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Buildings, Volume 13, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 225 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study determines the viability and profitability of photovoltaic mounting structures on industrial roofs. The industry’s consumption pattern is a key factor, leading to significant reductions in the available assembly budget for inclined structures compared to the coplanar option when the pattern is seasonal and/or irregular. The rise in energy prices experienced in the last few years represents a substantial change in the viability of the inclined structures, increasing the budget by hundreds of euros. Depending on the azimuth and inclination of the roof, the maximum budget can vary by more than a thousand euros per kWp. View this paper
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15 pages, 8838 KiB  
Article
Underground Parking Layout Generation Based on the WaveFunctionCollapse Algorithm
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2898; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112898 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 595
Abstract
During the design process, architectural layout configuration is subject to complex constraints such as site conditions and design requirements, resulting in limited design efficiency. This research aims to provide architects with an effective design tool that can generate reference-worthy underground parking layout solutions [...] Read more.
During the design process, architectural layout configuration is subject to complex constraints such as site conditions and design requirements, resulting in limited design efficiency. This research aims to provide architects with an effective design tool that can generate reference-worthy underground parking layout solutions based on the given site information. In this research, we extract spatial modules from underground parking layouts, and transform the design constraints into adjacency rules based on the analysis of the configuration process for underground parking layout, then develop a generation and optimization model of the underground parking layout based on the WaveFunctionCollapse algorithm (WFC) and Multi-objective Optimization (MOO), and verify the effectiveness of the model through experiments. The results show that with given plan contour and entrance/exit locations as inputs, the model can efficiently generate architectural layout solutions that meet the design objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Computer Technology in Buildings)
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16 pages, 7220 KiB  
Article
Ground Vibration Response to Vibratory Sheet Pile Driving and Extraction
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2897; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112897 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 672
Abstract
Sheet piles are extensively used as foundation structures in urban environments. However, the vibrations associated with sheet pile construction can potentially adversely affect existing buildings, as well as cause discomfort to nearby residents. This study aims to analyze ground vibration response during the [...] Read more.
Sheet piles are extensively used as foundation structures in urban environments. However, the vibrations associated with sheet pile construction can potentially adversely affect existing buildings, as well as cause discomfort to nearby residents. This study aims to analyze ground vibration response during the driving and extraction of sheet piles. To this end, field tests of U-shaped sheet piles were conducted in Beijing silty clay, during which ground vibrations in the near-field were monitored. Subsequently, a numerical model was developed using the coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian method to simulate the pile–soil interaction characteristics and to investigate ground vibration intensity in the far-field. The research results indicate that the ground vibration response modes during the driving and extraction of sheet piles are distinctly different. Due to the entry effect, the critical depth during pile driving typically occurs in shallow soil layers, while during pile extraction, the critical depth generally corresponds to the pile’s embedded depth to overcome the soil locking effect. Ground vibrations rapidly decrease in the near-field (<6 m), while in the far-field (>6 m), the attenuation rate significantly slows down. Vibrations can be widely perceived by residents at radial distances of less than 12 m. Through a systematic assessment, it was concluded that sheet pile construction is unlikely to directly damage surrounding buildings but may inconvenience nearby residents. Additionally, a parametric analysis of the vibration source revealed that appropriately adjusting the driving frequency and amplitude can effectively reduce vibration levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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22 pages, 12557 KiB  
Article
On the Factors That Determine the Bond Behaviour of GFRP Bars to Concrete: An Experimental Investigation
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2896; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112896 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
It is becoming accepted that glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) is a credible and effective replacement for steel in reinforced concrete (RC) to meet structural requirements whilst addressing durability concerns posed by steel over the long term. A better understanding of the bond behaviour between [...] Read more.
It is becoming accepted that glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) is a credible and effective replacement for steel in reinforced concrete (RC) to meet structural requirements whilst addressing durability concerns posed by steel over the long term. A better understanding of the bond behaviour between GFRP and concrete is essential for reliably and efficiently designing concrete structures with reinforced GFRP bars. This paper presents a parametric study of the bond behaviour of GFRP bars to concrete where the effects of the length, diameter, concrete strength, concrete cover thickness and rebar surface morphology of GFRP bars were investigated via a series of pull-out tests. The test results indicate that the bond strength of GFRP bars is predominantly influenced by their surface morphology, embedment length and diameter. On the other hand, the effects of concrete strength and cover thickness appear to have a limited impact on the bond strengths of GFRP rebars to concrete. It is shown that ribbed GFRP bars exhibit the highest bond energy of 89.4 Nmm and an average bond strength of 11.9 MPa. Moreover, the analysis of failure modes indicated the unique effect of GFRP surface morphology on failure mode. It is shown that 100% of ribbed GFRP failed due to concrete split, while 85% of sand-coated bars experienced failure due to bar slip. This examination of failure modes and their corresponding bond strengths provides a unique perspective on the bond behaviour between GFRP bars and concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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22 pages, 5653 KiB  
Article
A Constitutive Model for Circular and Square Cross-Section Concrete Confined with Aramid FRP Laminates
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2895; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112895 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been used for seismic retrofitting and structural reinforcement over recent decades. Numerous researchers have created stress–strain models based on experimental data to predict the mechanical properties of FRP-confined concrete. In this study, circular and square cross-section specimens with different [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been used for seismic retrofitting and structural reinforcement over recent decades. Numerous researchers have created stress–strain models based on experimental data to predict the mechanical properties of FRP-confined concrete. In this study, circular and square cross-section specimens with different design concrete strength were prepared, and the compressive strength of the specimens confined with different layers of aramid FRP (AFRP) were measured in compressive tests. A constitutive model was proposed to simulate the uniaxial compressive stress–strain relationship of the AFRP-confined concrete, which was derived from the Mohr–Coulomb failure envelope theory, and the corresponding axial strain was determined from the regression analysis. The internal friction angle of the proposed constitutive model was determined for the cylindrical concrete specimens confined with one and two layers of AFRP. The compressive strength of one and two layers of AFRP-confined concrete specimens were used to obtain the parameters of the constitutive model; the absolute average error between experimental and predicted compressive strength was 7.01%. Then, the constitutive model was used to predict the strength of a three-layer AFRP-confined concrete specimen, and the absolute average error was 4.95%. The cross-sectional shape coefficient of the square concrete specimen was obtained analytically. Substituting the cross-sectional shape coefficient into the proposed constitutive model, the average absolute error of the square cross-section concrete specimen was about 3.84%. The results indicated that the proposed constitutive model can predict the compressive strength of circular and square cross-section concrete specimens confined with AFRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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22 pages, 8048 KiB  
Article
Circular Maker Cities: Maker Space Typologies and Circular Urban Design
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2894; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112894 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
Maker spaces can contribute significantly to the circular economy of cities; they demonstrate not only the economic potential of inner loop circularity, but also provide tangible evidence of spatial and social integration of production into the urban context. This paper presents findings from [...] Read more.
