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Micromachines, Volume 13, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 189 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Microgrippers are promising tools for the micro-manipulation and characterization of cells. In this paper, a biocompatible electro-thermally actuated microgripper with rotary capacitive position sensor is presented. To overcome the limited displacement possibilities usually provided by electrothermal actuators, conjugate surface flexure hinges (CSFH) are adopted. A kinematics modeling approach based on the pseudo-rigid-body method (PRBM) is applied to describe the microgripper’s working mechanism, and analytical modeling, based on the finite elements method (FEM), is used to optimize the electrothermal actuator design and the heat dissipation mechanism. Finally, FEM-based simulations are carried out to verify the microgripper, the electrothermal actuator and heat dissipation mechanism performance, and to assess the validity of the analytical modeling. View this paper
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32 pages, 32677 KiB  
Review
Fabrication of Concave Microwells and Their Applications in Micro-Tissue Engineering: A Review
by Weijin Guo, Zejingqiu Chen, Zitao Feng, Haonan Li, Muyang Zhang, Huiru Zhang and Xin Cui
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091555 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3015
Abstract
At present, there is an increasing need to mimic the in vivo micro-environment in the culture of cells and tissues in micro-tissue engineering. Concave microwells are becoming increasingly popular since they can provide a micro-environment that is closer to the in vivo environment [...] Read more.
At present, there is an increasing need to mimic the in vivo micro-environment in the culture of cells and tissues in micro-tissue engineering. Concave microwells are becoming increasingly popular since they can provide a micro-environment that is closer to the in vivo environment compared to traditional microwells, which can facilitate the culture of cells and tissues. Here, we will summarize the fabrication methods of concave microwells, as well as their applications in micro-tissue engineering. The fabrication methods of concave microwells include traditional methods, such as lithography and etching, thermal reflow of photoresist, laser ablation, precision-computerized numerical control (CNC) milling, and emerging technologies, such as surface tension methods, the deformation of soft membranes, 3D printing, the molding of microbeads, air bubbles, and frozen droplets. The fabrication of concave microwells is transferring from professional microfabrication labs to common biochemical labs to facilitate their applications and provide convenience for users. Concave microwells have mostly been used in organ-on-a-chip models, including the formation and culture of 3D cell aggregates (spheroids, organoids, and embryoids). Researchers have also used microwells to study the influence of substrate topology on cellular behaviors. We will briefly review their applications in different aspects of micro-tissue engineering and discuss the further applications of concave microwells. We believe that building multiorgan-on-a-chip by 3D cell aggregates of different cell lines will be a popular application of concave microwells, while integrating physiologically relevant molecular analyses with the 3D culture platform will be another popular application in the near future. Furthermore, 3D cell aggregates from these biosystems will find more applications in drug screening and xenogeneic implantation. Full article
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8 pages, 1714 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Field Plate Design of a 1200 V p-GaN Power High-Electron-Mobility Transistor
by Chia-Hao Liu, Chong-Rong Huang, Hsiang-Chun Wang, Yi-Jie Kang, Hsien-Chin Chiu, Hsuan-Ling Kao, Kuo-Hsiung Chu, Hao-Chung Kuo, Chih-Tien Chen and Kuo-Jen Chang
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091554 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
This study optimized the field plate (FP) design (i.e., the number and positions of FP layers) of p-GaN power high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) on the basic of simulations conducted using the technology computer-aided design software of Silvaco. Devices with zero, two, and three FP [...] Read more.
This study optimized the field plate (FP) design (i.e., the number and positions of FP layers) of p-GaN power high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) on the basic of simulations conducted using the technology computer-aided design software of Silvaco. Devices with zero, two, and three FP layers were designed. The FP layers of the HEMTs dispersed the electric field between the gate and drain regions. The device with two FP layers exhibited a high off-state breakdown voltage of 1549 V because of the long distance between its first FP layer and the channel. The devices were subjected to high-temperature reverse bias and high-temperature gate bias measurements to examine their characteristics, which satisfied the reliability specifications of JEDEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Electronics Devices Integrated with 2D Quantum Materials)
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21 pages, 6576 KiB  
Article
Interaction of Shock Waves with Water Saturated by Nonreacting or Reacting Gas Bubbles
by Sergey M. Frolov, Konstantin A. Avdeev, Viktor S. Aksenov, Illias A. Sadykov, Igor O. Shamshin and Fedor S. Frolov
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091553 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
A compressible medium represented by pure water saturated by small nonreactive or reactive gas bubbles can be used for generating a propulsive force in large-, medium-, and small-scale thrusters referred to as a pulsed detonation hydroramjet (PDH), which is a novel device for [...] Read more.
