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Minerals, Volume 12, Issue 4 (April 2022) – 106 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the present work, data from unmanned aerial vehicles, field geology measurements, and petrographic analyses were combined in a geographical information system environment, providing data about the geographical distribution and mineralogical differences of beachrock formations across the east shoreline of the Ionian Sea, Greece. Furthermore, for the first time, the correlation between the geotectonic status of the broader coastal area and the beachrock extent, shape, and composition was investigated. View this paper.
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20 pages, 8264 KiB  
Article
Open Pit Optimization Using the Floating Cone Method: A New Algorithm
by Gonzalo Ares, César Castañón Fernández, Isidro Diego Álvarez, Daniel Arias and Arturo Buelga Díaz
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040495 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5788
Abstract
Three-dimensional block models are the most frequently used tool for estimating mineral resources and reserves within a mineral deposit. In open pit mining, the basis of mine design and the long term mining schedule is calculation of the ultimate pit limit. The ultimate [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional block models are the most frequently used tool for estimating mineral resources and reserves within a mineral deposit. In open pit mining, the basis of mine design and the long term mining schedule is calculation of the ultimate pit limit. The ultimate pit limit is the pit with the highest profit value. Over the years, different algorithms have been developed that enable us to calculate the final pit: floating or mobile cone, floating cone II and its corrected forms, floating cone III, the Korobov algorithm and its corrected form, the Lerchs–Grossmann 2D algorithm (dynamic programming), and the Lerchs–Grossmann 3D algorithm (graph theory). All these algorithms have advantages and disadvantages. The floating cone method stands out for its simplicity, speed, and easy implementation, even for calculating a pit with a variable slope angle. The main drawback of this method is that it is unable to examine all possible combinations. For this reason, the algorithm does not consistently give optimal results, which is why it has required improvements over time. However, the improved methods still have some problems. To overcome these problems, a new algorithm called the floating cone IV method will be demonstrated in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Exploration Methods and Applications)
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22 pages, 7917 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Crack Initiation and Propagation Evolution Law of Hydraulic Fracturing Holes in Coal Seams Considering Permeability Anisotropy and Damage
by Liang Chen, Gangwei Fan, Dongsheng Zhang, Zhanglei Fan, Xufeng Wang, Wei Zhang and Nan Yao
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040494 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
Hydraulic fracturing has been widely used in practical engineering as an essential means to prevent coal seam gas outburst, increase coal seam permeability and improve gas drainage efficiency. Accurate prediction of fracture propagation law is an important basis for optimizing fracturing parameters to [...] Read more.
Hydraulic fracturing has been widely used in practical engineering as an essential means to prevent coal seam gas outburst, increase coal seam permeability and improve gas drainage efficiency. Accurate prediction of fracture propagation law is an important basis for optimizing fracturing parameters to achieve high-efficiency gas drainage in coal seams. In this paper, a new seepage–stress–damage coupling model considering permeability anisotropy is first established and then used to study the evolution laws of crack initiation pressure (σci), fracture pressure (σcd), AE behavior and pore water pressure with the lateral pressure coefficient (ξ) and permeability anisotropy coefficient (λ) in the process of hydraulic fracturing. Finally, the influence of initial pore water pressure on σci is discussed, and an efficient gas drainage method is proposed. Research results indicate that: the in situ stress still plays a leading role in the approach of crack propagation whether the permeability is isotropic or anisotropic; the non-uniform pressure condition is favorable for the crack growth compared with uniform pressure under the isotropic permeability condition; when the direction of maximum permeability is consistent with the direction of maximum principal stress (ξ = 0.5, λ < 0), the coal seams are easily fractured; AE behavior of fracturing holes can be divided into three stages: initiation stage, fracture smooth expansion stage and the breakdown stage for any λ or ξ; and the more complex the crack distribution, the more the area of the gas pressure release zone (GPRZ) increases, which is very beneficial to achieve high-efficiency gas drainage. This study can provide a basis for optimizing fracturing parameters and technology in improving the efficiency of coal seam gas drainage using the hydraulic fracturing method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Mining of Coal Mine in China)
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12 pages, 5994 KiB  
Article
Novel Technology for Comprehensive Utilization of Low-Grade Iron Ore
by Xinran Zhu, Yonghong Qin, Yuexin Han and Yanjun Li
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040493 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
In this study, a novel technology for the comprehensive utilization of low-grade iron ore is presented. For the iron ore with a Fe content of 24.91%, a pilot-scale study of pre-concentration, suspension magnetization roasting, grinding, and low-intensity magnetic separation was conducted, and an [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel technology for the comprehensive utilization of low-grade iron ore is presented. For the iron ore with a Fe content of 24.91%, a pilot-scale study of pre-concentration, suspension magnetization roasting, grinding, and low-intensity magnetic separation was conducted, and an iron concentrate with a grade of 62.21% and a recovery of 85.72% was obtained. The products were analysed using chemical elemental analysis, particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results indicated that hematite was reduced by CO and H2 mixture and transformed into ferrimagnetic magnetite in the suspension magnetization roasting, which was easily recovered in the subsequent magnetic separation. Additionally, a pre-concentration tailing with a SiO2 content of 81.55% and a magnetic tailing of the roasted ore with a SiO2 content of 79.57% were obtained, which can be used as building materials. This presents significant implications for the comprehensive utilization of low-grade iron ore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Processing Technologies of Complex Refractory Iron Ore)
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29 pages, 31830 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behaviour of Anchored Rock Containing Weak Interlayer under Uniaxial Compression: Laboratory Test and Coupled DEM–FEM Simulation
by Xinyang Luo, Ping Cao, Taoying Liu, Qingxiong Zhao, Gang Meng, Zhi Fan and Weiping Xie
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040492 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
The reason for instability in a rock mass with a weak interlayer is not only the sliding failure of the rock interlayer structural plane but also the tip crack propagation caused by the stress concentration at the tip of the interlayer. In this [...] Read more.
The reason for instability in a rock mass with a weak interlayer is not only the sliding failure of the rock interlayer structural plane but also the tip crack propagation caused by the stress concentration at the tip of the interlayer. In this study, a uniaxial compression test of an anchored rock mass with a weak interlayer was carried out to determine the influence of the anchorage on the failure pattern and the strength of samples with different interlayer dip angles. In addition, the coupled DEM–FEM numerical simulation method was used to study the internal stress evolution of the sample and the stress distribution of the anchor under the anchorage effect. The results showed that the anchorage effect on reinforcement and strength enhancement was greatest for the sample with an interlayer dip angle of 30°. Under the anchorage effect, crack initiation was limited and there was more shear failure in the samples. The reinforcement range of the anchorage effect for anchors with restrained ends was larger than for anchors with free ends. When the rock–anchor interface was unbonded, the effect of the free-ends anchor reflected the residual friction, but the restrained-ends anchor still worked by limiting the lateral expansion of the rocks. The stress values and deformation of the anchors decreased gradually with an increase in dip angle. Full article
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14 pages, 5148 KiB  
Article
Historic Underground Silver Mine Workings Detection Using 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (Durango, Mexico)
by Hector R. Hinojosa, Panagiotis Kirmizakis and Pantelis Soupios
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040491 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
This paper presents an underground silver mining operation outside Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico, terminated around the 1930s, of which previous knowledge of its operations was poor. Durango’s current silver exploration campaigns are likely to overlook historic silver mining sites due to interest in [...] Read more.