Maker spaces can contribute significantly to the circular economy of cities; they demonstrate not only the economic potential of inner loop circularity, but also provide tangible evidence of spatial and social integration of production into the urban context. This paper presents findings from a typological analysis of 326 maker spaces in seven European cities, with a focus on selected exemplar case studies to reveal design characteristics, principles, and opportunities for circular city development. The research shows that circular economy principles of ‘reduce-reuse-recyle’ are aligned with maker spaces such as repair cafés, secondhand shops, and fab labs, but requires additional definition with respect to material flow and spaces for recycling to underpin circular making. In the context of cities, circularity is revealed by a spatial tightening of resource cycles that close the loops of product life cycles. Furthermore, urban maker spaces demonstrate social engagement and a relationship to local production that inherently includes maintenance, repair, reuse, and redistribution. This paper defines five maker typologies, presents exemplars of each from different urban contexts and posits hybrid design strategies for the transition to circular maker cities. Through the adoption of these findings into urban planning policy, it is possible accelerate circular urban production and close the sustainability gap between small-scale local and large-scale regional manufacturing. Full article
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24 pages, 8268 KiB  
Article
Point Cloud-Based Smart Building Acceptance System for Surface Quality Evaluation
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2893; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112893 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 720
Abstract
The current expansion of building structures has created a demand for efficient and smart surface quality evaluation at the acceptance phase. However, the conventional approach mainly relies on manual work, which is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and unrepeatable. This study presents a systematic and practical [...] Read more.
The current expansion of building structures has created a demand for efficient and smart surface quality evaluation at the acceptance phase. However, the conventional approach mainly relies on manual work, which is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and unrepeatable. This study presents a systematic and practical solution for surface quality evaluation of indoor building elements during the acceptance phase using point cloud. The practical indoor scanning parameters determination procedure was proposed by analyzing the project requirements, room environment, and apparatus. An improved DBSCAN algorithm was developed by introducing a plane validation and coplanar checking to facilitate the surface segmentation from the point cloud. And a revised Least Median of Square-based algorithm was proposed to identify the best-fit plane. Afterwards, the flatness, verticality, and squareness were evaluated and depicted using a color-coded map based on the segmented point cloud. The experiment on an apartment showcases how the system improves the information flow and accuracy during building acceptance, resulting in a potentially smart acceptance activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends on Non-destructive Testing in Construction)
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17 pages, 9366 KiB  
Article
Indoor Air Quality in Cob Buildings: In Situ Studies and Artificial Neural Network Modeling
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112892 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Knowledge of indoor air quality (IAQ) in cob buildings during the first few months following their delivery is of vital importance in preventing occupants’ health problems. The present research focuses on evaluating IAQ in cob buildings through a prototype built in Normandy, France. [...] Read more.
Knowledge of indoor air quality (IAQ) in cob buildings during the first few months following their delivery is of vital importance in preventing occupants’ health problems. The present research focuses on evaluating IAQ in cob buildings through a prototype built in Normandy, France. To achieve this, the prototype was equipped with a set of sensors to monitor various parameters that determine indoor and outdoor air quality. These parameters include relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM1 and PM10), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The obtained experimental results indicate that, overall, there is good indoor air quality in the prototype building. However, there are some noteworthy findings, including high indoor RH and occasional spikes in CO2, PM1, PM10, and VOCs concentrations. The high RH is believed to be a result of the ongoing drying process of the cob walls, while the peaks in pollutants are likely to be attributed to human presence and the earthen floor deterioration. To ensure consistent good air quality, this study recommends the use of a properly sized Controlled Mechanical Ventilation system. Additionally, this study explored IAQ in the cob building from a numerical perspective. A Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model was developed and trained to predict pollutant concentrations inside the building. A validation test was conducted on the CO2 concentration data collected on-site, and the results indicated that the LSTM model has accurately predicted the evolution of CO2 concentration within the prototype building over an extended period. Full article
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24 pages, 1107 KiB  
Article
Definition of Compliance Criterion Weights for Bridge Construction Method Selection and Their Application in Real Projects
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2891; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112891 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
The main research purpose of the present paper is the establishment of certain compliance criteria, applied for the selection of the most appropriate, per case, bridge construction method, as well as the definition of the weights of these criteria. The five basic concrete [...] Read more.
