and measurement location but not procedure duration. In a crossover clinical scenario, we evaluated the time prior to (Pre-TempT) and after (Post-TempT) rectal and axillary thermometry in a diverse demographic of canine (n = 114) and feline (n = 72) patients. Equipment duration was controlled to determine a presumptive total time (TTime) associated with each thermometry method. Pre-TempT and TTime were significantly shorter in axillary thermometry trials for both canine and feline pets (p < 0.001). There was no difference in Post-TempT between thermometry methods in canine patients (p = 0.887); however, the Post-TempT was longer in felines after axillary thermometry (p = 0.004). Reductions in Pre-TempT and TTime were not significant in Scottish Fold breed cats. Within the feline rectal trials, the TTime of domestic-long-haired breeds was significantly longer than that of domestic-short-haired breeds (p = 0.019). No other tested parameter (i.e., size, body shape, age, weight, breed, coat type, or procedure order) played a significant role in these results. Axillary thermometry was faster than rectal thermometry in both canine and feline pets, primarily due to the time associated with animal approach and restraint (Pre-TempT). These results have implications for optimizing clinic workflow, appointment durations, and patient handling time. Full article
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14 pages, 3486 KiB  
Article
Electroretinography, Ocular Ultrasonography, and Phacoemulsification of Bilateral Cataracts in Two Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) of the Mediterranean Region
by Andrea Affuso, Barbara Lamagna, Dario Costanza, Dario Basso, Marzia Scarfò, Cristina Di Palma, Claudia Amalfitano, Leonardo Meomartino, Fulvio Maffucci, Sandra Hochscheid and Maria Vanore
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070474 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Bilateral cataracts were diagnosed in two rescued juvenile, immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), weighing 1.65 and 1.7 kg. Both animals showed vision impairment and difficulty in feeding without assistance. In fact, they did not notice the presence of the food [...] Read more.
Bilateral cataracts were diagnosed in two rescued juvenile, immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), weighing 1.65 and 1.7 kg. Both animals showed vision impairment and difficulty in feeding without assistance. In fact, they did not notice the presence of the food in the tank unless it was brought close to touching the mouth. Ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography showed no lesions of the vitreal body and retinal layer, therefore, both animals were candidates for bilateral cataract surgery. Topical administration of tropicamide + phenylephrine alternating with rocuronium resulted in only minimal mydriasis. Administration of intracameral rocuronium did not improve mydriasis. Phacoemulsification using a one-handed technique was performed bilaterally with a phacoemulsification device (Sovereign, AMO (Abbott Medical Optics®). After surgery, the systemic anti-inflammatory drug (dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg, IM daily for one week) and antibiotics (enrofloxacin 10 mg/kg IM q 72 h, for 4 weeks; ceftazidime 20 mg/kg IM q 72 h for 3 weeks) were administered. Topical ofloxacin, flurbiprofen and tobramycin/dexamethasone were instilled TID for 4 weeks. Both turtles regained vision in both eyes. Results at a 10-month follow-up were satisfactory. This is the first report of cataracts in turtles rescued in the Mediterranean Sea and the first description of surgical treatment of cataracts in loggerhead turtles so young. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sea Turtle Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation)
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22 pages, 2137 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Differential Expression of a Set of Key Genes Involved in the Regulation and Functioning of the Stomach in the Post-Weaned Pig
by Dillon P. Kiernan, John V. O’Doherty, Kathryn Ruth Connolly, Marion Ryan and Torres Sweeney
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070473 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Despite playing a key role in digestion, there is only a broad characterization of the spatiotemporal development of the three glandular regions of the stomach (cardiac, fundic and pyloric) in the weaned pig. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to explore the [...] Read more.
Despite playing a key role in digestion, there is only a broad characterization of the spatiotemporal development of the three glandular regions of the stomach (cardiac, fundic and pyloric) in the weaned pig. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to explore the differential expression (DE) of a panel of key genes within the three glandular regions of the stomach. Eight pigs were sacrificed at d 8 post-weaning, and three mucosal samples were collected from each stomach’s glandular regions. The expression of a panel of genes were measured using QPCR. The true cardiac gland region was characterized by increased expression of PIGR, OLFM4, CXCL8 and MUC2 relative to the two other regions (p < 0.05). The fundic gland region was characterized by increased expression of ATP4A, CLIC6, KCNQ1, HRH2, AQP4, HDC, CCKBR, CHIA, PGA5, GHRL and MBOAT4 compared to the two other regions (p < 0.05). The pyloric gland region was characterized by exclusive expression of GAST (p < 0.05). A transition region between the cardiac and fundic region (cardiac-to-oxyntic transition) was observed with a gene expression signature that resembles a cross of the signatures found in the two regions. In conclusion, unique gene expression signatures were identifiable in each of the glandular regions, with a cardiac-to-oxyntic transition region clearly identifiable in the post-weaned pigs’ stomachs. Full article
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6 pages, 975 KiB  
Case Report
Very-Low-Frequency Spike–Wave Complex Partial Motor Seizure Mimicking Canine Idiopathic Head Tremor Syndrome in a Dog
by Mihai Musteata, Raluca Ștefănescu, Denis Gabriel Borcea and Gheorghe Solcan
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070472 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2572
Abstract
Canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome (CIHTS) represents a benign condition characterized by episodic, uncontrolled movement of the head. Even though the condition might be an expression of a partial motor epilepsy, to date, there is a limited number of studies describing the electroencephalographic [...] Read more.
Canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome (CIHTS) represents a benign condition characterized by episodic, uncontrolled movement of the head. Even though the condition might be an expression of a partial motor epilepsy, to date, there is a limited number of studies describing the electroencephalographic features. In this report, we describe the case of a dog diagnosed with partial motor epilepsy resembling CIHTS symptomatology, a new slow spike–wave complex pattern similar to that of Lennox–Gastaut syndrome in humans identified on electroencephalographic examination. We also studied the efficacy of phenobarbitone therapy over a period of two years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurology and Neurosurgery in Small Animals)
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10 pages, 6426 KiB  
Article
Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma with Testicular Metastases in a Wild Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
by Jessica Maria Abbate, Simone Palazzolo, Antonio Ieni, Giuseppe Santi Rapisarda and Giovanni Lanteri
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070471 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1650
Abstract
Melanocytic skin tumours have been rarely described in pet rabbits, and exposure to UV light in sparsely haired areas has been hypothesised to play a cancerogenic role. Here, we describe a case of cutaneous malignant melanoma arising from the skin of the scrotum [...] Read more.
Melanocytic skin tumours have been rarely described in pet rabbits, and exposure to UV light in sparsely haired areas has been hypothesised to play a cancerogenic role. Here, we describe a case of cutaneous malignant melanoma arising from the skin of the scrotum in an 8-year-old male wild rabbit, with testicular metastases as an unusual metastatic site for melanoma reported in humans to date. The tumour was nearly 5 cm in size, firm, and highly pigmented, with multifocal superficial ulcerations and large areas of intratumoural necrosis. The adjacent testis was 1.5 cm, multinodular, and black, obscuring tissue morphology. Histologically, the dermis was expanded by an infiltrative, densely cellular neoplasm composed of nests and sheets of polygonal to spindle neoplastic melanocytes, supported by scant fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic cells showed intermediate N/C ratio, moderate basophilic cytoplasm, often obscured by abundant brownish granular pigment, and eccentric nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Cellular pleomorphism and nuclear atypia were severe, and high mitotic activity was observed. Diffuse dermal lymphovascular invasion was also observed. The testis was delimited by a thin tunica albuginea, and the parenchyma was largely obscured in its morphology by densely packed neoplastic cells. Seminiferous tubules, lined with a thin basement membrane and containing neoplastic and scattered spermatogenic cells, were occasionally observed. Neoplastic cells within the skin and the testis were positive for HMB-45, Melan-A, and S-100. The growing popularity of rabbits as pets allows for a greater ability to accumulate data on the spontaneous occurrence of tumours in these animals. Furthermore, descriptions of the biological aspects of spontaneously occurring tumours may serve to improve current knowledge in animal species and humans in which the same neoplasm may occur. Full article
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16 pages, 3985 KiB  
Article
Thermographic Image of the Hoof Print in Leisure and Cross-Country Warmblood Horses: A Pilot Study
by Cristian Zaha, Larisa Schuszler, Roxana Dascalu, Paula Nistor, Tiana Florea, Ciprian Rujescu, Bogdan Sicoe and Cornel Igna
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070470 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Background: The field of veterinary medicine lacks information on equine thermal hoof printing, and few data on the same subject are available in dogs. In human medicine, thermography is used to detect heat emitted by the foot when it comes in contact with [...] Read more.