This paper presents an underground silver mining operation outside Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico, terminated around the 1930s, of which previous knowledge of its operations was poor. Durango’s current silver exploration campaigns are likely to overlook historic silver mining sites due to interest in specific prospect regions. A two-dimensional (2D) Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) survey coupled with reconnaissance of the area was performed at this historic silver mining site. The exploration campaign aimed to find the abandoned mineshaft, map its subsurface extent, and explore the occurrence of mineralization zones (silver ore). The ERI survey comprised five profiles measured with the extended dipole-dipole array with a consistent electrode spacing of 5 m. The smooth, robust, and damped least-squares inversion methods were used to invert the 2D data. Our field observations and ERI survey results collectively reveal the following findings: (a) reconnaissance reveals mining infrastructure consistent with historical mining activity; the infrastructure includes a complex of habitational rooms, an ore-processing pit near a concrete slab next to a dirt road, and two limestone-wall structures interpreted as the entrance of abandoned backfilled mineshafts named Mesquite and Lechuguilla; (b) high-resistivity anomalies suggest vestiges of shallow, underground mine workings including backfilled mineshafts that connect a mine gallery complex, and (c) various low-resistivity anomalies, juxtaposed against mine galleries, suggestive of unmined shallow vein-type and manto-type mineralization of hydrothermal origin. The imaging depth is estimated at ~65 m. Underground silver mining moved southwards and was limited to ~40 m depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Exploration: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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15 pages, 5179 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Controlling Factors of Surface Water in Upper Nujiang River, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
by Mingguo Wang, Li Yang, Jingjie Li and Qian Liang
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040490 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Rivers play an essential role in the global matter transport and hydrogeochemical cycle. Hydrogeochemical research is significant to developing and protecting water resources in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its lower reaches. This study aimed to identify the hydrochemical characteristics and controlling factors of [...] Read more.
Rivers play an essential role in the global matter transport and hydrogeochemical cycle. Hydrogeochemical research is significant to developing and protecting water resources in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its lower reaches. This study aimed to identify the hydrochemical characteristics and controlling factors of Daqu River and Gaqu River in Dingqing County, two tributaries of the upper Nujiang River. This study used spatial analysis, trilinear diagram analysis, and ion ratio analysis of hydrochemical indexes to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and controlling factors. Results show that Ca2+ and Mg2+, and HCO3 and SO42− are the main cations and anions of these two rivers. HCO3·SO4-Mg·Ca and HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg are the primary hydrochemical types for the surface water of Daqu and Gaqu Rivers, respectively. The influence of atmospheric precipitation and anthropogenic activities is weak. The carbonated water–rock reaction is the main Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 source, and hot springs act as the primary source of SO42− and supplements Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3. Mg2+ from magnesite dissolution exists in the Daqu River basin. Weak reverse cation exchange occurs in both rivers. Daqu River receives more low-mineralized glacier meltwater along the flow, whereas Gaqu River receives more high-mineralized hot spring water. Full article
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28 pages, 9846 KiB  
Article
Mineralized Zones of the Shizhuyuan Ore Field and Their Genetic Relationship with the Qianlishan Granite Complex, NE China: Evidence from Pyrite In Situ Geochemistry
by Yuzhong Liao, Dehui Zhang, Tonglin Li, Chuan Lu and Feng Liu
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040489 - 16 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1381
Abstract
The Shizhuyuan ore field has three mineralized zones around the Qianlishan granite complex with a radius of ~6 km: W-Sn-Mo-Bi (inner zone), Pb-Zn (middle zone), and Hg-Sb (outer zone). However, whether Pb-Zn and Hg-Sb mineralization is genetically related to the Qianlishan granites is [...] Read more.
The Shizhuyuan ore field has three mineralized zones around the Qianlishan granite complex with a radius of ~6 km: W-Sn-Mo-Bi (inner zone), Pb-Zn (middle zone), and Hg-Sb (outer zone). However, whether Pb-Zn and Hg-Sb mineralization is genetically related to the Qianlishan granites is still debated. Here, we conducted in situ pyrite trace element analysis to study the combinations and distributions. The Bi concentration gradually decreases from the inner zone to the outer zone, while the Mn and Sb contents show the opposite trend. Pyrites from each zone are distributed in distinct zones in the binary plot of Co/Ni-Bi, which is an effective discrimination diagram indicating the degree of hydrothermal alteration. Collectively, the gradual changes in pyrite trace element characteristics among the three ore-forming zones provide evidence to indicate that these zones probably compose a whole magmatic-hydrothermal system associated with the Qianlishan granite complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
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18 pages, 14475 KiB  
Article
Strain Energy Release and Deep Rock Failure Due to Excavation in Pre-Stressed Rock
by Peng Xiao, Diyuan Li and Quanqi Zhu
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040488 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
Deep rock engineering is in a high pre-stressed state before excavation. In this research, a method to calculate the release of strain energy caused by excavation in pre-stressed rock is proposed. The normal stress release after excavation leads to a reduction in strain [...] Read more.