The main research purpose of the present paper is the establishment of certain compliance criteria, applied for the selection of the most appropriate, per case, bridge construction method, as well as the definition of the weights of these criteria. The five basic concrete bridge construction methods considered in this study are: Cast-in-place, Precast I-Girder, Incremental Launching, Advanced Shoring, and Balanced Cantilever. In this context, the choice of construction method in a concrete road bridge project is proposed based on seven compliance criteria which are: safety, economy, durability, construction speed, serviceability, aesthetics, and environmental harmonization. The inclusion of all these criteria is achieved via the decision-making tool of multi-criteria analysis. A notable innovation of the current study is that road bridges are divided into three categories (bridges for highways, national roads, and provincial roads), in accordance with the importance of the road that contains them. Thus, three different sets of weights of criteria are calculated, corresponding to each bridge category. The research method used for this purpose was a structured questionnaire that was distributed to a large number of selected experts in the field of bridges, who come either from academia or the construction industry. The research results showed that the criteria of safety and economy are the most significant according to the experts, while aspects such as the correlations between experts’ profile and their weights were also considered. Finally, the derived criterion weights were applied to two case studies of real bridge projects in Greece. Full article
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17 pages, 2749 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Critical Project Success Factors—Sustainable Management of the Fast-Track Construction Industry
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2890; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112890 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Fast-track construction has recently become the prevailing construction approach globally. It enables owners and developers to make rapid returns on investment through shortened construction periods. This strategy has many effects on the industry; therefore, four groups of factors were studied in this project: [...] Read more.
Fast-track construction has recently become the prevailing construction approach globally. It enables owners and developers to make rapid returns on investment through shortened construction periods. This strategy has many effects on the industry; therefore, four groups of factors were studied in this project: (1) financial, (2) logistics and finance, (3) management, and (4) legal. A 22-question survey was distributed to 155 professionals in the construction industry, who evaluated the impact of the stated factors on a 5-point scale. The results revealed a high level of consistency determined through Cronbach’s alpha, and a positive correlation was found by Spearman’s rank coefficient. The Relative Importance Index was used to rank the factors based the evaluation by the professionals, resulting in the following impact ranking: (1) poor communication among design and construction teams, (2) large amounts of rework, (3) low quality of work by the contractor, (4) design errors, (5) late or insufficient payment according to terms agreed with the client, and (6) unavailability of materials in the market. By providing a quantitative RII model to evaluate fast-track project management performance with the use of corresponding performance indicators, this study will benefit industry practitioners and researchers as it identifies the most significant factors that impact fast-tract project management performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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24 pages, 11826 KiB  
Article
Temperature Response of Double-Layer Steel Truss Bridge Girders
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112889 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Double-layer steel truss continuous girders are prone to significant temperature stress, deviation, torsion, and warping, thus causing adverse temperature structural responses, and also affecting the safety and durability of bridge structures. This paper presents an investigation on time-dependent characteristics in the temperature field [...] Read more.
Double-layer steel truss continuous girders are prone to significant temperature stress, deviation, torsion, and warping, thus causing adverse temperature structural responses, and also affecting the safety and durability of bridge structures. This paper presents an investigation on time-dependent characteristics in the temperature field and temperature response of double-layer steel truss continuous bridge girders, fully considering the shielding effect subjected to different solar radiation angles during the high-temperature season. The time-dependent thermal boundary conditions and support conditions provided for the steel truss bridge structure were determined. Subsequently, a thermal analysis model for the entire structure of double-layer steel truss continuous girders was established to attain the temperature distribution law. The research results show that significant differences occur in the position and temperature difference of temperature gradients exhibited in the vertical, horizontal, and longitudinal directions in the double-layer steel truss bridge structure. The temperature distribution pattern within the chord section is mainly influenced by the environmental temperature and solar radiation intensity, along with the heat exchange between different panels. Thereafter, a validated temperature gradient formula for the component section has been proposed. The time-dependent laws in structural displacement, stress, and rotation angle under daily temperature cycling conditions have been revealed, thereby providing a theoretical basis for the life cycle construction and safety maintenance of double-layer steel truss structure bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Science and Safety of Bridge Structure)
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17 pages, 5781 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Aragonite Whiskers by Co-Carbonation of Waste Magnesia Slag and Magnesium Sulfate: Enhancing Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Portland Cement Paste
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2888; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112888 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 945
Abstract
This study focused on the synthesis of aragonite whiskers through a synergistic wet carbonation technology utilizing waste magnesia slag (MS) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), aiming to improve the microstructure and mechanical properties of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste. The influence of [...] Read more.
This study focused on the synthesis of aragonite whiskers through a synergistic wet carbonation technology utilizing waste magnesia slag (MS) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), aiming to improve the microstructure and mechanical properties of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste. The influence of MgSO4 concentration on the wet carbonation process, phase composition, and microstructure of MS was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of incorporating carbonated MS (C-MS) on the mechanical properties and microstructure of Portland cement paste was evaluated. Results showed that appropriate MgSO4 concentrations favored aragonite whisker formation. A concentration of 0.075 M MgSO4 yielded 86.6% aragonite with high aspect ratio nanofibers. Incorporating 5% of this C-MS into OPC increased the seven-day compressive strength by 37.5% compared to the control OPC paste. The improvement was attributed to accelerated hydration and reduced porosity by the filling effect and microfiber reinforcement of aragonite whiskers. MS demonstrated good CO2 sequestration capacity during carbonation. This study provides an effective method to synthesize aragonite whiskers from waste MS and use it to enhance cementitious materials while reducing CO2 emissions, which is valuable for the development of a sustainable cement industry. Full article
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15 pages, 2526 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Production Model for Labour Productivity: Modular Construction Toolkit Design
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2887; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112887 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 692
Abstract
The building industry faces a number of prominent challenges in the coming period. In this article, we focus on productivity in construction, which lags behind other industries despite technological developments. There is an urgent need for more efficient production methods. In other words, [...] Read more.