A compressible medium represented by pure water saturated by small nonreactive or reactive gas bubbles can be used for generating a propulsive force in large-, medium-, and small-scale thrusters referred to as a pulsed detonation hydroramjet (PDH), which is a novel device for underwater propulsion. The PDH thrust is produced due to the acceleration of bubbly water (BW) in a water guide by periodic shock waves (SWs) and product gas jets generated by pulsed detonations of a fuel–oxidizer mixture. Theoretically, the PDH thrust is proportional to the operation frequency, which depends on both the SW velocity in BW and pulsed detonation frequency. The studies reported in this manuscript were aimed at exploring two possible directions of the improvement of thruster performances, namely, (1) the replacement of chemically nonreacting gas bubbles by chemically reactive ones, and (2) the increase in the pulsed detonation frequency from tens of hertz to some kilohertz. To better understand the SW-to-BW momentum transfer, the interaction of a single SW and a high-frequency (≈7 kHz) sequence of three SWs with chemically inert or active BW containing bubbles of air or stoichiometric acetylene–oxygen mixture was studied experimentally. Single SWs and SW packages were generated by burning or detonating a gaseous stoichiometric acetylene–oxygen or propane–oxygen mixture and transmitting the arising SWs to BW. The initial volume fraction of gas in BW was varied from 2% to 16% with gas bubbles 1.5–4 mm in diameter. The propagation velocity of SWs in BW ranged from 40 to 580 m/s. In experiments with single SWs in chemically active BW, a detonation-like mode of reaction front propagation (“bubbly quasidetonation”) was realized. This mode consisted of a SW followed by the front of bubble explosions and was characterized by a considerably higher propagation velocity as compared to the chemically inert BW. The latter could allow increasing the PDH operation frequency and thrust. Experiments with high-frequency SW packages showed that on the one hand, the individual SWs quickly merged, feeding each other and increasing the BW velocity, but on the other hand, the initial gas content for each successive SW decreased and, accordingly, the SW-to-BW momentum transfer worsened. Estimates showed that for a small-scale water guide 0.5 m long, the optimal pulsed detonation frequency was about 50–60 Hz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Droplet-Based Microfluidics: Design, Fabrication and Applications)
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14 pages, 6753 KiB  
Article
Developing a Real-Time Working Method That Improves Process Efficiency in High-Power Fiber Laser Systems
by Uğur Yalçın and Uğur Karanfil
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091552 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
The need for studies on new simulation and monitoring methods for interactions occurring during material processing in high-power fiber laser systems has increased. In this manuscript, a structure that can intervene in real time and improved solutions that demonstrate the potential of photodiode-based [...] Read more.
The need for studies on new simulation and monitoring methods for interactions occurring during material processing in high-power fiber laser systems has increased. In this manuscript, a structure that can intervene in real time and improved solutions that demonstrate the potential of photodiode-based monitoring are presented. By processing the signals instantly received during material processing with InGaAs and Si photodiodes integrated into the cutting head in algorithms, the method that intervenes in the process by detecting the last stage of the piercing process and the problems that may occur during cutting are explained. The stability of the proposed system has been tested on the most used materials in the industry such as St37, stainless steel, and aluminum at laser powers of 6, 8, and 10 kW, respectively. In this article, it is shown that there is a relationship between the signals observed in the infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) spectrum and the characteristics of the cut quality and scenario. Analysis results of photo-diode tracking signals obtained according to material, power, and gas type are presented. Among the innovations added by the method are related application process improvements, material analysis, and cutting and piercing parameter improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Power Lasers for Materials Processing)
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12 pages, 3230 KiB  
Article
Vertical Gate-All-Around Device Architecture to Improve the Device Performance for Sub-5-nm Technology
by Changwoo Noh, Changwoo Han, Sang Min Won and Changhwan Shin
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091551 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3864
Abstract
In this work, we propose a vertical gate-all-around device architecture (GAA-FinFET) with the aim of simultaneously improving device performance as well as addressing the short channel effect (SCE). The GAA-FinFET was built using the technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation tool, and then, its [...] Read more.
In this work, we propose a vertical gate-all-around device architecture (GAA-FinFET) with the aim of simultaneously improving device performance as well as addressing the short channel effect (SCE). The GAA-FinFET was built using the technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation tool, and then, its electrical characteristics were quantitatively evaluated. The electrical characteristics of the GAA-FinFET were compared to those of conventional FinFET and nano-sheet FET (NSFET) at 7 nm or 5 nm nodes. When comparing the GAA-FinFET against the FinFET, it achieved not only better SCE characteristics, but also higher on-state drive current due to its gate-all-around device structure. This helps to improve the ratio of effective drive current to off-state leakage current (i.e., Ieff/Ioff) by ~30%, resulting in an improvement in DC device performance by ~10%. When comparing the GAA-FinFET against the NSFET, it exhibited SCE characteristics that were comparable or superior thanks to its improved sub-channel leakage suppression. It turned out that the proposed GAA-FinFET (compared to conventional FinFET at the 7 nm or 5 nm nodes, or even beyond) is an attractive option for improving device performance in terms of SCE and series resistance. Furthermore, it is expected that the device structure of GAA-FinFET is very similar to that of conventional FinFET, resulting in further improvement to its electrical characteristics as a result of its gate-all-around device structure without significant modification with respect to the processing steps for conventional FinFET. Full article
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15 pages, 6671 KiB  
Article
AlScN Piezoelectric MEMS Mirrors with Large Field of View for LiDAR Application
by Yichen Liu, Lihao Wang, Yongquan Su, Yuyao Zhang, Yang Wang and Zhenyu Wu
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091550 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4313
Abstract
This paper presents AlScN piezoelectric two-axis MEMS mirrors with gimbal-less and gimbaled designs fabricated in a CMOS-compatible manner. Integrated piezoelectric sensors provided feedback signals of the actual mirror positions. The mirror with a diameter of 1.5 mm possessed adjustable optical tilt angles of [...] Read more.
This paper presents AlScN piezoelectric two-axis MEMS mirrors with gimbal-less and gimbaled designs fabricated in a CMOS-compatible manner. Integrated piezoelectric sensors provided feedback signals of the actual mirror positions. The mirror with a diameter of 1.5 mm possessed adjustable optical tilt angles of up to 22.6° @ 30 V, with a high resonance frequency of about 8.2 kHz, while the 3 mm mirror reached 48.5° @ 41 V. The mirror with the gimbaled structure exhibited an excellent field of view and good mechanical decoupling. Additionally, a significant improvement in mirror scanning performance was observed in a vacuum (4 Pa), proving that the optical field of view was magnified by more than a factor of 10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical MEMS, Volume III)
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12 pages, 2297 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Physiological State of Pen Shell Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758) by a Non-Invasive Heart Rate Recording under Short-Term Hyposalinity Test
by Rajko Martinović, Danijela Joksimović, José Rafael García-March, Nardo Vicente and Zoran Gačić
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1549; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091549 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
A non-invasive laser fiber-optic method based on infrared sensors for heart rate (Hr) recording was applied to assess the physiological condition of Pinna nobilis. During 2017, the specimens of P. nobilis were sampled at three sites within the Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro [...] Read more.