Deep rock engineering is in a high pre-stressed state before excavation. In this research, a method to calculate the release of strain energy caused by excavation in pre-stressed rock is proposed. The normal stress release after excavation leads to a reduction in strain energy in rock specimens. The influence of excavation height and width on strain energy release is inconsistent under vertical loading. When the height of the hole is 1 mm, the strain energy release is large, and the increase in height of hole leads to a slow increase in the strain energy release. When the width of the hole is 1 mm, the strain energy release is very small, and the increase in the width of the hole leads to an increasingly faster release of strain energy. This strain energy release exponentially increases with the increase in the lateral pressure coefficient, showing a trend in the second power of the lateral pressure coefficient. Moreover, the tunnel failure caused by excavation under high stress is obtained by a numerical calculation. The failure modes of the deep tunnel model are strain rockbursts caused by tangential stress concentrations and spalling caused by normal stress release, which is also observed in the failure mode of the actual tunnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Failure Characteristics of Deep Rocks)
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15 pages, 5487 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable Bioleaching of a Low-Grade Chalcopyrite Ore
by Lilian Velásquez-Yévenes, Sebastián Malverde and Víctor Quezada
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040487 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
This paper reports on a study of column bioleaching of a low-grade chalcopyrite ore that is currently dump-leached under natural biological conditions without any control over microbial populations. The experimental methodology was focused on the effect of managing the bacterial populations in a [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a study of column bioleaching of a low-grade chalcopyrite ore that is currently dump-leached under natural biological conditions without any control over microbial populations. The experimental methodology was focused on the effect of managing the bacterial populations in a raffinate solution sourced from a dump-leach operation. This study presents results from columns of two heights (0.45 and 1.0 m). We demonstrated that intermittent irrigation enhanced the chalcopyrite dissolution during column leaching, but excessively long rest periods negatively affected the chemical and bacterial activity due to the shortage of oxidizing agents and/or nutrients for microorganisms. The recovery of low-grade chalcopyrite ore was enhanced by increasing the microbial cell density. The addition of 1.5 × 108 cells/mL to the 0.45 m column and 5.0 × 107 cells/mL to the 1 m column resulted in increased extraction, with the copper dissolution increasing from 32% to 44% in the 0.45 m column and from 30% to 40% in the 1.0 m column over 70 days of leaching. Under these conditions, the pH level remained constant at ~1.8, and the redox potential was around 840 mV vs. the SHE throughout the experiment. These results provided useful insights for evaluating a sustainable controlled dump-based technology for mineral bioprocessing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy of Sulfide Ores)
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30 pages, 10711 KiB  
Article
Stratigraphy, Paleogeography and Depositional Setting of the K–Mg Salts in the Zechstein Group of Netherlands—Implications for the Development of Salt Caverns
by Alexandre Pichat
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040486 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4380
Abstract
The 1 km thick evaporitic Permian Zechstein group in the Netherlands is subdivided into 5 halite rich evaporitic sequences including K–Mg salts (polyhalite, kieserite, sylvite, carnallite and bischofite) for which the position in the Zechstein stratigraphy is still poorly constrained. Understanding the repartition [...] Read more.
The 1 km thick evaporitic Permian Zechstein group in the Netherlands is subdivided into 5 halite rich evaporitic sequences including K–Mg salts (polyhalite, kieserite, sylvite, carnallite and bischofite) for which the position in the Zechstein stratigraphy is still poorly constrained. Understanding the repartition of K–Mg salts is especially important for the development of salt caverns which require a salt as pure as possible in halite. By compiling well log and seismic data in the offshore and onshore domains of the Netherlands, regional cross-sections and isopach maps were performed in order to update the lithostratigraphy of the Zechstein group by including the K–Mg salts. Results enable (i) to propose paleogeographic maps representing the spatial repartition and the thickness variations of one to two K–Mg rich intervals in each evaporite cycle, (ii) to constrain the depositional setting of the different type of salts and the hydrological conditions which influenced the Zechstein stratigraphic architecture and (iii) to develop over the Netherlands risking maps assessing the risk of encountering K–Mg salts in salt pillows or salt diapirs eligible in term of depth and thickness for the development of salt caverns. Full article
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19 pages, 5903 KiB  
Article
The Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ore-Forming Processes of the Tonggou Cu-Zn Deposit, NW China: Constraints from Magnetite Chemistry and Fluid Inclusions
by Chang-Cheng Han, Xue-Bing Zhang, Shi-Shan Wu and Ying-Ting Liu
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040485 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
The Tonggou deposit is a porphyry Cu and vein-type Cu-Zn mineralization system located in the Bogda Orogenic Belt, north of Eastern Tianshan. Systematic fluid inclusion analyses were performed on granular quartz from the magnetite–quartz stage and pyrite–chalcopyrite–quartz stage from the porphyry Cu mineralization. [...] Read more.
The Tonggou deposit is a porphyry Cu and vein-type Cu-Zn mineralization system located in the Bogda Orogenic Belt, north of Eastern Tianshan. Systematic fluid inclusion analyses were performed on granular quartz from the magnetite–quartz stage and pyrite–chalcopyrite–quartz stage from the porphyry Cu mineralization. During the early stage of porphyry Cu mineralization, the ore-forming fluids were at high temperatures (450–501 °C) and high salinity (51.2–55.2 wt.% NaCl equiv.) H2O-NaCl hydrothermal fluids with fluid boiling. These fluids evolved to high temperature (412–450 °C) and intermediate to low salinity (8.3–14.2 wt.% NaCl equiv.) H2O-NaCl hydrothermal fluids during the pyrite–chalcopyrite–quartz stage. In addition, magnetite from the Tonggou deposit was studied as a marker for the ore-forming process evolution of porphyry and vein-type mineralization. Sampled magnetite can be divided into MagI (allotriomorphic magnetite from altered granodiorite), MagII (magnetite from altered granodiorite found in veinlets or as granular aggregates), MagIII (from the magnetite–quartz stage of porphyry mineralization), and MagIV (from the polymetallic sulfide–epidote–quartz stage of vein-type mineralization). Magnetite LA-ICP-MS data indicate a hydrothermal origin. The contents of Ti, Si, Al, and Ta are controlled by temperature, and these elements gradually decrease from MagI to MagIV. Moreover, fO2 has considerable influence on the substitution of Sn, V, and Mn in magnetite, and the contents of these elements generally decrease from MagI to MagIII—increasing only in MagIV. Indeed, high fO2 in the polymetallic sulfide–epidote–quartz stage (MagIV) of vein-type mineralization is shown by the presence of a replacement texture in ilmenite grains within hydrothermal magnetite. On the other hand, magnetite samples from the Tonggou deposit have relatively low Ti + V contents compared to other porphyry Cu deposits—plotting in the skarn field of the (Ti + V) vs. (Ca + Al + Mn) diagram—and shows negative correlations in the (Ti + V) vs. Sn diagram. These data indicate that the porphyry Cu mineralization at Tonggou formed at relatively lower fO2 conditions than the Tonggou vein-type mineralization and other typical porphyry Cu deposits. Finally, porphyry and vein-type mineralization at Tonggou are both sourced from the porphyry system, as a result of ore-forming fluid transfer to a different location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry and Genesis of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits)
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12 pages, 3427 KiB  
Article
Study of the Mechanism of the Fe-BHA Chelates in Scheelite Flotation
by Chen Zhao, Chuanyao Sun, Yangge Zhu, Yimin Zhu and Wanzhong Yin
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040484 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Scheelite associated with calcium-containing minerals such as calcite and fluorite is difficult to separate by flotation because of the Ca ions contained in the mineral lattices, which cause scheelite to have similar surface properties and floatability to gangue minerals. Traditional collectors such as [...] Read more.