Background: The field of veterinary medicine lacks information on equine thermal hoof printing, and few data on the same subject are available in dogs. In human medicine, thermography is used to detect heat emitted by the foot when it comes in contact with a flat surface to detect the abnormalities of the foot balance. The hypothesis states that the thermal pattern of the hoof print in Warmblood horses is detectable and it does not vary among the four limbs in leisure and cross-country Warmblood horses in terms of mean temperature of the hoof print surface. A pilot study was conducted to investigate the accuracy of thermography in temperature detection of the hoof print and to investigate the occurrence of possible differences in the mean value of six selected areas and whether there are any differences in the mean temperature of the hoof print between leisure and cross-country Warmblood horses. Methods: The study included sixty non-lame Warmblood horses with all limbs taken into consideration (n = 240). The selection criteria for the horses were: no alterations in posture and no muscle group asymmetry during visual examination, no lateral or medial deviation of the carpus or hock, no reaction to the flexion tests, negative reactions to the hoof tester, no lameness during walking, trotting or lunging, no anti-inflammatory medication in the last three weeks prior to examination and rectal temperature between 37 °C and 38 °C. The hoof print of each hoof was measured with the horse in the standing position, all four limbs on the ground, using a FLIR E50 thermal camera. Six areas of temperature from the hoof print were taken into consideration, and for each of them, the mean value was identified using FLIR Tools software for photo interpretation. The One-Way ANOVA test was used to test the differences between the mean temperatures obtained for each selected area from all limbs and to compare the hoof print temperature values between the leisure horses and cross-country horses. Data were statistically processed using SAS Studio. Results: Thermography can detect the temperature emitted by the hoof but the thermal patterns of the hoof print show no difference for all four studied limbs. No significant statistical differences were noticed between the mean temperatures identified for each studied area. Also, there were no statistical differences between the mean temperature of the selected areas from the forelimbs and hindlimbs from the horses used for leisure and those used for cross-country. Based on this aspect, the mean temperature of one selected area can be determined in any of the four limbs, without visible variations. Conclusions: Thermography can detect the hoof print on a flat surface and the mean temperature for each studied area can be proposed as a reference temperature value. There were no differences in the mean temperature of the hoofprint between leisure and cross-country Warmblood Horses. Further investigations are required to clarify whether there are any differences in the thermal pattern of hoof prints from other breeds or from horses with musculoskeletal conditions. Full article
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12 pages, 4462 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Analysis of Brain CT Perfusion in Healthy Beagle Dogs: A Pilot Study
by Soyon An, Gunha Hwang, Seul Ah Noh, Hee Chun Lee and Tae Sung Hwang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070469 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion is a technique that allows for the fast evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics. However, quantitative studies of brain CT perfusion in veterinary medicine are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of perfusion determined [...] Read more.
Brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion is a technique that allows for the fast evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics. However, quantitative studies of brain CT perfusion in veterinary medicine are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of perfusion determined via CT in brains of healthy dogs and to compare values between white matter and gray matter, differences in aging, and each hemisphere. Nine intact male beagle dogs were prospectively examined using dynamic CT scanning and post-processing for brain perfusion. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), mean transit time, and time to peak were calculated. Tissue ROIs were drawn in the gray matter and white matter of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes; caudate nucleus; thalamus; piriform lobe; hippocampus; and cerebellum. Significant differences were observed between the white matter regions and gray matter regions for rCBV and rCBF (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were identified between hemispheres and between young and old groups in brain regions. The findings obtained in this study involving healthy beagle dogs might serve as a reference for regional CT perfusion values in specific brain regions. These results may aid in the characterization of various brain diseases in dogs. Full article
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13 pages, 1130 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Methods for Somatic Cell Counting in Cow’s Milk and Relationship between Somatic Cell Count and Occurrence of Intramammary Bacteria
by Vladimír Hisira, František Zigo, Marián Kadaši, Róbert Klein, Zuzana Farkašová, Mária Vargová and Pavol Mudroň
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070468 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare three on-farm commercial methods for the indirect detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows: the California mastitis test (CMT), the Porta side somatic cell count milk test (Porta SCC), and the DeLaval cell counter (DCC), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare three on-farm commercial methods for the indirect detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows: the California mastitis test (CMT), the Porta side somatic cell count milk test (Porta SCC), and the DeLaval cell counter (DCC), with the Fossomatic cell count (FSCC), and to evaluate the relationship between the determined somatic cell count SCC and the occurrence of intramammary pathogens in the milk of dairy cows. A total of 284 sensory unchanged mixed milk samples, collected during the milking on a dairy farm, were analyzed in this study for somatic cell counts by the mentioned on-farm tests. Quarter milk samples (n = 583) from all the selected cows were cultured. The agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of the three indirect commercial diagnostic tests (the CMT, the Porta SCC, and the DeLaval cell counter) were calculated, and the FSCC was used as the gold standard. The results were analyzed statistically using the Pearson correlation test and the paired t-test. The CMT matched with the FSCC in 83.1% of the samples, with the Porta SCC in 80.6%, and with the DCC in 80.3% of the samples. The sensitivity and specificity reached 81.0% and 92.9% for the CMT, 79.4% and 90.7% for the Porta SCC, and 75.8% and 97.5% for the DCC, respectively. The correlation between the FSCC and the Porta SCC was 0.86 (p < 0.0001), and between the FSCC and the DCC, it was 0.92 (p < 0.0001). The differences between them were insignificant. Bacteria were detected in 130 (22.3%) quarter milk samples. The most prevalent bacteria were Enterococcus spp. (36.2%), followed by E. coli (20%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (13.1%), A. viridans (9.2%), Streptococcus spp. (9.2%), Proteus spp. (6.2%), and S. intermedius (3.9%). Contagious isolates (S. aureus) were detected in 3 quarter milk samples (2.3%). The agreement between the individual tests and the microbiological culture was as follows: 69.2% for the CMT; 73.7% for the Porta SCC; 71.6% for the DCC; and 76.5% for the FSCC. Higher SCCs were detected in the milk samples contaminated with bacteria than in the healthy milk (p < 0.001). No significance was found between the presence of individual species of intramammary pathogens and the different levels of SCCs. Based on the results, bacteria are the predominant cause of subclinical mastitis. The increased SCC of some milk samples with no presence of bacteria meant that the increase could have been caused by numerous other agents (viruses, fungi, or algae) or factors for mastitis in the dairy industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Mastitis of Dairy Cows)
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11 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Potential Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Tannin-Rich Forage on Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Production, Defaunation and Rumen Function
by Néstor Acosta-Lozano, Marcos Barros-Rodríguez, Carlos Guishca-Cunuhay, Veronica Andrade-Yucailla, Katherine Contreras-Barros, Carlos Sandoval-Castro, Mona Mohamad Mohamad Yasseen Elghandour and Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed Salem
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070467 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
This experiment evaluated the effect of including Acacia mearnsii leaves in a high-fiber diet (corn stover), on ruminal degradation kinetics, digestibility, microbial biomass production, and gas, CH4, and CO2 production. Four experimental diets were tested, including a control with 100% [...] Read more.