A non-invasive laser fiber-optic method based on infrared sensors for heart rate (Hr) recording was applied to assess the physiological condition of Pinna nobilis. During 2017, the specimens of P. nobilis were sampled at three sites within the Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro and used for ex situ experiments with short-term reduction/restoration of ambient salinity to evaluate their physiological adaptive capacity based on heart rate recovery time (Trec). Mean Trec for specimens from Sv. Nedjelja (reference site), Dobrota and Sv. Stasije were 72 ± 3, 91 ± 7 and 117 ± 15 min, while the coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.12, 0.13 and 0.17, respectively. Resting heart rate (Hrrest) and Trec showed statistically significant differences between the groups of mussels from Dobrota and Sv. Stasije in comparison to the reference site. Statistically significant correlations were observed between Trec and shell length/width, which was not the case in comparison between Hrrest and shell length/width. The lower adaptive capacity within the P. nobilis specimens from Dobrota and Sv. Stasije in comparison to the reference site could occur due to stress induced by deterioration of environmental conditions, which could have led to impairment of the physiological state of the mussels evaluated by Hr. All the specimens of P. nobilis survived the experimental treatments; afterwards, they were successfully transplanted at the Dobrota site. The experimental unit with sensor technology applied in this study can provide Hr recording in real time and could have an application in monitoring the physiological/health state of P. nobilis individuals maintained in aquaria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Biomedical and Environmental Applications)
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19 pages, 6068 KiB  
Article
Design and Performance Analysis of LARMbot Torso V1
by Wenshuo Gao and Marco Ceccarelli
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091548 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
In this paper, laboratory experiments of LARMbot torso V1 are reported in the third mode, thereby providing a testing characterization. Sensors were used to measure parameters including the contact force between the shoulder and cables, linear acceleration, angles of the torso body, and [...] Read more.
In this paper, laboratory experiments of LARMbot torso V1 are reported in the third mode, thereby providing a testing characterization. Sensors were used to measure parameters including the contact force between the shoulder and cables, linear acceleration, angles of the torso body, and power consumption. The results showed that the LARMbot torso V1 can bend successfully to the desired angles, and that it is able to complete a full motion smoothly. The LARMbot torso V1 can mimic human-like motiaons. Based on our analysis of the test results, improvements are suggested, and new designs are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Biomimetic Robots)
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18 pages, 3820 KiB  
Article
Single/Dual/Triple Broadband Metasurface Based Polarisation Converter with High Angular Stability for Terahertz Applications
by Shyam Sundar Pati and Swaroop Sahoo
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091547 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
This paper presents design and characterisation of a new compact metasurface based linear polarisation converter for terahertz applications. The metasurface unit cell with periodicity of 0.292λ0 consists of an asymmetrically oriented planar double semicircular goblet-shaped resonators. It is printed on a [...] Read more.
This paper presents design and characterisation of a new compact metasurface based linear polarisation converter for terahertz applications. The metasurface unit cell with periodicity of 0.292λ0 consists of an asymmetrically oriented planar double semicircular goblet-shaped resonators. It is printed on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) dielectric substrate backed by a gold layer that acts as a ground plane. This metasurface structure exhibits a broadband cross-polarisation conversion in the frequency range of 0.72–0.99 THz with a polarisation conversion ratio (PCR) > 95% and angular stability > 40 for both TE and TM modes. However, the PCR for the single band is >99% at resonant frequencies of 0.755 and 0.94 THz, while the optimised design shows 100% PCR over a BW of 95 GHz. Furthermore, slight modification and optimisation of the broadband design results in quad-ring and slotted DSGRs that produce dual and triple broadband polarisation conversion, respectively. The quad-ring DSGR performs polarisation conversion for frequency range of 0.70–1.08 and 1.61–1.76 THz while the slotted DSGR shows the triple broadband cross-conversion for frequency range of 0.67–0.85, 1.04–1.11, and 1.62–1.76 THz with PCR > 95%. This design is simple, easy to modify to implement single and multi broadband polarisation conversion with high PCR at terahertz regime. In addition to that, it is easy to fabricate and integrate with other components like multiple-input multiple-output terahertz antennas for mutual coupling reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue THz On-Chip Devices and Their Applications)
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16 pages, 3109 KiB  
Article
Optimal Growth Conditions for Forming c-Axis (002) Aluminum Nitride Thin Films as a Buffer Layer for Hexagonal Gallium Nitride Thin Films Produced with In Situ Continual Radio Frequency Sputtering
by Wei-Sheng Liu, Balaji Gururajan, Sui-Hua Wu, Li-Cheng Huang, Chung-Kai Chi, Yu-Lun Jiang and Hsing-Chun Kuo
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091546 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin-film materials possess a wide energy gap; thus, they are suitable for use in various optoelectronic devices. In this study, AlN thin films were deposited using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with an Al sputtering target and N2 as the [...] Read more.
Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin-film materials possess a wide energy gap; thus, they are suitable for use in various optoelectronic devices. In this study, AlN thin films were deposited using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with an Al sputtering target and N2 as the reactive gas. The N2 working gas flow rate was varied among 20, 30, and 40 sccm to optimize the AlN thin film growth. The optimal AlN thin film was produced with 40 sccm N2 flow at 500 W under 100% N2 gas and at 600 °C. The films were studied using X-ray diffraction and had (002) phase orientation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the atomic content of the optimal film to be Al, 32%; N, 52%; and O, 12% at 100 nm beneath the surface of the thin film. The film was also investigated through atomic force microscopy and had a root mean square roughness of 2.57 nm and a hardness of 76.21 GPa. Finally, in situ continual sputtering was used to produce a gallium nitride (GaN) layer on Si with the AlN thin film as a buffer layer. The AlN thin films investigated in this study have excellent material properties, and the proposed process could be a less expensive method of growing high-quality GaN thin films for various applications in GaN-based power transistors and Si integrated circuits. Full article
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14 pages, 9912 KiB  
Article
Kinematic Properties of a Twisted Double Planetary Chaotic Mixer: A Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation
by Telha Mostefa, Aissaoui Djamel Eddine, Naas Toufik Tayeb, Shakhawat Hossain, Arifur Rahman, Bachiri Mohamed and Kwang-Yong Kim
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091545 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2004
Abstract
In this study, a numerical investigation based on the CFD method is carried out to study the unsteady laminar flow of Newtonian fluid with a high viscosity in a three-dimensional simulation of a twisted double planetary mixer, which is composed of two agitating [...] Read more.