The building industry faces a number of prominent challenges in the coming period. In this article, we focus on productivity in construction, which lags behind other industries despite technological developments. There is an urgent need for more efficient production methods. In other words, the potential for increasing productivity in construction is enormous. As in other industries, the key to this lies in process orientation, process standardization, and digitization. Lean construction approaches offer innovative solutions here by aiming to maximize customer value while minimizing waste, applying the principles of lean production to construction processes. However, building products are distinct in nature. Efforts to standardize them have achieved partial success, but only within specific product categories and for certain customer needs. Most construction activities remain highly unique. An alternative solution lies in standardizing work processes and not the final product. By adopting this method, one can considerably decrease individuality in production without compromising the essential uniqueness of the building product. Consequently, it is crucial to gain a deeper understanding of the standardization of production processes and the dynamics within the construction sector. This article introduces a modular construction toolkit designed to standardize production processes at construction sites. This toolkit consists of a series of consistent process steps, each linked to a standard time metric. Using this classification, a production model is constructed from a select number of recurring processes, leading to an ontological representation of production. This modular approach allows diverse production processes to be compared based on productivity, as they are composed of consistent and comparable sub-processes. Such a comparison is crucial for continuous production optimization. This method also enables the pinpointing of the most wasteful processes across various construction sites. While the primary data generation use case is centred on special civil engineering (special foundation engineering), the core concepts can be applied to general building construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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14 pages, 3544 KiB  
Article
Anomaly Detection Based on LSTM Learning in IoT-Based Dormitory for Indoor Environment Control
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2886; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112886 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 562
Abstract
This study focuses on gathering environmental data concerning the indoor climate within a dormitory, encompassing variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration, fine dust concentration, illuminance, and total volatile organic compounds. Subsequently, an anomaly detection long short-term memory model (LSTM) [...] Read more.
This study focuses on gathering environmental data concerning the indoor climate within a dormitory, encompassing variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration, fine dust concentration, illuminance, and total volatile organic compounds. Subsequently, an anomaly detection long short-term memory model (LSTM) model, utilizing a two-stacked LSTM model, was developed and trained to enhance indoor environment control. The study demonstrated that the trained model effectively identified anomalies within eight environmental variables. Graphical representations illustrate the model’s accuracy in anomaly detection. The trained model has the capacity to monitor indoor environmental data collected and transmitted using an Internet-of-Things sensor. In the event of an anomaly domain prediction, it proactively alerts the building manager, facilitating timely indoor environment control. Furthermore, the model can be seamlessly integrated into indoor environment control systems to actively detect anomalies, thereby contributing to the automation of control processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AI and Data Analytics for Energy-Efficient and Healthy Buildings)
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19 pages, 839 KiB  
Review
Catalysing Construction Safety: A Comparative Analysis of Technological Advancements across High-Risk Industries
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2885; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112885 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 595
Abstract
This article presents a comprehensive review of the safety status and technological development in high-risk industries, with a focus on construction, mining, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and energy sectors. The objective is to analyse and compare the current safety practices, challenges, and advancements in [...] Read more.
This article presents a comprehensive review of the safety status and technological development in high-risk industries, with a focus on construction, mining, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and energy sectors. The objective is to analyse and compare the current safety practices, challenges, and advancements in these industries to identify common trends, knowledge gaps, and potential areas for improvement. The review explores the incidence of accidents, associated costs, traditional safety methods, limitations, and emerging technologies employed to enhance safety across multiple industries. This review aims to provide insights and lessons that can be applied to enhance safety practices in the construction industry. The findings highlight the critical role of technological advancements in mitigating risks and fostering a culture of safety across diverse sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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30 pages, 15990 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response of Transmission Tower-Line Systems Due to Ground Vibration Caused by High-Speed Trains
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2884; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112884 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 662
Abstract
With the continuous expansion of the scale of power grid and transportation infrastructure construction, the number of crossovers between transmission lines and high-speed railways continues to increase. At present, there is a lack of systematic research on the dynamic characteristics of transmission tower-line [...] Read more.
With the continuous expansion of the scale of power grid and transportation infrastructure construction, the number of crossovers between transmission lines and high-speed railways continues to increase. At present, there is a lack of systematic research on the dynamic characteristics of transmission tower-line structures crossing high-speed railways under vehicle-induced ground vibration. This article focuses on the phenomenon of accidents such as line drops when crossing areas in recent years and establishes a high-speed train track foundation soil finite element model in ABAQUS that considers track irregularity. The three-dimensional vibration characteristics and attenuation law of train ground vibration are analyzed. Acceleration data for key points are also extracted. A separate finite element model of the transmission tower-line system is established in ANSYS, where acceleration is applied as an excitation to the transmission tower-line system, and the coupling effect between the tower and the line is considered to analyze its dynamic response. Subsequently, modal analysis is conducted on the tower-line system, providing the vibration modes and natural frequencies of the transmission tower-line structure. The effects of factors such as train speed, soil quality, and distance from the tower to the track on the dynamic response of the transmission tower-line system under vehicle-induced ground vibration are studied. The results show that the speed range (300 km/h–400 km/h) and track distance range (4.5 m–30 m) with the greatest impacts are obtained. The research results can provide a reference for the reasonable design of transmission tower-line systems in high-speed railway sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Vibration and Soil Dynamics)
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22 pages, 5350 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in Design Studios on the Comfort and Academic Performance of Architecture Students
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2883; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112883 - 18 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
This study addresses the limited research on examining comfort levels among architecture students. Specifically, it seeks to evaluate indoor environmental quality (IEQ) within design studios to investigate the occurrence of health symptoms and ascertain the influence of these factors on academic performance. This [...] Read more.