This experiment evaluated the effect of including Acacia mearnsii leaves in a high-fiber diet (corn stover), on ruminal degradation kinetics, digestibility, microbial biomass production, and gas, CH4, and CO2 production. Four experimental diets were tested, including a control with 100% corn stover (T1), and three additional diets with corn stover supplemented at 15% A. mearnsii leaves (T2), 30% A. mearnsii leaves (T3) and 45% of A. mearnsii leaves (T4). The highest dry matter in situ degradation (p ≤ 0.001) and in vitro digestibility (p ≤ 0.001) was found in T1 (80.6 and 53.4%, respectively) and T2 (76.4 and 49.6%, respectively) diets. A higher population of holotrich and entodiniomorph ruminal protozoa was found (p = 0.0001) in T1 at 12 and 24 h. Diets of T1 and T2 promoted a higher (p = 0.0001) microbial protein production (314.5 and 321.1 mg/0.5 g DM, respectively). Furthermore, a lower amount of CH4 was found (p < 0.05) with T2, T3 and T4. It is concluded that it is possible to supplement up to 15% of A. mearnsii leaves (30.5 g TC/kg DM) in ruminant’s diets. This decreased the population of protozoa (holotrich and entodiniomorph) as well as the CH4 production by 35.8 and 18.5%, respectively, without generating adverse effects on the ruminal degradation kinetics, nutrient digestibility and microbial protein production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases in Veterinary Medicine)
13 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Trehalose Supplementation Impacting Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium perfringens from Broiler Farming
by Yang-Chi Fan, Yi-Tei Wu, Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Chia-Lan Wang, Chung-Hsi Chou, Yi-Chen Chen and Hsiang-Jung Tsai
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070466 - 15 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
In 2006, the European Commission banned the use of antibiotic promoters in animal feed. However, there is a new situation in poultry disease where it is necessary to study feed additives, which can overcome the diseases that were previously controlled through the addition [...] Read more.
In 2006, the European Commission banned the use of antibiotic promoters in animal feed. However, there is a new situation in poultry disease where it is necessary to study feed additives, which can overcome the diseases that were previously controlled through the addition of antibiotics and antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed. Therefore, trehalose was investigated to determine whether it impacts the growth performance and pathogenic bacteria (C. jejuni and C. perfringens) inoculation in broilers. In the first experiment, the tolerance of broilers to the addition of trehalose to their feed was investigated. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in body weight changes, daily weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion ratio during the feeding period. Within a 35-day feeding period, it was concluded that a trehalose dosage up to 10% does not exert a negative effect on broiler farming. Moreover, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the broilers’ growth performance, as well as C. jejuni and C. perfringens counts in the intestines and feces of broilers observed over a 5-week feeding period. However, Lactobacillus counts significantly increased in these groups with 3% and 5% trehalose supplementation. The findings indicate that trehalose supplementation in the feed cannot directly decrease C. jejuni and C. perfringens counts but may enhance gut health by raising Lactobacillus counts in chicken gut, particularly when enteropathogenic bacteria are present. Full article
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11 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Cooling Methods Used to Manage Heat-Related Illness in Dogs Presented to Primary Care Veterinary Practices during 2016–2018 in the UK
by Emily J. Hall, Anne J. Carter, Jude Bradbury, Sian Beard, Sophie Gilbert, Dominic Barfield and Dan G. O’Neill
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070465 - 15 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5577
Abstract
The management of heat-related illness (HRI) in dogs has received limited attention in the veterinary literature, especially regarding effective cooling methods. Guidelines published in 2016 for prehospital management of dogs with HRI advised “cool first, transport second”, and recommended using cold-water immersion and [...] Read more.