In this study, a numerical investigation based on the CFD method is carried out to study the unsteady laminar flow of Newtonian fluid with a high viscosity in a three-dimensional simulation of a twisted double planetary mixer, which is composed of two agitating rods inside a moving tank. The considered stirring protocol is a “Continuous sine squared motion” by using the dynamic mesh model and user-defined functions (UDFs)to define the velocity profiles. The chaotic advection is obtained in our active mixers by the temporal modulation of rotational velocities of the moving walls in order to enhance the mixing of the fluid for a low Reynolds number and a high Peclet number. For this goal, we applied the Poincaré section and Lyapunov exponent as reliable mathematic tools for checking mixing quality by tracking a number of massless particles inside the fluid domain. Additionally, we investigated the development of fluid kinematics proprieties, such as vorticity, helicity, strain rate and elongation rate, at various time periods in order to view the impact of temporal modulation on the flow properties. The results of the mentioned simulation showed that it is possible to obtain a chaotic advection after a relatively short time, which can deeply enhance mixing fluid efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Micromixers: Analysis, Design and Fabrication)
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8 pages, 2081 KiB  
Article
Post-Electric Current Treatment Approaching High-Performance Flexible n-Type Bi2Te3 Thin Films
by Dongwei Ao, Wei-Di Liu, Fan Ma, Wenke Bao and Yuexing Chen
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091544 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Inorganic n-type Bi2Te3 flexible thin film, as a promising near-room temperature thermoelectric material, has attracted extensive research interest and application potentials. In this work, to further improve the thermoelectric performance of flexible Bi2Te3 thin films, a post-electric [...] Read more.
Inorganic n-type Bi2Te3 flexible thin film, as a promising near-room temperature thermoelectric material, has attracted extensive research interest and application potentials. In this work, to further improve the thermoelectric performance of flexible Bi2Te3 thin films, a post-electric current treatment is employed. It is found that increasing the electric current leads to increased carrier concentration and electric conductivity from 1874 S cm−1 to 2240 S cm−1. Consequently, a high power factor of ~10.70 μW cm−1 K−2 at room temperature can be achieved in the Bi2Te3 flexible thin films treated by the electric current of 0.5 A, which is competitive among flexible n-type Bi2Te3 thin films. Besides, the small change of relative resistance <10% before and after bending test demonstrates excellent bending resistance of as-prepared flexible Bi2Te3 films. A flexible device composed of 4 n-type legs generates an open circuit voltage of ~7.96 mV and an output power of 24.78 nW at a temperature difference of ~35 K. Our study indicates that post-electric current treatment is an effective method in boosting the electrical performance of flexible Bi2Te3 thin films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and Devices)
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11 pages, 7419 KiB  
Article
High Quality Pt–Pt Metal Bonding for High Temperature Packaging
by Jiazheng Liu, Junqiang Wang, Mengwei Li and Haikun Zhang
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091543 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Platinum is an ideal material for high-temperature resistant device packaging due to its higher melting point and good electrical properties. In this paper, the thermocompression bonding of Pt–Pt metal electrodes was successfully realized through process exploration, and the package interconnection that meets the [...] Read more.
Platinum is an ideal material for high-temperature resistant device packaging due to its higher melting point and good electrical properties. In this paper, the thermocompression bonding of Pt–Pt metal electrodes was successfully realized through process exploration, and the package interconnection that meets the requirements was formed. A square bump with a side length of 160 µm and a sealing ring with a width of 80 µm were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Different pressure parameters were selected for chip-level bonding; the bonding temperature was 350 °C for about 20 min. Analysis of the interface under a scanning electron microscope found that the metal Cr diffused into Pt. It was found that two chips sputtered with 300 nm metal Pt can achieve shear resistance up to 30 MPa by flip-chip bonding at 350 °C and 100 MPa temperature and pressure, respectively. The leakage rate of the sample is less than 2 × 10–3 Pa·cm3/s, the bonding interface is relatively smooth, and the hot-pressed metal bonding of Pt electrodes with good quality is realized. By comparing the failure rates at different temperatures and pressures, the process parameters for Pt–Pt bonding with higher success rates were obtained. We hope to provide new ideas and methods for the packaging of high-temperature resistant devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Interconnect and Packaging)
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25 pages, 11765 KiB  
Article
Research on Fast and Precise Positioning Strategy of an Ultrasonic Motor Based on the Ultrasonic Friction Reduction Theory
by Weijun Zeng, Song Pan, Lei Chen, Weihao Ren, Yongjie Huan and Yongjin Liang
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091542 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1539
Abstract
To address the problems of the large positioning error and long positioning time of the traditional positioning strategy, namely, the two-phase simultaneous power-off method (TPSPM), a new positioning strategy, called the first single-phase then two-phase power-off method (FSPTTPPM), based on the ultrasonic friction [...] Read more.