Scheelite associated with calcium-containing minerals such as calcite and fluorite is difficult to separate by flotation because of the Ca ions contained in the mineral lattices, which cause scheelite to have similar surface properties and floatability to gangue minerals. Traditional collectors such as oleic acid need to add a large amount of sodium silicate as gangue inhibitors, which causes difficulties for the settlement of tailings. In addition, the use of benzohydroxamic acid (BHA), which needs the addition of Pb(NO3)2 as the scheelite activator, can also cause environmental pollution. In this paper, Fe-BHA, a new collector containing the iron complex, was studied to investigate its flotation ability of scheelite, as well as its BHA/FeCl3 ratio on scheelite flotations. In the single mineral flotations, the Fe-BHA showed a significant difference in the flotation recoveries of scheelite and calcite, with a scheelite recovery of 77.03% at pH 8.0 and calcite recovery of 16.69% at the same pH. The results of the roughing tests of Xianglushan actual ore showed that the scheelite with Fe-BHA (500 g/t BHA and 200 g/t FeCl3) and 40 g/t oleic acid as collectors obtained satisfactory flotation results with a WO3 grade of 1.56% and WO3 recovery of 65.52%, which were much higher than those of scheelite with BHA or oleic acid as the collector, but there was still a gap with those of scheelite using Pb(NO3)2 as activation and BHA as the collector. The UV-Vis curves of the Fe-BHA with different BHA/FeCl3 ratios indicated that the Fe-BHA chelates might have several different structural forms, and the single mineral tests of the BHA/FeCl3 ratios showed that when the molar ratio of benzohydroxamic acid to FeCl3 was about 1.2:1, the best scheelite flotation result was obtained in this test. In addition, the XPS analyses proved that the adsorption of the Fe-BHA on the scheelite surface occurred, and by fitting the peaks of Ca 2p and O 1s of scheelite, it was found that the mechanism of the Fe-BHA acting on the Ca sites of the scheelite surface was through the removal of H2O from the Ca-OH of scheelite and Fe-OH from Fe-BHA to form Fe-O-H. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Froth Flotation)
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13 pages, 3302 KiB  
Article
Application of a Superplasticizer in Scheelite Selective Flotation from Calcite
by Yuhua Wang, Gaochan Pan, Haoran Chu, Dongfang Lu and Xiayu Zheng
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040483 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
The superplasticizer sulfonated acetone formaldehyde condensate (SAF) was first used as a depressant in the selective flotation of scheelite and calcite in this paper. First, single mineral flotation tests were performed to compare the depressing performance of SAF and the traditional depressant water [...] Read more.
The superplasticizer sulfonated acetone formaldehyde condensate (SAF) was first used as a depressant in the selective flotation of scheelite and calcite in this paper. First, single mineral flotation tests were performed to compare the depressing performance of SAF and the traditional depressant water glass. Results showed that both −0.074 + 0.037 mm and −0.037 mm particles could be well treated by SAF with more satisfactory results than that of water glass. Contact angle test results showed that SAF could amplify the wettability difference between scheelite and calcite surfaces. Then, the effect of SAF on the surface electrical properties of scheelite and calcite was studied by zeta-potential tests. SAF could negatively charge the calcite surface before adding the collector and hinder the subsequent adsorption of the collector while having little effect on the scheelite. Moreover, microscopic analysis of slurry suspensions showed that SAF could prevent calcite particles from forming hydrophobic agglomerates to achieve the dispersion of gangue minerals. Finally, the selective adsorption effect of the SAF on the calcite and scheelite surfaces was studied by surface analysis using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Results showed that Ca2+ on the calcite surface was the main adsorption site for the chemisorption of sulfonic acid groups in SAF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Separation and Purification Techniques)
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20 pages, 10384 KiB  
Article
The Energy Dissipation, AE Characteristics, and Microcrack Evolution of Rock–Backfill Composite Materials (RBCM)
by Jie Wang, Chi Zhang, Weidong Song and Yongfang Zhang
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040482 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
The backfill in the stope usually forms a composite structure with the surrounding rock in order to bear pressure together to support the goaf and ensure the safe mining of subsequent ores. Based on laboratory tests and theoretical analysis, the energy and damage [...] Read more.
The backfill in the stope usually forms a composite structure with the surrounding rock in order to bear pressure together to support the goaf and ensure the safe mining of subsequent ores. Based on laboratory tests and theoretical analysis, the energy and damage evolution of the rock–backfill composite materials (RBCM) are studied deeply. The results show that: (1) The σp (peak stress), εp (peak strain), and E (elasticity modulus) decreased with the increase of the internal backfill diameter. When the diameter of the backfill increases from 10 mm to 40 mm, σp decreases from 50.15 MPa to 18.14 MPa, εp decreases from 1.246% to 1.017%, and E decreases from 7.51 GPa to 2.33 GPa. The UT shows an S-shaped distribution, the UE shows an inverted U-shaped distribution, and the UD first increases slowly and then increases rapidly. The UTp, UEp, UDp, UEp/UDp, and UEp/UTp decrease by 67.38%, 97.20%, 58.56%, 32.64% and 13.64% respectively, and the UDp/UTP increases by 20.93% with the increases of the backfill diameter. (2) A damage constitutive model of the RBCM is established based on the energy consumption characteristics. The damage evolution curve shows an S-shaped distribution, and the damage rate evolution curve shows an inverted U-shaped distribution. (3) The AE correlation fractal dimension decreases with the increase of the strain gradient and damage value, and the AE correlation fractal dimension presents linear and exponential functions with them, respectively. With the increase of stress, microcracks first appear and gather in the internal backfill of the RBCM, and then microcracks appear and gather in the peripheral rock, which together lead to the macro penetration failure of the RBCM. Full article
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2 pages, 155 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on “Recovery of Precious Metals, Rare Earth Elements and Special Metals from Spent Secondary Products”
by Zenixole R. Tshentu and Durga Parajuli
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040481 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
The global demand for precious metals in chemical, petrochemical, electrical and electronic products, for medical and dentistry applications, as well as jewelry and automobile industries, when set against the dwindling natural deposits, demands the development of more efficient recovery methods as well as [...] Read more.
The global demand for precious metals in chemical, petrochemical, electrical and electronic products, for medical and dentistry applications, as well as jewelry and automobile industries, when set against the dwindling natural deposits, demands the development of more efficient recovery methods as well as a move towards urban mining [...] Full article
23 pages, 8968 KiB  
Article
Development of a Model for the Separation Characteristics of a Deflector Wheel Classifier Including Particle Collision and Rebound Behavior
by Martin Weers, Leonard Hansen, Daniel Schulz, Bernd Benker, Annett Wollmann, Carsten Kykal, Harald Kruggel-Emden and Alfred P. Weber
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040480 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Deflector wheel classifiers are widespread in industry for the separation of powders into fine and coarse powders. Even though this separation process has been known for quite some time, it is not yet fully understood, and existing models fail to precisely predict the [...] Read more.