The management of heat-related illness (HRI) in dogs has received limited attention in the veterinary literature, especially regarding effective cooling methods. Guidelines published in 2016 for prehospital management of dogs with HRI advised “cool first, transport second”, and recommended using cold-water immersion and evaporative cooling (water application with air movement) as the optimal approaches to reduce the patient’s temperature. The current retrospective cross-sectional observation study analysed electronic patient records from the VetCompass programme to describe the cooling methods used in dogs with HRI presented to primary care veterinary practices during 2016–2018. Of 623 HRI events identified, 341 (54.74%, 95% CI 50.81–58.60%) included information on cooling in their clinical record. Of these, 74/341 (21.70%, 95% CI 17.65–26.38%) were cooled prior to transport for veterinary care. Overall, 23.97% (95% CI 19.24–29.44%) were cooled using one of the two recommended cooling methods, whilst the most common cooling method recorded was the application of wet towels (51.31%, 95% CI 45.34–57.24%). Canine cooling guidance and messaging in both the public and veterinary sectors requires urgent review to ensure that the most effective cooling methods are promoted because delays to canine temperature reduction worsen patient outcomes. Full article
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14 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Measurement of Ghrelin as a Marker of Appetite Dysregulation in Cats with and without Chronic Kidney Disease
by Katelyn Brusach, Sarah Lorbach, Jessica Quimby, Eline Nijveldt, Rene Paschall, Hannah Kinsella, Valerie Parker and Ramiro Toribio
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070464 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Appetite abnormalities and weight loss are important comorbidities in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. Ghrelin, a key hormone involved in the regulation of appetite and metabolism, is a potential marker of appetite dysregulation in cats with CKD. The aim [...] Read more.
Appetite abnormalities and weight loss are important comorbidities in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. Ghrelin, a key hormone involved in the regulation of appetite and metabolism, is a potential marker of appetite dysregulation in cats with CKD. The aim of this study was to compare the plasma concentrations of acylated, desacyl, and total ghrelin in normal cats and cats with CKD. Storage methodology was investigated prior to evaluating ghrelin concentrations in normal and CKD cats to facilitate clinical sample collection. Twelve normal cats and twelve cats with CKD were enrolled. Plasma acylated and total ghrelin concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Desacyl ghrelin was calculated (total ghrelin minus acylated ghrelin). Cats with CKD had significantly increased total ghrelin and calculated desacyl ghrelin concentrations in comparison to normal cats (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in active ghrelin concentrations between groups. Both total ghrelin and calculated desacyl ghrelin were significantly correlated with serum creatinine concentrations (p < 0.0001, r = 0.70 and p < 0.0001, r = 0.73). Elevated plasma desacyl ghrelin concentrations in cats with CKD provides evidence for dysregulation of appetite in feline CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
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10 pages, 2450 KiB  
Case Report
Surgical Management of a Salter-Harris Type I Distal Physeal Fracture of the Tibia in a Calf: A Case Report
by Victor Lemaitre, Emeline Cote, Christophe Bellon, Hervé Cassard, François Schelcher, Renaud Maillard and Rodolphe Robcis
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070463 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2162
Abstract
Fractures are common conditions in cattle, including tibial fractures. Physeal tibial fractures are more specific and less frequently met in field conditions. A calf with a Salter-Harris type I distal physeal fracture of the tibia was referred to the National Veterinary School of [...] Read more.
Fractures are common conditions in cattle, including tibial fractures. Physeal tibial fractures are more specific and less frequently met in field conditions. A calf with a Salter-Harris type I distal physeal fracture of the tibia was referred to the National Veterinary School of Toulouse (ENVT), France. Although the use of external fixators in the treatment of tibial fractures is common, distal physeal tibial fractures require a different and specific technique involving them. They were first used as a lever arm to reduce the fracture due to the severe displacement. A hock joint bypass was then performed. Six weeks after treatment, the calf recovered successfully from the use of the affected limb without any adverse sequelae. The present case provides management of a distal tibial fracture using external fixators. This innovative and accessible surgical technique may be used by veterinary practitioners in future similar cases of distal tibial fractures when pins in the distal end cannot be inserted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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13 pages, 3158 KiB  
Article
Regulation of IkappaB Protein Expression by Early Gestation in the Thymus of Ewes
by Yao Meng, Zhen Yang, Yaodong Quan, Shuxin Zhao, Leying Zhang and Ling Yang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070462 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 979
Abstract
The thymus is an essential component of maternal immune systems that play key roles in recognizing the placenta as immunologically foreign. The inhibitor of the NF-κB (IκB) family has essential effects on the NF-κB pathway; however, it is unclear whether early pregnancy modulates [...] Read more.
The thymus is an essential component of maternal immune systems that play key roles in recognizing the placenta as immunologically foreign. The inhibitor of the NF-κB (IκB) family has essential effects on the NF-κB pathway; however, it is unclear whether early pregnancy modulates the expression of the IκB family in the thymus. In this study, maternal thymuses were sampled on day 16 of nonpregnancy and different gestation stages in the ovine, and the expression of IκB proteins was analyzed. The data showed that B cell leukemia-3 and IκBβ increased; however, IκBα, IκBε, and IKKγ deceased during gestation. Furthermore, there was an increase in IκBNS and IκBζ expression values on day 13 of pregnancy; however, this decreased on day 25 of gestation. In summary, the expression of the IκB family was modulated in the thymus during early gestation, suggesting that the maternal thymus can be associated with maternal immunologic tolerance and pregnancy establishment in ewes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Veterinary Theriogenology)
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18 pages, 1704 KiB  
Article
Grape Pomace: Agrifood By-Product with Potential to Enhance Performance, Yolk Quality, Antioxidant Capacity, and Eggshell Ultrastructure in Laying Hens
by Shaimaa Selim, Nazema S. Abdel-Megeid, Rashed A. Alhotan, Alia Ebrahim and Eman Hussein
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070461 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Grape pomace (GP) is an industrial by-product of grape juice making and is commonly discarded as a waste product, even with its large quantity of phytochemicals. Thus, the objectives of this trial were to examine the effects of graded dietary GP on laying [...] Read more.