To address the problems of the large positioning error and long positioning time of the traditional positioning strategy, namely, the two-phase simultaneous power-off method (TPSPM), a new positioning strategy, called the first single-phase then two-phase power-off method (FSPTTPPM), based on the ultrasonic friction reduction theory, has been proposed in this work. This method realizes zero sliding displacement between the friction material and the stator during the torsional oscillation of the shaft by controlling the driving circle frequency and the duration of the single-phase power-off period, which reduces the deviation of the displacement reservation value. In order to verify the correctness of the driving mechanism, a test platform has been built, and two positioning strategies have been used for experimental verification. The following experimental results have been obtained: compared to TPSPM, FSPTTPPM has the advantages of higher positioning accuracy and short positioning time. In terms of the positioning accuracy, the relative errors of the displacement reservation values of FSPTTPPM and TPSPM vary with the initial angular velocity (0.24 to 1.18 rad/s) in the range of −0.4 to 0.1 and −0.8 to 0.8, respectively. In addition, the relative error of the displacement reservation value is closer to zero than that of TPSPM at the same initial angular velocity. In terms of the positioning time, when the initial angular velocity is greater than 0.7 rad/s, the positioning time of the FSPTTPPM is approximately 10 ms smaller than that of the TPSPM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Piezoelectric Materials and Applications)
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7 pages, 2437 KiB  
Article
Ultra-Wideband Power Amplifier Design Strategy for 5G Sub-6-GHz Applications
by Jorge Julián Moreno Rubio, Edison Ferney Angarita Malaver and Jairo Alonso Mesa Lara
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091541 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
This paper presents a strategy to design ultrawideband power amplifiers with a fractional bandwidth of approximately 200%. It exploits a simple output matching network, which consists of a series transmission line together with a shunt stub, to compensate the output parasitic network of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a strategy to design ultrawideband power amplifiers with a fractional bandwidth of approximately 200%. It exploits a simple output matching network, which consists of a series transmission line together with a shunt stub, to compensate the output parasitic network of the device. Following this, a multisection transformer is implemented to obtain the optimal load at the intrinsic drain plane. As design examples, several output matching networks were designed for two different size GaN HEMT devices. One of these examples was implemented and characterized, and a drain efficiency from 52% to 70% and an output power between 40 dBm and 42.5 dBm were obtained, over 67% of the 5G sub-6-GHz band (i.e., 0.1 to 4 GHz). The aforementioned results, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, represent the state of the art in broadband power amplifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in "Materials and Processing" 2022)
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16 pages, 9357 KiB  
Article
3D Printable Soft Sensory Fiber Networks for Robust and Complex Tactile Sensing
by David Hardman, Thomas George Thuruthel, Antonia Georgopoulou, Frank Clemens and Fumiya Iida
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091540 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
The human tactile system is composed of multi-functional mechanoreceptors distributed in an optimized manner. Having the ability to design and optimize multi-modal soft sensory systems can further enhance the capabilities of current soft robotic systems. This work presents a complete framework for the [...] Read more.
The human tactile system is composed of multi-functional mechanoreceptors distributed in an optimized manner. Having the ability to design and optimize multi-modal soft sensory systems can further enhance the capabilities of current soft robotic systems. This work presents a complete framework for the fabrication of soft sensory fiber networks for contact localization, using pellet-based 3D printing of piezoresistive elastomers to manufacture flexible sensory networks with precise and repeatable performances. Given a desirable soft sensor property, our methodology can design and fabricate optimized sensor morphologies without human intervention. Extensive simulation and experimental studies are performed on two printed networks, comparing a baseline network to one optimized via an existing information theory based approach. Machine learning is used for contact localization based on the sensor responses. The sensor responses match simulations with tunable performances and good localization accuracy, even in the presence of damage and nonlinear material properties. The potential of the networks to function as capacitive sensors is also demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Fabrication Approaches for Soft Robotics)
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13 pages, 8393 KiB  
Article
Promotion of High-Speed Copper-Filling Performance for Interconnections with Increasing Aspect-Ratio Using Compound Additives
by Qing Wang, Yang Peng, Yun Mou and Mingxiang Chen
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091539 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Interconnections are essential for integrating the packaging substrate, and defect-free copper-filling can further improve the reliability in through holes (THs). The coating properties and filling processes are mainly dominated by the interplays among additives in the direct current electroplating. The acidic copper sulfate [...] Read more.
Interconnections are essential for integrating the packaging substrate, and defect-free copper-filling can further improve the reliability in through holes (THs). The coating properties and filling processes are mainly dominated by the interplays among additives in the direct current electroplating. The acidic copper sulfate electroplating solution contained three typical convection-dependent additives and chloride ions (Cl). The THs with aspect ratios (ARs) of 6.25, 5, and 4.17 (thickness of 500 μm) were selected as the study subjects. The effects of Cl and ARs on the interactions among the additives were investigated in detail using electrochemical measurements, which were verified by the THs filling experiments. The additive compounds present a convection enhanced inhibition effect and cathodic polarization, leading to a copper filling capacity increase with ARs and the amelioration of copper compactness and corrosion resistance. The defect-free copper filling of THs and a uniform mirror bright surface circuit can be achieved simultaneously using compound additives at a relatively high speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Electronic Packaging)
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13 pages, 4282 KiB  
Article
Tactile Perception Object Recognition Based on an Improved Support Vector Machine
by Xingxing Zhang, Shaobo Li, Jing Yang, Yang Wang, Zichen Huang and Jinhu Zhang
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091538 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Tactile perception is an irreplaceable source of information for humans to explore the surrounding environment and has advantages over sight and hearing in processing the material properties and detailed shapes of objects. However, with the increasing uncertainty and complexity of tactile perception features, [...] Read more.