This study addresses the limited research on examining comfort levels among architecture students. Specifically, it seeks to evaluate indoor environmental quality (IEQ) within design studios to investigate the occurrence of health symptoms and ascertain the influence of these factors on academic performance. This study was conducted at a university in Jordan during the autumn semester. The research database encompassed objective measurements utilizing instruments, subjective aspects using questionnaires, and academic performance assessments. This study’s results indicated a significant need for more satisfaction with the overall comfort levels encountered in design studios. The element of noise levels was considered the least satisfactory by the students, followed by the level of humidity, temperature conditions, lighting quality, and air quality. The findings revealed that the symptoms most frequently reported weekly throughout the autumn semester in design studios were decreased focus, dry skin, nasal congestion, and headaches. A significant positive link was seen between the degree of concentration and academic achievement. Moreover, a significant majority of students (77.4%) expressed their belief that enhancing IEQ will improve their academic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Energy, Physics, Environment, and Systems)
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19 pages, 15958 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Through-Thickness Temperature Gradient and Thermal Stress of Concrete Box Girders
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2882; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112882 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Bridges are generally affected by thermal loads which include the daily cycle, seasonal cycle and annual cycle. Thermal loads mode and thermal effects on bridges, especially for concrete girders, are quite essential but complicated. To investigate the temperature field and thermal stress in [...] Read more.
Bridges are generally affected by thermal loads which include the daily cycle, seasonal cycle and annual cycle. Thermal loads mode and thermal effects on bridges, especially for concrete girders, are quite essential but complicated. To investigate the temperature field and thermal stress in the thickness direction of a concrete box girder, the temperature field of a prestressed concrete continuous box girder bridge is monitored, and the temperature distribution in the thickness direction of the concrete box girder is analyzed. Finite element simulation, utilizing air elements specifically designed for concrete box girders, is employed to analyze the temperature field and thermal stress profiles along the thickness of the slab. The findings indicate a variation in temperature along the thickness of the concrete box girder slab. The most significant temperature differential, reaching up to 10.7 °C, is observed along the thickness of the top slab, followed by the bottom plate, with the web exhibiting relatively smaller differentials. Temperature in the full thickness range has a significant impact on the top plate, while the web plate and bottom plate are greatly influenced by temperature ranging from the outer surface to the center of the plate thickness. The temperature difference between the center of the plate thickness and the inner surface is approximately 0. The variation in temperature due to the variation in thickness direction is a temporal factor, wherein the outer layer of the roof is primarily compressed, while the inner layer is subjected to tension. The external surface of the web is mainly compressed. The stress exerted by the internal surface temperature is minimal. The internal and external surface effects of the floor are similar, and as time passes, tensile and compressive stresses appear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete)
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25 pages, 3664 KiB  
Article
Research on the Value Improvement Model of Private Parties as “Investor–Builder” Dual-Role Entity in Major River Green Public–Private Partnership Projects
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112881 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 599
Abstract
In Public–Private Partnership (PPP) projects, the structure of the Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) significantly impacts the value enhancement of projects. This study conducted a quantitative analysis of value enhancement in green PPP projects under single- and Dual-Role entity models and examined existing SPV [...] Read more.
In Public–Private Partnership (PPP) projects, the structure of the Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) significantly impacts the value enhancement of projects. This study conducted a quantitative analysis of value enhancement in green PPP projects under single- and Dual-Role entity models and examined existing SPV private party compositions. A quantitative model was developed to enhance the value in green PPP projects through a Dual-Role “investor–builder” entity approach, comparing it with the single-role entity model. The findings indicate that in the Dual-Role entity mode, the construction party demonstrates a greater willingness to effort, resulting in shorter construction timelines and improved economic benefits for the project company. The preferred equity range for private parties escalates with the total project investment and the extent of “political support”. Nevertheless, a disproportionately high government stake in the equity is detrimental to the value enhancement in PPPs, and excessive government regulation and control should be avoided. This quantitative model serves as a decision-making criterion for selecting the SPV mode and provides an alternative approach for evaluating PPP project performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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18 pages, 4888 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Pervious Concrete
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112880 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Pervious concrete (PC) has gained popularity as an environmentally friendly solution for mitigating the urban heat island effect and promoting sustainable construction. However, its lower compressive strength, attributed to its higher porosity required for permeability, poses challenges for withstanding heavy vehicle loads on [...] Read more.