Grape pomace (GP) is an industrial by-product of grape juice making and is commonly discarded as a waste product, even with its large quantity of phytochemicals. Thus, the objectives of this trial were to examine the effects of graded dietary GP on laying rate, egg quality, yolk lipid profile, oxidative stability, shell quality and ultrastructure, and serum biochemistry. Two hundred 35-week-old laying hens were allocated to four dietary treatments with ten replicates each. Four diets were formulated by mixing a standard basal diet with GP at 0 g/kg (control), 30 g/kg (GP3%), 60 g/kg (GP6%), and 90 g/kg (GP9%). Egg production percent, egg weight, and egg mass were linearly improved (p < 0.01) due to adding GP to the diets of laying hens. Eggs obtained from laying hens fed with GP diets had (p < 0.01; linear, p < 0.01) greater Haugh units, yolk color, albumen index, and yolk index than those of the control. The GP9% group had the greatest values (p < 0.05) for shell weight, thickness, and breaking strength. Electron microscopy scanning of eggshells indicated that the incremental dietary level of GP linearly augmented the thickness of the palisade layer but reduced both the mammillary layer and mammillary knob width (p < 0.01). Improved tibia-breaking strength and ash content were shown (p < 0.05) in the GP-fed laying hens. The dietary addition of GP by up to 90 g/kg linearly (p < 0.01) mitigated lipid oxidation and improved the antioxidant capacity in both the serum and stored eggs. A reduction in the percentages of saturated fatty acids was observed, while the contents of monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and n-3 fatty acids were augmented because of increasing dietary GP levels (p < 0.001). Additionally, the eggs obtained from laying hens fed on the GP6% and GP9% had lower yolk cholesterol content (p < 0.001); this effect was confirmed by linear and quadratic responses (p < 0.001). Laying hens on GP diets had lower (p < 0.01) serum hepatic enzymes, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein but greater high-density lipoprotein compared to the control. To sum up, the addition of GP in the layers’ diets by up to 90 g/kg increased laying performance, enriched the yolk with beneficial fatty acids, enhanced antioxidant potential in yolk lipids, and improved shell quality and ultrastructure. Full article
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16 pages, 2404 KiB  
Review
Therapeutic Applications of Botulinum Neurotoxins in Veterinary Medicine
by Lauretta Turin, Marina Michela Piccione, Fabio Crosa, Paola Dall’Ara, Joel Filipe and Laura Zarucco
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070460 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 3648
Abstract
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are emerging as multipurpose therapeutic compounds for the treatment of several different syndromes involving peripheral and central nervous systems, and muscular and musculoskeletal disorders both in human and veterinary medicine. Therefore, the study of BoNTs is rapidly developing and identifying [...] Read more.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are emerging as multipurpose therapeutic compounds for the treatment of several different syndromes involving peripheral and central nervous systems, and muscular and musculoskeletal disorders both in human and veterinary medicine. Therefore, the study of BoNTs is rapidly developing and identifying newly produced BoNT variants. Efforts should be made to clarify the biological and pharmacological characteristics of these novel BoNTs as well as the natural ones. The high potential of BoNTs as a therapeutic compound for medical syndromes lies in its ability to reach a specific cell type while bypassing other cells, thus having mild or no side effects. In this paper the recent developments in BoNTs are reviewed with the aim of analyzing the current knowledge on BoNTs’ biological mechanisms of action, immunogenicity, formulations, and therapeutic applications in the veterinary field, highlighting advantages and drawbacks and identifying the gaps to be filled in order to address research priorities. Full article
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19 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Beraprost and Overall Survival in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease
by Hiroyuki Ito, Takumi Matsuura and Tadashi Sano
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070459 - 13 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6258
Abstract
Background: Overall survival is the most important outcome for treatment response in feline chronic kidney disease (CKD). Beraprost has been shown to reduce the kidney function decline in cats with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage 2 and 3 CKD. However, the association [...] Read more.