Tactile perception is an irreplaceable source of information for humans to explore the surrounding environment and has advantages over sight and hearing in processing the material properties and detailed shapes of objects. However, with the increasing uncertainty and complexity of tactile perception features, it is often difficult to collect highly available pure tactile datasets for research in the field of tactile perception. Here, we have proposed a method for object recognition on a purely tactile dataset and provide the original tactile dataset. First, we improved the differential evolution (DE) algorithm and then used the DE algorithm to optimize the important parameter of the Gaussian kernel function of the support vector machine (SVM) to improve the accuracy of pure tactile target recognition. The experimental comparison results show that our method has a better target recognition effect than the classical machine learning algorithm. We hope to further improve the generalizability of this method and provide an important reference for research in the field of tactile perception and recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embedded System for Smart Sensors/Actuators and IoT Applications)
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17 pages, 6187 KiB  
Article
Height Uniformity Simulation and Experimental Study of Electroplating Gold Bump for 2.5D/3D Integrated Packaging
by Wenchao Tian, Zhao Li, Yongkun Wang and Guoguang Zhang
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091537 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
With the rapid development of nano/micro technology for commercial electronics, the typical interconnection method could not satisfy the high power-density packaging requirement. The 2.5D/3D integrated packaging was seen as a promising technology for nano/micro systems. The gold (Au) bump was the frequently used [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of nano/micro technology for commercial electronics, the typical interconnection method could not satisfy the high power-density packaging requirement. The 2.5D/3D integrated packaging was seen as a promising technology for nano/micro systems. The gold (Au) bump was the frequently used bonding method for these systems because of its excellent thermal, electric, and mechanical performance. However, relatively little work has been performed to analyze its height uniformity. In this study, the simulation and experimental methods were used to analyze the Au bump height uniformity. Firstly, the electroplating process of Au bump under different flow field parameters was simulated by COMSOL software. The simulated results indicated that the Au+ concentration polarization was the significant reason that caused the non-uniform distribution of Au bump along the wafer radius. Meanwhile, the flow field parameters, such as inlet diameter, inlet flow, titanium (Ti), wire mesh height, and Ti wire mesh density, were optimized, and their values were 20 mm, 20 L/min, 12 mm, and 50%, respectively. Subsequently, the Au bump height uniformity under different current densities was analyzed through an experimental method based on these flow field parameters. The experimental results showed that the increases of current density would decrease the Au bump height uniformity. When the current density was 0.2 A/dm2, the average height, range, and deviance values of Au bump were 9.04 μm, 1.33 μm, and 0.43 μm, respectively, which could reach the requirement of high density and precision for 2.5D/3D integrated packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Packaging for Microsystem Applications)
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15 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Novel Deep-Learning Modulation Recognition Algorithm Using 2D Histograms over Wireless Communications Channels
by Amr Marey, Mohamed Marey and Hala Mostafa
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091533 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
Modulation recognition (MR) has become an essential topic in today’s wireless communications systems. Recently, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been employed as a potent tool for MR because of their ability to minimize the feature’s susceptibility to its surroundings and reduce the need [...] Read more.
Modulation recognition (MR) has become an essential topic in today’s wireless communications systems. Recently, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been employed as a potent tool for MR because of their ability to minimize the feature’s susceptibility to its surroundings and reduce the need for human feature extraction and evaluation. In particular, these investigations rely on the unrealistic assumption that the channel coefficient is typically one. This motivates us to overcome the previous constraint by providing a novel MR suited to fading wireless channels. This paper proposes a novel MR algorithm that is capable of recognizing a broad variety of modulation types, including M-ary QAM and M-ary PSK, without enforcing any restrictions on the modulation size, M. The analysis has shown that each modulation choice has a distinct two-dimensional in-phase quadrature histogram. This property is beneficially utilized to design a convolutional neural-network-based MR algorithm. When compared to the existing techniques, Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated the success of the proposed design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embedded System for Smart Sensors/Actuators and IoT Applications)
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13 pages, 4811 KiB  
Article
Design and Simulation of a Ring Transducer Array for Ultrasound Retinal Stimulation
by Chenlin Xu, Gengxi Lu, Haochen Kang, Mark S. Humayun and Qifa Zhou
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091536 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Argus II retinal prosthesis is the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical device intended to restore sight to a patient’s blind secondary to retinal degeneration (i.e., retinitis pigmentosa). However, Argus II and most reported retinal prostheses require invasive surgery to implant [...] Read more.
Argus II retinal prosthesis is the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical device intended to restore sight to a patient’s blind secondary to retinal degeneration (i.e., retinitis pigmentosa). However, Argus II and most reported retinal prostheses require invasive surgery to implant electrodes in the eye. Recent studies have shown that focused ultrasound can be developed into a non-invasive retinal prosthesis technology. Ultrasound energy focused on retinal neurons can trigger the activities of retinal neurons with high spatial-temporal resolution. This paper introduces a novel design and simulation of a ring array transducer that could be used as non-invasive ultrasonic retinal stimulation. The array transducer is designed in the shape of a racing ring with a hemisphere surface that mimics a contact lens to acoustically couple with the eye via the tear film and directs the ultrasound to avoid the high acoustic absorption from the crystalline lens. We will describe the design methods and simulation of the two-dimensional pattern stimulation. Finally, compared with other existing retinal prostheses, we show that the ultrasound ring array is practical and safe and could be potentially used as a non-invasive retinal prosthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Ultrasound Transducer for Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 3954 KiB  
Article
Geometric Error Analysis and Compensation in Spherical Generating Grinding of Hemispherical Shell Resonators
by Yu Wang, Chaoliang Guan, Yifan Dai and Shuai Xue
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091535 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1719
Abstract
The geometric accuracy of a hemispherical shell resonator (HSR) affects the assembly accuracy and final performance of a hemispherical resonant gyroscope in many ways. During the precision grinding of a resonator, the tool-setting error and wear error affect the form and positional accuracy [...] Read more.
The geometric accuracy of a hemispherical shell resonator (HSR) affects the assembly accuracy and final performance of a hemispherical resonant gyroscope in many ways. During the precision grinding of a resonator, the tool-setting error and wear error affect the form and positional accuracy of the inner and outer spherical surfaces. In this study, a compensation method for generating grinding of the HSR is proposed to address this problem. The geometric errors of the inner and outer spherical surfaces are systemically analyzed and a geometric model of the tool setting and wheel wear is established for generating grinding of the HSR. According to this model, a mapping relationship between the wheel pose and size, form, and positional error of the HSR was proposed. Experiments regarding machining, on-machine measurements, and error compensation were performed using the mapping relationship. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the radius error of the inner and outer spherical surfaces from 10 μm to 1 μm, sphericity from 5 μm to 1.5 μm, and concentricity from 15 μm to 3 μm following grinding. The form and positional errors are simultaneously improved, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Manufacturing Technology)
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22 pages, 6973 KiB  
Review
Smart Manufacturing Processes of Low-Tortuous Structures for High-Rate Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices
by Chun-Yang Kang and Yu-Sheng Su
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091534 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
To maximize the performance of energy storage systems more effectively, modern batteries/supercapacitors not only require high energy density but also need to be fully recharged within a short time or capable of high-power discharge for electric vehicles and power applications. Thus, how to [...] Read more.