Pervious concrete (PC) has gained popularity as an environmentally friendly solution for mitigating the urban heat island effect and promoting sustainable construction. However, its lower compressive strength, attributed to its higher porosity required for permeability, poses challenges for withstanding heavy vehicle loads on pavements. Our study aims to improve the flexural strength of regular PC by adding advanced reinforcing materials like steel wire mesh or glass fiber mesh. This results in reinforced pervious concrete, referred to as RPC, which offers enhanced strength and durability. The primary objective of our research is to investigate the mechanical behavior of RPC, with a specific emphasis on essential design parameters such as PC elastic modulus, modulus of rupture, and stress–strain characteristics under both single and repeated loading conditions. Our findings reveal that the influence of repeated loading on the compressive strength and elastic modulus of PC pavement is negligible, as there are no significant differences observed between the two loading protocols. Notably, our statistical analysis indicates that the PC strength (fc′) averages around 15 MPa. Moreover, empirical formulas for the elastic modulus (Ec = 3072fc) and modulus of rupture (fr = 0.86fc) are derived from our research. Furthermore, our study establishes that the stress–strain behavior of PC closely aligns with the general concrete model proposed by a previous scholar, providing valuable insights into the material’s structural performance. These findings contribute to a better understanding of RPC’s mechanical properties and offer potential solutions for improving its suitability for heavier vehicular loads. Full article
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18 pages, 5983 KiB  
Article
Elastic Buckling of Prismatic Web Plate under Shear with Simply-Supported Boundary Conditions
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112879 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 514
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the local elastic buckling behavior of simply-supported prismatic web plates under pure shear loading. Comprehensive finite element analysis is conducted to analyze the effects of various geometric parameters, such as tapering ratio, aspect ratio, and web slenderness, on [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the local elastic buckling behavior of simply-supported prismatic web plates under pure shear loading. Comprehensive finite element analysis is conducted to analyze the effects of various geometric parameters, such as tapering ratio, aspect ratio, and web slenderness, on the local elastic buckling behavior with simply-supported boundary conditions. An eigenvalue analysis is conducted to determine web plates’ natural frequencies and corresponding shape modes with varying geometric parameters. Particular attention is given to the effect of the slenderness ratio, since current formulas do not consider the impact of the slenderness ratio on the elastic shear buckling coefficient. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to examine the importance of the web slenderness ratio for estimating the critical buckling coefficient of a prismatic plate under pure shear loading. Finally, a formula of the elastic local critical buckling coefficient for a simply-supported prismatic web considering the web slenderness effect is proposed, which can be used in international codes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances on Structural Engineering, 2nd Volume)
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25 pages, 1203 KiB  
Article
Resource and Cognitive Perspectives: Unraveling the Influence Mechanism of Project Governance on Organizational Resilience in Infrastructure Projects
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112878 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 506
Abstract
The tendency of infrastructure projects to be complex, large-scale, and long-term prompts temporary project organizations’ need to have resilience to deal with various risks, uncertainties, and crises. The resource and cognitive capacity of stakeholders are key factors in infrastructure project governance and crisis [...] Read more.
The tendency of infrastructure projects to be complex, large-scale, and long-term prompts temporary project organizations’ need to have resilience to deal with various risks, uncertainties, and crises. The resource and cognitive capacity of stakeholders are key factors in infrastructure project governance and crisis response in the face of shock generation. Moreover, previous studies on organizational resilience of infrastructure projects have lacked exploration from project governance perspectives. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence of contractual and relational governance on the organizational resilience of infrastructure projects from the perspectives of resource reconfiguration and organizational cognition. Firstly, this study established a conceptual model through a theoretical background and hypotheses development. Then, a questionnaire was designed for participants in the infrastructure projects to collect data on the respective effects of each variable. A total of 519 complete responses to the questionnaire were collected, and a path model was developed to quantitatively measure the impact of contractual and relational governance on organizational resilience using the partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method. Finally, the model was validated using reliability and validity testing, hypotheses testing, and mediating effect testing. The results of the study showed that the contractual and relational governance can enhance the level of organizational resilience. Resource reconfiguration and organizational cognition play a mediating role in the relationship between project governance and organizational resilience. This study extends the theoretical research on the impact of project governance on organizational resilience, and deepens the intrinsic link between the two from the perspective of resource reconfiguration and organizational cognition, so as to provide effective theoretical guidance for crisis response and sustainable operation of infrastructure projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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19 pages, 2763 KiB  
Article
Party Wall Behaviour and Impact in QUB and Coheating Tests
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2877; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112877 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 458
Abstract
In situ measurement can enable accurate evaluation of a building’s as-built performance. However, when measuring whole house performance, party walls introduce measurement uncertainty. Subsequently, it is common to “adjust” measurements to isolate heat transfer through party walls. This study explores the behaviour and [...] Read more.
In situ measurement can enable accurate evaluation of a building’s as-built performance. However, when measuring whole house performance, party walls introduce measurement uncertainty. Subsequently, it is common to “adjust” measurements to isolate heat transfer through party walls. This study explores the behaviour and impact of party walls in QUB and coheating measurements of a semi-detached house, presenting empirical evidence on the validity of these measurements where a party wall is present. Two different party wall heat transfer behaviours were observed through heat flux density measurements. Thermal charging is apparent in QUB tests and the initial stages of coheating. After 48 h of coheating, the party wall has become heat saturated and exhibits stable heat transfer. Consequently, using heat flux density measurements to isolate party wall heat transfer in QUB tests, where thermal saturation has not been achieved, can result in misleading inferences. The coheating and QUB measurements without party wall adjustment are in close agreement, irrespective of differing heating patterns in the neighbouring property. The generalisation of these findings is problematic since they describe the impact of the case study-specific built form and the test conditions. Future work to explore the impact of built form and test conditions is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Dynamic In Situ Characterisation of Buildings)
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16 pages, 3585 KiB  
Article
Strength Behavior and Ultimate Capacity Prediction of Self-Compacting Concrete-Filled Thin-Walled Medium-Length Steel Tubular Columns under Eccentric Compression
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112876 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 663
Abstract
The development of self-compacting concrete-filled thin-walled steel tubular columns is a potential strategy to ease the challenge of conserving resources in society, which are largely consumed by the quickly developing civil industry. However, the application of these columns in the civil industry is [...] Read more.