Background: Overall survival is the most important outcome for treatment response in feline chronic kidney disease (CKD). Beraprost has been shown to reduce the kidney function decline in cats with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage 2 and 3 CKD. However, the association with prolonged survival has not yet been examined. Objective: To assess the relationship between beraprost and overall survival in cats with CKD in real clinical practice. Animals: Client-owned cats with IRIS stage 3 CKD (n = 134) were evaluated between 2017 and 2020. Methods: A retrospective cohort study based on data from electronic medical records of one hospital. Results: The cohort was divided into “beraprost therapy” and “no beraprost therapy” groups, and survival analyses revealed that overall survival was significantly longer in the beraprost therapy group, using Kaplan–Meier curves (p = 0.004). However, baseline phosphate is known to be an important prognostic indicator and was not well balanced between the two groups. Therefore, a subcohort of 97 cats was selected (those having baseline phosphate <6.0 mg/dL) that allowed for this parameter to be balanced between groups. The survival data in this subcohort were consistent with those of the overall study cohort. Conclusions: In feline patients with CKD, beraprost therapy is associated with better overall survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
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2 pages, 579 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Deng et al. Assessment of the Macrophage Scavenger Receptor CD163 in Mediating Glaesserella parasuis Infection of Host Cells. Vet. Sci. 2023, 10, 235
by Xiangwei Deng, Shuilian Li, Ying Zhu, Bo Yu, Jing Zhang, Qianhai Fang, Zhimin Li, Hongbo Chen and Huanhuan Zhou
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070458 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 804
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Diversity, Conservation, and Innovative Breeding in Pigs)
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10 pages, 437 KiB  
Article
Serum Ferritin in Obese Dogs: Changes and Comparison with Other Analytes
by Lorena Franco-Martínez, Luis Pardo-Marín, Laura Sánchez-Mateos, Alberto Muñoz-Prieto, Juan Diego García-Martínez, José J. Cerón, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Camila P. Rubio and Asta Tvarijonaviciute
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070457 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Canine obesity is the most common nutritional disorder and is associated with decreased quality of life and longevity as well as comorbidities including cardiorespiratory, endocrine, oncologic, or orthopaedic disorders. Ferritin is a major acute-phase protein in dogs, increasing during inflammation; however, it could [...] Read more.
Canine obesity is the most common nutritional disorder and is associated with decreased quality of life and longevity as well as comorbidities including cardiorespiratory, endocrine, oncologic, or orthopaedic disorders. Ferritin is a major acute-phase protein in dogs, increasing during inflammation; however, it could also be affected by other conditions, including trauma, iron metabolism dysregulations, neoplasia, or hypoxia. Higher ferritin levels have been reported in obese humans, but ferritin has not been explored in canine obesity. To evaluate the possible changes in serum ferritin in canine obesity, ferritin levels from lean/normal weight (CG, n = 55) and overweight/obese dogs (OG, n = 37) were measured, together with complete hemogram and biochemical analyses. Statistically significant higher ferritin levels (1.2-fold) were found in OG (median, (interquartile range), 204 (166–227.5) µg/L) in comparison to CG animals (172 (137–210) µg/L)), with median levels of ferritin in OG dogs above the reference range for healthy animals in our laboratory (60–190 µg/L). In addition, statistically significant higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total proteins, globulins, haptoglobin, total ferric fixation capacity (TIBC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), triglycerides, and calcium were observed in OG in comparison to CG. The higher levels in ferritin, together with higher TBIC, haematocrit, and MCV, could indicate tissue hypoxia in obese dogs. Full article
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17 pages, 1329 KiB  
Review
Free Radical and Viral Infection: A Review from the Perspective of Ferroptosis
by Jun Chen, Jinping Fu, Sha Zhao, Xiaoxi Zhang, Yuyang Chao, Qunxing Pan, Huawei Sun, Jingfeng Zhang, Bin Li, Tao Xue, Jingui Li and Chuanmin Liu
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070456 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1775
Abstract
Free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), play critical roles in various physiological activities such as cell differentiation, apoptosis, and vascular tension when existing in cells at low levels. However, excessive amounts of free radicals are harmful, causing [...] Read more.
Free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), play critical roles in various physiological activities such as cell differentiation, apoptosis, and vascular tension when existing in cells at low levels. However, excessive amounts of free radicals are harmful, causing DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein degeneration, and abnormal cell death. Certain viral infections induce cells to produce excessive free radicals, which in multiple ways help the virus to replicate, mature, and exit. Iron is a necessary element for many intracellular enzymes, involved in both cellular activities and viral replication. Ferroptosis, a programmed cell death mode distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and pyroptosis, is characterized by lipid peroxide accumulation and damage to the antioxidant system, affecting many cellular processes. Viral infection commonly manifests as decreased glutathione (GSH) content and down-regulated glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) activity, similar to ferroptosis. Recent studies have suggested a possible relationship among free radicals, viral infections and ferroptosis. This review aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism linking free radicals and ferroptosis during viral infections and provide a new theoretical basis for studying viral pathogenesis and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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12 pages, 2257 KiB  
Article
Detection of Age-Related Somatic Alterations in Canine Blood Using Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Liquid Biopsy: An Analysis of over 4800 Dogs
by Kristina M. Kruglyak, Allison L. O’Kell, Todd A. Cohen, Maggie A. Marshall, Carlos A. Ruiz-Perez, Francesco Marass, John A. Tynan, Susan C. Hicks, Katherine M. Lytle, Ashley Phelps-Dunn, Gina Brandstetter, Chelsea D. Warren, Lauren R. DiMarzio, Michelle C. Rosentel, Lilian K. Wong, Lisa M. McLennan, Jill M. Rafalko, Daniel S. Grosu, Jason Chibuk, Ilya Chorny, Angela L. McCleary-Wheeler, Andi Flory and Dana W. Y. Tsuiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070455 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Age-related somatic genomic alterations in hematopoietic cell lines have been well characterized in humans; however, this phenomenon has not been well studied in other species. Next-generation sequencing-based liquid biopsy testing for cancer detection was recently developed for dogs and has been used to [...] Read more.