To maximize the performance of energy storage systems more effectively, modern batteries/supercapacitors not only require high energy density but also need to be fully recharged within a short time or capable of high-power discharge for electric vehicles and power applications. Thus, how to improve the rate capability of batteries or supercapacitors is a very important direction of research and engineering. Making low-tortuous structures is an efficient means to boost power density without replacing materials or sacrificing energy density. In recent years, numerous manufacturing methods have been developed to prepare low-tortuous configurations for fast ion transportation, leading to impressive high-rate electrochemical performance. This review paper summarizes several smart manufacturing processes for making well-aligned 3D microstructures for batteries and supercapacitors. These techniques can also be adopted in other advanced fields that require sophisticated structural control to achieve superior properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Smart Devices and Systems, 2nd Edition)
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33 pages, 6416 KiB  
Article
Impedance Iterative Learning Backstepping Control for Output-Constrained Multisection Continuum Arms Based on PMA
by Yuexuan Xu, Xin Guo, Jian Li, Xingyu Huo, Hao Sun, Gaowei Zhang, Qianqian Xing, Minghe Liu, Tianyi Ma and Qingsong Ding
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091532 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Background: Pneumatic muscle actuator (PMA) actuated multisection continuum arms are widely applied in various fields with high flexibility and bionic properties. Nonetheless, their kinematic modeling and control strategy proves to be extremely challenging tasks. Methods: The relationship expression between the deformation parameters and [...] Read more.
Background: Pneumatic muscle actuator (PMA) actuated multisection continuum arms are widely applied in various fields with high flexibility and bionic properties. Nonetheless, their kinematic modeling and control strategy proves to be extremely challenging tasks. Methods: The relationship expression between the deformation parameters and the length of PMA with the geometric method is obtained under the assumption of piecewise constant curvature. Then, the kinematic model is established based on the improved D-H method. Considering the limitation of PMA telescopic length, an impedance iterative learning backstepping control strategy is investigated. For one thing, the impedance control is utilized to ensure that the ideal static balance force is maintained constant in the Cartesian space. For another, the iterative learning backstepping control is applied to guarantee that the desired trajectory of each PMA can be accurately tracked with the output-constrained requirement. Moreover, iterative learning control (ILC) is implemented to dynamically estimate the unknown model parameters and the precondition of zero initial error in ILC is released by the trajectory reconstruction. To further ensure the constraint requirement of the PMA tracking error, a log-type barrier Lyapunov function is employed in the backstepping control, whose convergence is demonstrated by the composite energy function. Results: The tracking error of PMA converges to 0.004 m and does not exceed the time-varying constraint function through cosimulation. Conclusion: From the cosimulation results, the superiority and validity of the proposed theory are verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Medical and Rehabilitation Robots)
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13 pages, 6617 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Manufacturing Imperfections on the Performance of Metalenses and a Manufacturing-Tolerant Design Method
by Yicheng Zhu, Wenjuan Wang, Feilong Yu, Qingquan Liu, Zilu Guo, Guanhai Li, Pingping Chen and Wei Lu
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091531 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
Metalenses play an important role in optoelectronic integrated devices, given their advantages in miniaturization and integration. Due to its high aspect ratio subwavelength structure, fabricating metalenses requires a high-level dry etching technology. Consequently, structure deformation of the metalens will exist if the etching [...] Read more.
Metalenses play an important role in optoelectronic integrated devices, given their advantages in miniaturization and integration. Due to its high aspect ratio subwavelength structure, fabricating metalenses requires a high-level dry etching technology. Consequently, structure deformation of the metalens will exist if the etching process of the material is not mature enough, which will impair the metalens’ performance. In this paper, a polarization-independent InP dielectric metalens is designed to focus the incident light from air into the substrate, which is used for monolithically integrating with the InGaAs/InP photodetector in the future. Subsequently, with the simulation method, we investigated the impact of the structure deformation on the metalens’ performance, which was found in our InP dry etching process development. We have found that the sidewall slope and aspect ratio-dependent etching effect greatly impaired the focusing efficiency because of the phase modulation deviation. To solve this problem, we proposed a manufacturing-tolerant design method, which effectively improved the performance of the device with structural deformation. Our work is instructive for developing metalenses and can accelerate their integration application. Full article
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35 pages, 12952 KiB  
Review
A Review of Microinjection Moulding of Polymeric Micro Devices
by Honggang Zhang, Haibin Liu and Nan Zhang
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091530 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
Polymeric micro devices are gaining huge market potential in broad areas of medical devices, diagnostic devices, drug delivery, and optical applications. Current research is focusing on developing functional polymeric micro devices on a mass-production scale. Microinjection moulding is a promising technique suitable for [...] Read more.
Polymeric micro devices are gaining huge market potential in broad areas of medical devices, diagnostic devices, drug delivery, and optical applications. Current research is focusing on developing functional polymeric micro devices on a mass-production scale. Microinjection moulding is a promising technique suitable for fabricating polymeric micro devices. This review aims to summarise the primary achievements that have been achieved in various aspects of microinjection moulding of polymer micro devices, consisting of micro parts and micro surface structures. The relationships of the machine, process, rheology, tooling, micro/nanoscale replication, morphology, properties, and typical applications are reviewed in detail. Finally, a conclusion and challenges are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing of Micro- and Nanotextured Polymer Surfaces)
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10 pages, 1472 KiB  
Review
A Review of Neurologgers for Extracellular Recording of Neuronal Activity in the Brain of Freely Behaving Wild Animals
by Kaoru Ide and Susumu Takahashi
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091529 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Simultaneous monitoring of animal behavior and neuronal activity in the brain enables us to examine the neural underpinnings of behaviors. Conventionally, the neural activity data are buffered, amplified, multiplexed, and then converted from analog to digital in the head-stage amplifier, following which they [...] Read more.