Deflector wheel classifiers are widespread in industry for the separation of powders into fine and coarse powders. Even though this separation process has been known for quite some time, it is not yet fully understood, and existing models fail to precisely predict the separation characteristics. Due to the high throughput of deflector wheel classifiers, it is greatly beneficial to estimate the separation characteristics before the experiment. Here, the developed model critically examines the usual assumptions, such as ideal airflow, neglection of particle–wall and particle–particle interactions, or spherically-shaped particles. First, the investigation of the air flow using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system showed significant differences to the assumed ideal flow field, then particle sphericity and its influence on the interaction between the particles and the paddles of the deflector wheel was investigated and compared with particle rebound behavior on a static wall. Surprisingly, comminuted glass behaves similarly to comminuted limestone in multiple aspects and not like glass beads. To determine the number of particle–particle collisions, Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations were performed. The aforementioned aspects found application in the model and the separation behavior was well-estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Separation and Purification Techniques)
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17 pages, 3188 KiB  
Article
Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Cryo-Electron Microscopy Investigation of AOT Surfactant Structure at the Hydrated Mica Surface
by Daniel M. Long, Jeffery A. Greathouse, Guangping Xu and Katherine L. Jungjohann
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040479 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2589
Abstract
Structural properties of the anionic surfactant dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT or Aerosol-OT) adsorbed on the mica surface were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation, including the effect of surface loading in the presence of monovalent and divalent cations. The simulations confirmed recent neutron reflectivity [...] Read more.
Structural properties of the anionic surfactant dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT or Aerosol-OT) adsorbed on the mica surface were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation, including the effect of surface loading in the presence of monovalent and divalent cations. The simulations confirmed recent neutron reflectivity experiments that revealed the binding of anionic surfactant to the negatively charged surface via adsorbed cations. At low loading, cylindrical micelles formed on the surface, with sulfate head groups bound to the surface by water molecules or adsorbed cations. Cation bridging was observed in the presence of weakly hydrating monovalent cations, while sulfate groups interacted with strongly hydrating divalent cations through water bridges. The adsorbed micelle structure was confirmed experimentally with cryogenic electronic microscopy, which revealed micelles approximately 2 nm in diameter at the basal surface. At higher AOT loading, the simulations reveal adsorbed bilayers with similar surface binding mechanisms. Adsorbed micelles were slightly thicker (2.2–3.0 nm) than the corresponding bilayers (2.0–2.4 nm). Upon heating the low loading systems from 300 K to 350 K, the adsorbed micelles transformed to a more planar configuration resembling bilayers. The driving force for this transition is an increase in the number of sulfate head groups interacting directly with adsorbed cations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Clays and Engineered Mineral Materials)
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15 pages, 6785 KiB  
Article
Blast Furnace Slag, Post-Industrial Waste or Valuable Building Materials with Remediation Potential?
by Justyna Dzięcioł and Maja Radziemska
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040478 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
In recent years, the construction industry has struggled with a variety of issues such as material availability, supply channel management, and the increasing cost of construction materials. These issues have encouraged the search for replacements and substitutes for existing construction materials. Blast Furnace [...] Read more.
In recent years, the construction industry has struggled with a variety of issues such as material availability, supply channel management, and the increasing cost of construction materials. These issues have encouraged the search for replacements and substitutes for existing construction materials. Blast Furnace Slag is used in the construction industry as a mineral amendment or aggregate. Their use in Earth Construction, due to their post-industrial origin, may be associated with increased levels of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in the soil. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the immobilization potential of Blast Furnace Slag and to compare it with the addition of Blast Furnace Slag with Activated Carbon using different concentrations of these amendments. We were able to determine the concentrations of selected PTE (zinc, copper, nickel, cadmium and lead) in the soil, roots and aerial parts of Lolium perenne L., using different concentrations of Blast Furnace Slag (3%, 5% and 10%), and Blast Furnace Slag with Activated Carbon (3% and 5%) as soil amendments. Measurements were carried out with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). Both the addition of Blast Furnace Slag and Activated Carbon with Slag increased plant biomass. The addition of slag effectively reduced the zinc, copper, cadmium and lead content of the soil, while the addition of Activated Carbon slag significantly increased the content of selected PETs in the roots and aerial parts of plants. It was considered reasonable to use Blast Furnace Slag with the addition of Activated Carbon in supporting the processes of the assisted phytostabilization of PTE polluted soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Mineral-Based Amendments, Volume II)
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10 pages, 1874 KiB  
Article
Thermal Migration Behavior of Na+, Cu2+ and Li+ in Montmorillonite
by Zhenxiao Wu, Hao Zhao, Xuanping Zhou, Yang Wang, Kesheng Zuo and Hongfei Cheng
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040477 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
The main aim of this paper is to study the cation fixation sites in montmorillonite after heating at different temperatures. Montmorillonite was used to adsorb cations (Na+, Cu2+ and Li+) in the solution, and the montmorillonite-adsorbed cations were [...] Read more.
The main aim of this paper is to study the cation fixation sites in montmorillonite after heating at different temperatures. Montmorillonite was used to adsorb cations (Na+, Cu2+ and Li+) in the solution, and the montmorillonite-adsorbed cations were heated at different temperatures (unheated, 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C) for 25 h. Subsequently, the basal spacing of montmorillonite treated at different temperatures was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The exchangeable cationic content (Na+, Cu2+ and Li+) in montmorillonite was determined based on an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). In addition, the stretching and bending vibration changes in the OH group and the Si-O bond in montmorillonite were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The vibration changes were related to the cation fixation sites. The XRD data showed that when the heating temperature reached 200 °C, the structure of montmorillonite adsorbing Li+ and Cu2+ ions completely collapsed, but the layer spacing of montmorillonite adsorbing Na+ decreased slightly, which indicated that Li+ and Cu2+ were more easily able to enter the crystal structure. The ICP-OES results showed that the contents of exchangeable Na+, Cu2+ and Li+ in montmorillonite decreased with the increase in heating temperature, and Li+ was more easily fixed by montmorillonite than Na+ and Cu2+. The FTIR data showed that when montmorillonite adsorbed with Li+ was heated at more than 200 °C, a new OH stretching vibration band appeared at 3971 cm−1, which may be caused by the migration of Li+ into the octahedral vacancy to form a local trioctahedral structure. Na+ has a large radius; it can only be fixed near the OH group and may not enter the tetrahedron/octahedron of montmorillonite. The number of charges carried by Cu2+ is high and the dehydration enthalpy of hydrated Cu2+ is high. When the heating temperature was greater than 200 °C, Cu2+ mainly entered the hexagonal cavity of the tetrahedron and caused slight changes in the OH bending vibration. The vibration of the Si-O bond hardly changed after montmorillonite adsorbed Na+, but the stretching vibration peak of the Si-O bond moved to the high value region after adsorbing Cu2+ and Li+, which was speculated to be related to the migration of Cu2+ and Li+ into the crystal structure. Full article
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20 pages, 5087 KiB  
Article
Halloysite-Zinc Oxide Nanocomposites as Potential Photocatalysts
by Balázs Zsirka, Veronika Vágvölgyi, Erzsébet Horváth, Tatjána Juzsakova, Orsolya Fónagy, Erzsébet Szabó-Bárdos and János Kristóf
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040476 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
The synthesis and structural characterization of synthetic zinc oxide and halloysite-based zinc oxide nanocomposites (with 2–28 m/m% ZnO content) are presented. The chemical precipitation of zinc hydroxide precursors and its subsequent drying at 80 °C yielded dominantly zinc oxide (zincite). Thermal treatment at [...] Read more.