The development of self-compacting concrete-filled thin-walled steel tubular columns is a potential strategy to ease the challenge of conserving resources in society, which are largely consumed by the quickly developing civil industry. However, the application of these columns in the civil industry is rare due to insufficient research, especially research concerning the strength behaviors of the columns under eccentric compression. Therefore, the eccentric compressive behaviors of medium-length tubular columns made up of self-compacting concrete and thin-walled steel with circular sections were experimentally studied in the present paper. The feasibility of predicting the columns’ ultimate capacities using existing design codes was explored, and then comparisons between the predictions and experimental values were carried out. The results showed that the eccentric compression columns had a failure morphology, buckling together with a lateral deflection while they were moved from the bottom to middle positions as the wall thickness increased. Moreover, the ratios of the predicted ultimate capacity of the eccentric compressive columns to the experimental values were within the range of 0.35 to 0.94. This indicates that the predicted ultimate capacity is conservative and safe. The codes AISC-LRFD and JCJ 01-89 achieved the most conservative and the most precise predictive results, respectively. Additionally, the decrease ratio of the predicted ultimate capacity of the eccentric compressive columns to the experimental values was more evident than that of axial compressive columns. This paper can serve as guidance for the design and application of these columns, as well as foster a sustainable and resilient civil industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation)
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22 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
The Association between Perceived Housing Environment and Health and Satisfaction among the Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Northern China
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2875; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112875 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 663
Abstract
China lacks design strategies to improve home-based care environments for its older adults. This study investigated the perception of indoor environmental quality in housing environments and analyzed its impact on health and satisfaction among home-living older adults. A cross-sectional survey in Northern China [...] Read more.
China lacks design strategies to improve home-based care environments for its older adults. This study investigated the perception of indoor environmental quality in housing environments and analyzed its impact on health and satisfaction among home-living older adults. A cross-sectional survey in Northern China was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic (October 2021–March 2022) to test the effects of five housing environmental factors on home-living older adults’ health and satisfaction, including noise, lighting and view, temperature and humidity, air quality, and maintenance and cleanliness. A total of 356 home-living adults aged 60 years and older participated in the survey. The 12-item Short Form Health Survey was used to measure health-related quality of life among respondents. Using multiple regression analyses, we found that overall satisfaction can be positively predicted by four housing environmental qualities: lighting and view, temperature and humidity, air quality, and maintenance and cleanliness. Air quality was found to be a predictor of respondents’ physical health. Only noise had a significant predictive effect on respondents’ mental health. Age, marital status, and health status (cardiovascular and chronic diseases) were significantly correlated with the physical health of the respondents, whereas educational status, monthly income, and alcohol consumption could predict their mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Environmental Quality and Human Wellbeing)
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22 pages, 6709 KiB  
Article
Promoting the Low-Carbon Transition of Power Construction Projects under MRV: An Evolutionary Game Analysis
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112874 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 486
Abstract
The actual situation of carbon-emission reduction in China’s power sector has not yet achieved the expected benefits. The rent-seeking behavior of participants in power construction projects (PCPs) hinders the realization of low-carbon benefits. It is necessary to explore the behavioral strategies of the [...] Read more.
The actual situation of carbon-emission reduction in China’s power sector has not yet achieved the expected benefits. The rent-seeking behavior of participants in power construction projects (PCPs) hinders the realization of low-carbon benefits. It is necessary to explore the behavioral strategies of the various participants in the low-carbon transition of PCPs. This paper creatively constructs an evolutionary game model of PCPs’ participants from the perspective of MRV (monitoring, reporting, and verification) and introduces the influence of the public to provide a comprehensive analysis of strategic equilibrium points. Through numerical simulations with MATLAB R2021a software, this paper explores the strategic choices of participants in different situations and gives relevant inferences and proofs. The results show that the grid company dominates at the initial stage and promotes participants to regulate behaviors. Under the premise of satisfying the system-stability requirements, setting the growth rate of the grid company’s punishments to 100% can enhance the willingness for strict supervision, while the growth rate of the supervision costs to 200% significantly decreases the probability of strict supervision. With the integration of MRV and PCPs, participants spontaneously fulfill the carbon-emission-reduction tasks. Reasonable control of input costs can effectively avoid the occurrence of rent-seeking behavior. In addition, this paper sets the public-influence growth rate at 200% and finds that the public plays a greater role in driving participants to fulfill responsibilities. Based on the results, a low-carbon transition mechanism for PCPs under the MRV system is proposed by considering several dimensions, which provides suggestions for participants to fulfill carbon-reduction responsibilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction Management, and Computers & Digitization)
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15 pages, 11989 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Mechanical Performance of Sleeve Considering the Different Distributions of Grouting Defects
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112873 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 462
Abstract
To study the influence of grouting defects on the mechanical properties of grouting sleeves, 49 groups of specimens with different specifications were made considering the length and location of defects, monotonic axial tension tests were carried out to study the influence of grouting [...] Read more.
To study the influence of grouting defects on the mechanical properties of grouting sleeves, 49 groups of specimens with different specifications were made considering the length and location of defects, monotonic axial tension tests were carried out to study the influence of grouting defects on its failure process, failure mode, load-displacement curve, bearing capacity and other mechanical properties, and the influence law of different distribution defects on the grouting sleeve was analyzed. This research shows that there are two forms of sleeve failure: steel bar fracture failure and steel bar pullout failure. The bearing capacity of specimens with a defect length of 2D and 3D varies with the defect type. The ultimate displacement of specimens with a defect length of 2D varies with the defect type. The ultimate displacement of specimens with a defect length of 3D increases with the increase in bearing capacity. By moving defects, it is found that if there is a vertical overlap of defects in the upper or middle part of the specimen, the bearing capacity of the specimen will be greatly affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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16 pages, 7048 KiB  
Article
Direct Tensile Capacity of Steel-Tube Connections in a Precast Concrete Double-Wall System
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112872 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 470
Abstract
This study introduces a new precast concrete (PC) double-wall system designed to simplify the complex fabrication process of existing PC double-wall systems and eliminate laitance and other defects that can occur during the manufacture of concrete panels. An experiment and finite element analysis [...] Read more.