Age-related somatic genomic alterations in hematopoietic cell lines have been well characterized in humans; however, this phenomenon has not been well studied in other species. Next-generation sequencing-based liquid biopsy testing for cancer detection was recently developed for dogs and has been used to study the genomic profiles of blood samples from thousands of canine patients since 2021. In this study, 4870 client-owned dogs with and without a diagnosis or suspicion of cancer underwent liquid biopsy testing by this method. Copy number variants detected exclusively in genomic DNA derived from white blood cells (WBC gDNA-specific CNVs) were observed in 126 dogs (2.6%; 95% CI: 2.2–3.1); these copy number variants were absent from matched plasma cell-free DNA, and from tumor tissue in dogs with concurrent cancer. These findings were more common in older dogs and were persistent in WBC gDNA in over 70% of patients, with little to no change in the amplitude of the signal across longitudinal samples. Many of these alterations were observed at recurrent locations in the genome across subjects; the most common finding was a partial loss on CFA25, typically accompanied by a partial gain on the same chromosome. These early findings suggest that age-related somatic alterations may be present at an appreciable frequency in the general canine population. Further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Oncology and Veterinary Cancer Surveillance)
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15 pages, 331 KiB  
Review
Feeding and Nutritional Factors That Affect Somatic Cell Counts in Milk of Sheep and Goats
by Anna Nudda, Silvia Carta, Gianni Battacone and Giuseppe Pulina
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070454 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
The purpose of this quantitative review is to highlight the effects of feeding strategies using some mineral, vitamin, marine oil, and vegetable essential oil supplements and some agri-food by-products to reduce SCCs in the milk of sheep and goats. According to the results, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this quantitative review is to highlight the effects of feeding strategies using some mineral, vitamin, marine oil, and vegetable essential oil supplements and some agri-food by-products to reduce SCCs in the milk of sheep and goats. According to the results, only specific dietary factors at specific doses could reduce SCCs in the milk of dairy sheep and goats. The combination of Se and vitamin E in the diet was more effective in sheep than in goats, while the inclusion of polyphenols, which are also present in food matrices such as agro-industrial by-products, led to better results. Some essential oils can be conveniently used to modulate SCCs, although they can precipitate an off-flavoring problem. This work shows that SCCs are complex and cannot be determined using a single experimental factor, as intramammary inflammation, which is the main source of SC in milk, can manifest in a subclinical form without clinical signs. However, attention to mineral and vitamin supplementation, even in the most difficult cases, such as those of grazing animals, and the use of anti-inflammatory substances directly or through by-products, can improve the nutritional condition of animals and reduce their SCCs, offering undeniable benefits for the milk-processing sector as well. Full article
18 pages, 3196 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Vitality, Blood Profile, and Degree of Meconium Staining on the Skin in Newborn Dogs According to Its Birth Weight
by Karina Lezama-García, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Uri Baqueiro-Espinosa, Adriana Olmos-Hernández, Ismael Hernández-Ávalos, Adriana Domínguez-Oliva and Daniel Mota-Rojas
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(7), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10070453 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
Neonatal mortality in dogs reaches up to 40%. Due to the high rates, promptly detecting the causes and preventing newborns from dying are extremely important. Vitality evaluation, blood parameters, and the degree of meconium staining on the skin are valuable resources in canine [...] Read more.
Neonatal mortality in dogs reaches up to 40%. Due to the high rates, promptly detecting the causes and preventing newborns from dying are extremely important. Vitality evaluation, blood parameters, and the degree of meconium staining on the skin are valuable resources in canine perinatology. In this study, 435 puppies from 85 bitches close to parturition were recruited and divided into four quartiles according to the puppy’s birth weight: Q1 (127–200 g) n = 110 puppies, Q2 (201–269 g) n = 108 puppies, Q3 (270–388 g) n = 108 puppies, and Q4 (389–464 g) n = 109 puppies. This experimental article aimed to report the effect of birth weight on the blood profile variables, the vitality of newborn puppies, and the meconium staining degree, integrating these three aspects. It was concluded that the weight of newborns was correlated with the degree of meconium staining, presenting more cases of severe meconium staining in the puppies of the highest birth weight group. The weight of the newborns was correlated with a higher number of stillbirths and alterations in the blood variables, showing the most severe cases of metabolic acidosis, hypoxia, and hypoglycemia in the puppies of the Q4 quartile. On the contrary, no statistically significant correlations were found between the weight of newborns and vitality. Nevertheless, the analysis of the results showed that the most vigorous puppies were found at Q1; however, at minute 60 after birth (AB), all the puppies in the four quartiles standardized their vitality scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine and Metabolic Changes in Companion Animal Reproduction)
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