The synthesis and structural characterization of synthetic zinc oxide and halloysite-based zinc oxide nanocomposites (with 2–28 m/m% ZnO content) are presented. The chemical precipitation of zinc hydroxide precursors and its subsequent drying at 80 °C yielded dominantly zinc oxide (zincite). Thermal treatment at 350 °C completely transformed the remaining precursor to ZnO without causing structural dehydroxylation of the halloysite support. The procedure yielded zinc oxide nanoparticles with 10–22 nm average size having quasi-spherical scale-like morphology. The specific surface area of the synthetic zinc oxide was found to be low (13 m2/g), which was significantly enhanced after nanocomposite preparation (27–47 m2/g). The photocatalytic activity of the prepared nanocomposites was probed by the degradation of a phenolic compound (4-nitrophenol) upon UV irradiation in liquid phase. Compared to their individual constituents, an increased activity of the nanocomposites was observed, while the SSA-normalized photocatalytic activity revealed a synergic effect in nanocomposites above 9 m/m% ZnO content. The nanocomposites were found to be stable at pH = 5.6, with a minor and major mobilization of zinc ions at pH = 12.4 and pH = 1.9, respectively. The toxicity of leachates in different pH environments by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence indicated low toxicity for ZnO nanoparticles and insignificant toxicity for the nanocomposites. The enhanced photocatalytic activity together with the lower toxicity of the halloysite-ZnO nanocomposites highlight their application potential in water treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotubular and Nanofibrous Clay Minerals)
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12 pages, 1873 KiB  
Article
Chemical Characterization of the Roman Glass Finds from Muricelle Archaeological Site (Luzzi, Cosenza)
by Anna Maria De Francesco, Antonio La Marca, Carmelo Colelli and Donatella Barca
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040475 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
This study reports the results obtained on seventeen glass finds collected from the archaeological site of Muricelle near Cosenza in Calabria (Italy), dated between the first and third century AD. Chemical characterization was undertaken by using an electron probe micro analyser (EPMA). The [...] Read more.
This study reports the results obtained on seventeen glass finds collected from the archaeological site of Muricelle near Cosenza in Calabria (Italy), dated between the first and third century AD. Chemical characterization was undertaken by using an electron probe micro analyser (EPMA). The glasses showed a soda–lime–silica composition indicating the use of the natron as a flux. The comparison between the collected data and those on coeval finds available from the literature allowed us to subdivide the Muricelle glass into three compositional groups: (1) Mn_a, classified as Roman-Mn glasses; (2) Mn_b, which can be compared to the Mn-unintentionally coloured Roman glasses; and (3) Sb + Mn, obtained by the recycling of the Sb and Mn Roman-type glasses. These groups were different not only with respect to the contents and the types of decolourants but also for soda, lime, and aluminium contents, highlighting the use of different raw materials in the primary glass production and also indicating the procedures used in secondary glass production. The compositional characteristics suggested the Levant region as the primary glass source for the Mn_a and Mn_b groups. On the other hand, the Sb + Mn group was obtained through recycling, involving the melting and mixing of two types of primary glass (Sb-decolourised and Mn-decolourised) of Egyptian and Levantine origins, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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28 pages, 8001 KiB  
Review
Sources of Hydrothermal Fluids Inferred from Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Composition of Calcite, Keweenaw Peninsula Native Copper District, Michigan, USA
by Thomas J. Bodden, Theodore J. Bornhorst, Florence Bégué and Chad Deering
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040474 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2987
Abstract
The Mesoproterozoic North American Midcontinent Rift hosts the world’s largest accumulation of native copper in Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula. During a regional metamorphogenic-hydrothermal event, native copper was deposited along with spatially zoned main-stage minerals in a thermal high. This was followed by deposition of [...] Read more.
The Mesoproterozoic North American Midcontinent Rift hosts the world’s largest accumulation of native copper in Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula. During a regional metamorphogenic-hydrothermal event, native copper was deposited along with spatially zoned main-stage minerals in a thermal high. This was followed by deposition of late-stage minerals including minor copper sulfide. Inferences from the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of main-stage hydrothermal fluids, as calculated from 296 new and compiled isotopic measurements on calcite, are consistent with existing models that low-sulfur saline native copper ore-forming fluids were dominantly derived by burial metamorphic processes from the very low sulfur basalt-dominated rift fill at depth below the native copper deposits. Co-variation of oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions are consistent with mixing of metamorphic-derived fluids with two additional isotopically different fluids. One of these is proposed to be evolved seawater that provided an outside source of salinity. This fluid mixed at depth and participated in the formation of a well-mixed hybrid metamorphic-dominated ore-forming fluid. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry in-situ isotopic analyses of calcite demonstrate a high degree of variability within samples that is attributed to variable degrees of shallow mixing of the hybrid ore-forming fluid with sulfur-poor, reduced evolved meteoric water in the zone of precipitation. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of 100 new and compiled measurements on late-stage calcite are mostly isotopically different than the main-stage hydrothermal fluids. The late-stage hydrothermal fluids are interpreted as various proportions of mixing of evolved meteoric water, main-stage hybrid ore-forming fluid, and shallow, evolved seawater in the relatively shallow zone of precipitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Mineral Deposits: A Review)
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4 pages, 203 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Colours in Minerals and Rocks”
by Lluís Casas and Roberta Di Febo
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040473 - 13 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Colour is one of the most eye-catching properties of some minerals and rocks [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colours in Minerals and Rocks)
11 pages, 1513 KiB  
Article
Study on Grinding Additives in Cassiterite–Polymetallic Sulfide Ore Grinding
by Jinlin Yang, Shaojian Ma, Wentao Zhou and Pengyan Zhu
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040472 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
To attempt a new approach to improve the grinding of cassiterite–polymetallic sulfide ores while simultaneously reducing cassiterite overgrinding and sulfide undergrinding, this article looked into the effects of grinding chemical additives on the distribution of grinding product size. Six chemicals, namely sodium hexametaphosphate, [...] Read more.