This study introduces a new precast concrete (PC) double-wall system designed to simplify the complex fabrication process of existing PC double-wall systems and eliminate laitance and other defects that can occur during the manufacture of concrete panels. An experiment and finite element analysis were conducted on 11 specimens to determine the tensile resistance performance of rectangular steel tubes that maintain spacing to avoid damage to the PC panels during transportation or on-site installation. Specimens varied in terms of the end details of the rectangular steel tubes, such as the presence of welded steel plates or embedded concrete and total length in terms of whether longer or shorter specimens were used. As a result, the specimens showed a 20–30% increase in maximum tensile strength compared to the control specimen according to the end details, except for the case where side steel plates were cut and bent inward. The control specimen filled with concrete was the most suitable for connections when constructing PC double-wall systems. It has significant tensile resistance according to the experiment and finite element analysis and does not require additional construction steps or costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Concrete Structures: Structural Behaviors and Design Methods)
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0 pages, 1483 KiB  
Article
Studying the Compressed Mechanical Characteristics of a Novel Carbon-Free Plaster Using ANSYS Software
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112871 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Eco-friendly plasters offer several advantages, including sustainability, nontoxicity, and low cost. These plasters are made with sustainable materials, such as natural fibers and starches. These materials can have different mechanical properties compared to traditional plasters, which are made with gypsum and cement. Due [...] Read more.
Eco-friendly plasters offer several advantages, including sustainability, nontoxicity, and low cost. These plasters are made with sustainable materials, such as natural fibers and starches. These materials can have different mechanical properties compared to traditional plasters, which are made with gypsum and cement. Due to the increased attention being paid to environmental issues, efforts are still being made to switch out the conventional plaster of gypsum and cement for an eco-friendlier alternative to minimize toxicity, increase effectiveness, and lower cost. In this study, the effect of novel plaster behavior under pressure on mechanical properties was investigated. The plaster investigated was an eco-friendly carbon-free BSCO plaster. A range of experimental techniques were used, such as compression testing for confirmation using ANSYS 2023 R1 software, which set ergonomic and user-friendly standards as a minimum requirement, with the overarching goal of creating stronger, lighter, and more reasonably priced structures. The results showed that eco-friendly Bilateral Specialized Company (BSCO) plasters could have comparable mechanical properties to traditional plasters. Additionally, it is suggested that eco-friendly and carbon-free plasters can be a viable alternative to traditional plasters in a variety of applications. Researchers and civil engineers can both gain from this scientific paper’s potential to replace conventional stucco with an ecologically friendly alternative that has more effective mechanical qualities. Full article
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23 pages, 1857 KiB  
Article
‘Buildability’ in the Digital Age: A Phenomenological Discourse of Industry Practitioners’ Perceptions
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112870 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Since the emergence of the concept of “buildability” in 1983, numerous studies have focused on improving project performance through buildability. Initially, the buildability discourse was based on narrow definitions and focused on aspects that could improve construction performance. Although explicit academic discourse on [...] Read more.
Since the emergence of the concept of “buildability” in 1983, numerous studies have focused on improving project performance through buildability. Initially, the buildability discourse was based on narrow definitions and focused on aspects that could improve construction performance. Although explicit academic discourse on buildability has been limited for three decades, the ongoing calls to improve construction performance have never subsided. As buildability was seen as important by industry in the 1980s and 1990s for improving performance, its limited discourse warrants investigation to understand how buildability has evolved in practice over the last 30 years. Therefore, this study aims to review and extend the discourse of the buildability concept using a phenomenological research approach to capture the unconscious evolution of the concept through stakeholder interpretations. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) research philosophy embedded in the exploratory tradition was followed to uncover the 16 key underlying constructs of the buildability concept. The study is significant for casting potential buildability discourse trajectories for the future of the construction industry by integrating people, process, and technology. The findings extend the dimensions of buildability, accommodating stakeholders’ expectations and project conditions as part of buildability decisions. Moreover, the study suggests that emerging technologies (e.g., AI) will become integral to buildability processes in terms of managing knowledge in the future. Full article
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15 pages, 9920 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Flexural Behavior of Prestressed Concrete (PSC) Hollow-Core Slabs (HCSs)
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112869 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 494
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the flexural behavior characteristics of prestressed concrete hollow-core slabs (HCSs) through bending experiments. Six specimens were used as variables, both with and without reinforced concrete, in the HCS. A four-point load was applied in the form of a [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the flexural behavior characteristics of prestressed concrete hollow-core slabs (HCSs) through bending experiments. Six specimens were used as variables, both with and without reinforced concrete, in the HCS. A four-point load was applied in the form of a simple support beam to assess the flexural behavior and ultimate strength of HCS. The results demonstrate that, compared to non-reinforced specimens, the reinforced HCS exhibited higher maximum loads and better ductility performance. The experimental outcomes demonstrate that HCS showed an average of 10% higher capacity than the maximum load of the concrete structure standards (KDS 14 20 20, ACI 318-19, and PCI handbook), with or without reinforced concrete, leading to relatively safe predictions. This study’s experimental findings are anticipated to aid in evaluating structural safety in a relatively secure way. The findings indicate that the HCS structural system is excellent at sustaining the weight of a structure and ensuring its safety. Additionally, this investigation is anticipated to furnish practical guidance for optimizing the use of HCS systems in structural design and construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Building Structures)
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