To attempt a new approach to improve the grinding of cassiterite–polymetallic sulfide ores while simultaneously reducing cassiterite overgrinding and sulfide undergrinding, this article looked into the effects of grinding chemical additives on the distribution of grinding product size. Six chemicals, namely sodium hexametaphosphate, triethanolamine, ferric sulphate, aluminum chloride, polyaluminum chloride and polyacrylamide, were compared in terms of their influence on the grinding product size distribution. The results showed that the six chemicals changed the distribution results with varying orientations and degrees and that the addition of polyacrylamide achieved the most satisfactory effect by decreasing the production of both coarse and fine size fractions and increasing the production of qualified particles. The effect of the molecular weight of polyacrylamide on the grinding was also discussed. The polyacrylamides with molecular weights of about 3 × 106, 5 × 106, 8 × 106 and 12 × 106 could help to produce less of the coarse size fraction and more of the qualified size fraction, but only the polyacrylamides with molecular weights of 3 × 106 and 5 × 106 produced pronounced changes. Moreover, the polyacrylamides could slightly reduce the production of the fine size fraction. Polyacrylamide with a 5 × 106 molecular weight was better than that with a 3 × 106 molecular weight in aiding the grinding of the discussed ore. It was also found that the aid action of the polyacrylamide with a 5 × 106 molecular weight was related to grinding concentration and that a low grinding concentration of less than 70% solid mass was helpful in exerting its aid action. Using polyacrylamide could shorten the grinding time that is needed to achieve the same, or even improved, product size distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
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37 pages, 22170 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Bentonites from the In Situ ABM5 Heater Experiment at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden
by Ana María Fernández, José F. Marco, Paula Nieto, Fco. Javier León, Luz María Robredo, María Ángeles Clavero, Ana Isabel Cardona, Sergio Fernández, Daniel Svensson and Patrik Sellin
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040471 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
The Alternative Buffer Material ABM5 experiment is an in situ medium-scale experiment performed at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) conducted by SKB in Sweden with the aim of analysing the long-term stability of bentonites used as an engineering barrier for a high-level radioactive [...] Read more.
The Alternative Buffer Material ABM5 experiment is an in situ medium-scale experiment performed at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) conducted by SKB in Sweden with the aim of analysing the long-term stability of bentonites used as an engineering barrier for a high-level radioactive waste repository (HLWR). In this work, four different ring-shaped Ca- and Na-bentonite blocks, which were piled around a carbon steel cylindrical heater, subjected to a maximum temperature of 250 °C and hydrated with saline Na-Ca-Cl Äspö groundwater (0.91 ionic strength), were characterized after dismantling. This work allowed us to identify the main geochemical processes involved, as well as the modifications in the physico-chemical properties and pore water composition after 4.4 years of treatment. No significant modifications in mineralogy were observed in samples close to the heater contact, except an increase in Fe content due to C-steel corrosion, carbonate dissolution/precipitation (mainly calcite and siderite) and Mg increase. No magnetite and a low amount of Fe(II) inside the clay mineral structure were detected. No modifications were observed in the smectite structure, except a slight increase in total and tetrahedral charge. A decrease in external surface area and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was found in all samples, with lower values being detected at the heater contact. As a consequence of the diffusion of the infiltrating groundwater, a modification of the composition at clay mineral exchange sites occurred. Ca-bentonites increased their Na content at exchange sites, whereas Na-bentonite increased their Ca content. Exchangeable Mg content decreased in all bentonites, except in MX-80 located at the bottom part of the package. A salinity gradient is observed through the bentonite blocks from the granite to the heater contact due to anions are controlled by diffusion and anion exclusion. The pore water chemistry of bentonites evolved as a function of the diffusion transport of the groundwater, the chemical equilibrium of cations at exchange sites and mineral dissolution/precipitation processes. These reactions are in turn dependent on temperature and water vapor fluxes. Full article
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19 pages, 6935 KiB  
Article
Paste Backfilling Longwall Mining Technology for Thick Coal Seam Extraction under Buildings and above Confined Aquifers: A Case Study
by Peng Wen, Wenbing Guo, Yi Tan, Erhu Bai, Zhibao Ma, Dongtao Wu and Weiqiang Yang
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040470 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
Backfill mining is an effective measure to control surface subsidence and restrain floor water inrush. It is an essential part of green mining technology. To solve the problem of confined water in mines under buildings, this study was carried out by combining theoretical [...] Read more.
Backfill mining is an effective measure to control surface subsidence and restrain floor water inrush. It is an essential part of green mining technology. To solve the problem of confined water in mines under buildings, this study was carried out by combining theoretical analysis, laboratory simulation, and numerical simulation, taking the Liangbei coal mine as the research area. The coal seam floor failure characteristics of traditional longwall caving and paste filling mining methods were compared and analyzed. Based on the relevant mining theory, the key parameters, such as mining thickness and filling rate under the critical state of water inrush, were obtained. Then, the feasibility of backfill mining was expounded, and the surface subsidence of paste backfill mining was predicted and measured on site. The results demonstrated that the longwall caving mining method not only had the risk of water inrush, but also the possibility of step cracks at the surface, with the potential to result in serious damage to buildings. However, the backfill mining method reduced the floor damage depth of the coal seam from 12 m to 7 m, which reduced the water inrush coefficient by 12%, the maximum vertical concentrated stress by 42.1%, and the displacement subsidence value by 78.8%. These parameters correlated negatively with backfill strength. Meanwhile, the maximum subsidence, maximum inclined deformation, and horizontal displacement deformation were estimated as 730 mm, 2.5 mm/m, and 1.1 mm/m, respectively, consistent with the measured values (608 mm, 2.1 mm/m, and 0.9 mm/m, respectively). More relevantly, there were no obvious cracks found in the surface buildings, ensuring the safety of mining above confined water on the working face, and realizing the effective protection of surface buildings. Full article
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15 pages, 5237 KiB  
Article
Chemical Diversity of Teeth and Bone Fragments from a Newly Discovered Upper Muschelkalk Bone Bed from Silesia, Poland
by Tomasz Krzykawski, Krzysztof Szopa, Robert Niedźwiedzki, Krzysztof Setkiewicz and Maria Czaja
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040469 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2408
Abstract
The new exposure of the Upper Muschelkalk clays and dolomites located south of Kalety (Tarnogórski District, Silesia, Poland) provided numerous remains of vertebrates represented by teeth, scales, long bones, and coprolites. Despite the influence of hydrothermal processes leading to dolomitization and Zn-Pb deposit [...] Read more.
The new exposure of the Upper Muschelkalk clays and dolomites located south of Kalety (Tarnogórski District, Silesia, Poland) provided numerous remains of vertebrates represented by teeth, scales, long bones, and coprolites. Despite the influence of hydrothermal processes leading to dolomitization and Zn-Pb deposit formation, the preservation of fossil remains is good. The taxonomic diversity and accumulation of vertebrate debris in the dolomite are similar to other “bone beds” from the Muschelkalk and the Lower Keuper units. The SEM-EDS, EMP-WDS, and XRD analyses confirm that the examined remains consist of hydroxylapatite containing carbonate ions. Most vertebrate teeth as well as some bone fragments show zoning in the BSE imaging. In tooth cross-sections, three or two zones are preserved: (I) the outermost zone, associated with diagenetic mineralization of enameloid apatite, (II) a intermediate zone (orthodentine), and (III) the most porous internal zone (osteodentine). Decreasing P, Ca, Sr in the composition of the apatite which forms successive zones, is visible from the most external to the central part. Selective diagenetic substitution and adsorption of some elements by apatite crystals can allow recognition of the genetic origin of highly damaged or transported fragments scattered in the sedimentary layers. The chemical behavior of bioapatite, from deposition to digenesis, shows its useful role for identification of the formation process and potential, younger changes (e.g., hydrothermal overprint). The X-ray diffraction data, particularly cell parameters “a” and “c”, can determine the degree of crystallinity and/or diagenesis. Moreover, correlation between some elements/ions (e.g., Sr, Ba, Ca, Mg, F, OH) can be helpful for the identification of the fossil type, especially if the bones are small and incomplete. Full article
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20 pages, 8489 KiB  
Article
Geochemistry of Early Diagenesis in Sediments of Russian Arctic Glacial Lakes (Norilo–Pyasinskaya Water System)
by Anton E. Maltsev, Sergey K. Krivonogov, Yuliya S. Vosel, Valery A. Bychinsky, Leonid V. Miroshnichenko, Alexei S. Shavekin, Galina A. Leonova and Paul A. Solotchin
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040468 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
The Russian Arctic region is lacking in studies on geochemical changes reflecting early sediment diagenesis in lake environments. The paper presents new data on the compositions of bottom sediments and sediment pore water from two lakes of the Norilo–Pyasinskaya water system in Arctic [...] Read more.
The Russian Arctic region is lacking in studies on geochemical changes reflecting early sediment diagenesis in lake environments. The paper presents new data on the compositions of bottom sediments and sediment pore water from two lakes of the Norilo–Pyasinskaya water system in Arctic Siberia. Lakes Pyasino and Melkoye occupy basins left by glaciers that originated from the Putorana Plateau during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Clayey sediments were continuously deposited in the lakes, and the depositional environment has changed only slightly for the last ca. 20 ka. Two sediment cores with lengths of 4.0 and 3.2 m were collected in Lakes Pyasino and Melkoye, respectively, with a Livingstone-type piston corer providing undisturbed, stratigraphically consistent sedimentary sequences. Their analyses revealed a change from oxidized to reduced conditions at a depth of ~10 cm. The concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, as well as the HCO3/Ca2+ ratio in pore water, showed a depthward increase indicating the progressive degradation of organic matter. Another trend was the gradual decrease in SO42− alongside increasing HCO3/SO42− caused by bacterial sulfate reduction, although this was rather weak, judging by the low concentrations of S (II) bound to Fe-sulfides, H2S, etc. Additionally, the microbial digestion of organic matter caused a release of its mobile components, which led to the enrichment of the water in NO3, PO43, and DOC. Most of the analyzed elements (Al, B, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Sr, V, and Zn) reach higher concentrations in the pore water than in the lake water above the water-sediment boundary, which is evidence of diagenetic processes. As a result of redox change, immobile Fe (III) and Mn (IV) natural oxides were reduced to mobile Fe (II) and Mn (II) species and migrated from the solid phase to the pore water, and eventually precipitated as authigenic Fe sulfides and Mn carbonates. The results are useful for better understanding the early diagenesis processes in different geographical settings over the huge Eurasian continent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Marine and Lake Sediments)
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37 pages, 14962 KiB  
Article
Distribution, Sedimentology and Origin of Mineralogical Assemblages from a Continental Na-bentonite Deposit in the Cretaceous Neuquén Basin (Argentina)
by Telma Belén Musso, Gisela Pettinari, Manuel Pozo, Alexis Gabriel Martínez and Rafael González
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040467 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Collected samples of bentonite and associated facies from the Justina deposit of Cretaceous age (Anacleto Formation) have been studied. Facies analysis, mineralogical, and geochemical studies have been carried out using several techniques, including: XRD, FTIR, DTA-TGA, microscopy (OM, SEM-EDX), and chemical analysis. The [...] Read more.
Collected samples of bentonite and associated facies from the Justina deposit of Cretaceous age (Anacleto Formation) have been studied. Facies analysis, mineralogical, and geochemical studies have been carried out using several techniques, including: XRD, FTIR, DTA-TGA, microscopy (OM, SEM-EDX), and chemical analysis. The deposit occurs in a shallow, saline lacustrine environment developed over a fluvial floodplain, with a thickness between 0.21 and 0.8 m intercalated between fine-grained siliciclastic facies. Three mineral assemblages were found. In assemblage 1, the bentonite has low content of detrital minerals and the smectite is sodic. In assemblage 2, the bentonite shows the occurrence of minor analcime and mica, slightly higher detrital mineral content and the smectite is sodic to sodic-calcic. The associated detrital facies (assemblage 3) is dominated by illite and a mixed layer of illite and calcic smectite (R0), subordinately kaolinite + chlorite, and locally low-ordered smectite. As inherited minerals are found: quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, illite-mica, heavy minerals (monazite, zircon, apatite, titanomagnetite) and volcanic rock fragments (andesite, glass). Authigenic minerals are: sodium smectite, analcime, barite, celestine, gypsum, and hematite. A model for the formation of authigenic minerals is proposed, highlighting the formation of sodic smectite from the alteration of volcanic glass of trachyandesitic composition. Full article
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20 pages, 5530 KiB  
Article
Role of Volatiles in the Evolution of a Carbonatitic Melt in Peridotitic Mantle: Experimental Constraints at 6.3 GPa and 1200–1450 °C
by Aleksei Kruk and Alexander Sokol
Minerals 2022, 12(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12040466 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Reconstruction of the mechanisms of carbonatitic melt evolution is extremely important for understanding metasomatic processes at the base of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM). We have studied the interaction between garnet lherzolite and a carbonatitic melt rich in molecular CO2 and H [...] Read more.
Reconstruction of the mechanisms of carbonatitic melt evolution is extremely important for understanding metasomatic processes at the base of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM). We have studied the interaction between garnet lherzolite and a carbonatitic melt rich in molecular CO2 and H2O in experiments at 6.3 GPa and 1200–1450 °C. The interaction with garnet lherzolite and H2O-bearing carbonatite melt leads to wehrlitization of lherzolite, without its carbonation. Introduction of molecular CO2 and H2O initiates carbonation of olivine and clinopyroxene with the formation of orthopyroxene and magnesite. Partial carbonation leads to the formation of carbonate–silicate melts that are multiphase saturated with garnet harzburgite. Upon complete carbonation of olivine already at 1200 °C, melts with 27–31 wt% SiO2 and MgO/CaO ≈ 1 are formed. At 1350–1450 °C, the interaction leads to an increase in the melt fraction and the MgO/CaO ratio to 2–4 and a decrease in the SiO2 concentration. Thus, at conditions of a thermally undisturbed CLM base, molecular CO2 and H2O dissolved in metasomatic agents, due to local carbonation of peridotite, can provide the evolution of agent composition from carbonatitic to hydrous silicic, i.e., similar to the trends reconstructed for diamond-forming high density fluids (HDFs) and genetically related proto-kimberlite melts. Full article
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