Simultaneous monitoring of animal behavior and neuronal activity in the brain enables us to examine the neural underpinnings of behaviors. Conventionally, the neural activity data are buffered, amplified, multiplexed, and then converted from analog to digital in the head-stage amplifier, following which they are transferred to a storage server via a cable. Such tethered recording systems, intended for indoor use, hamper the free movement of animals in three-dimensional (3D) space as well as in large spaces or underwater, making it difficult to target wild animals active under natural conditions; it also presents challenges in realizing its applications to humans, such as the Brain–Machine Interfaces (BMI). Recent advances in micromachine technology have established a wireless logging device called a neurologger, which directly stores neural activity on ultra-compact memory media. The advent of the neurologger has triggered the examination of the neural correlates of 3D flight, underwater swimming of wild animals, and translocation experiments in the wild. Examples of the use of neurologgers will provide an insight into understanding the neural underpinnings of behaviors in the natural environment and contribute to the practical application of BMI. Here we outline the monitoring of the neural underpinnings of flying and swimming behaviors using neurologgers. We then focus on neuroethological findings and end by discussing their future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress and Challenges of Implantable Neural Interfaces)
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12 pages, 2486 KiB  
Article
Poly(1-Napthylamine) Nanoparticles as Potential Scaffold for Supercapacitor and Photocatalytic Applications
by Ahmad Umar, Sundararajan Ashok Kumar, Daniel Rani Rosaline, Hassan Algadi, Ahmed A. Ibrahim, Faheem Ahmed, Edson Luiz Foletto and Savariroyan Stephen Rajkumar Inbanathan
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091528 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
Herein, we explore the supercapacitor and photocatalytic applications of poly(1-naphthylamine) (PNA) nanoparticles. The PNA nanoparticles were synthesized by using polymerization of 1-naphthylamine and characterized with several techniques in order to understand the morphological, structural, optical and compositional properties. The structural and morphological properties [...] Read more.
Herein, we explore the supercapacitor and photocatalytic applications of poly(1-naphthylamine) (PNA) nanoparticles. The PNA nanoparticles were synthesized by using polymerization of 1-naphthylamine and characterized with several techniques in order to understand the morphological, structural, optical and compositional properties. The structural and morphological properties confirmed the formation of crystalline nanoparticles of PNA. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum revealed the successful polymerization of 1-naphthylamine monomer to PNA. The absorption peaks that appeared at 236 and 309 nm in the UV–Vis spectrum for PNA nanoparticles represented the π–π* transition. The supercapacitor properties of the prepared PNA nanoparticles were evaluated with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) methods at different scan rates and current densities, respectively. The effective series resistance was calculated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), resulting in a minimum resistance value of 1.5 Ω. The highest specific capacitance value of PNA was found to be 255 Fg−1. This electrode also exhibited excellent stability with >93% capacitance retention for 1000 cycles, as measured at 1A g−1. Further, the prepared PNA nanoparticles were used as an effective photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye, which exhibited ~61% degradation under UV light irradiation. The observed results revealed that PNA nanoparticles are not only a potential electrode material for supercapacitor applications but also an efficient photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of hazardous and toxic organic dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials-Based Energy Storage Devices)
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16 pages, 5029 KiB  
Article
Real-Time CGH Generation by CUDA-OpenGL Interoperability for Adaptive Beam Steering with a MEMS Phase SLM
by Chin-I Tang, Xianyue Deng and Yuzuru Takashima
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091527 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Real-time, simultaneous, and adaptive beam steering into multiple regions of interest replaces conventional raster scanning with a less time-consuming and flexible beam steering framework, where only regions of interest are scanned by a laser beam. CUDA-OpenGL interoperability with a computationally time-efficient computer-generated hologram [...] Read more.
Real-time, simultaneous, and adaptive beam steering into multiple regions of interest replaces conventional raster scanning with a less time-consuming and flexible beam steering framework, where only regions of interest are scanned by a laser beam. CUDA-OpenGL interoperability with a computationally time-efficient computer-generated hologram (CGH) calculation algorithm enables such beam steering by employing a MEMS-based phase light modulator (PLM) and a Texas Instruments Phase Light Modulator (TI-PLM). The real-time CGH generation and display algorithm is incorporated into the beam steering system with variable power and scan resolution, which are adaptively controlled by camera-based object recognition. With a mid-range laptop GPU and the current version of the MEMS-PLM, the demonstrated scanning speed can exceed 1000 points/s (number of beams > 5) and potentially exceeds 4000 points/s with state-of-the-art GPUs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beam Steering via Arrayed Micromachines)
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17 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Physical Mechanism of Acoustic Attenuation in Viscous Isotropic Solids
by Lin Fa, Lili Li, Hong Gong, Wenhui Chen, Jing Jiang, Guoqiang You, Jifeng Liang, Yandong Zhang and Meishan Zhao
Micromachines 2022, 13(9), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13091526 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
The traditional acoustic attenuation coefficient is derived from an analogy of the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave propagating inside a non-ideal medium, featuring only the attenuation of wave propagation. Nonetheless, the particles inside viscous solids have mass, vibrating energy, viscosity, and inertia of [...] Read more.
The traditional acoustic attenuation coefficient is derived from an analogy of the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave propagating inside a non-ideal medium, featuring only the attenuation of wave propagation. Nonetheless, the particles inside viscous solids have mass, vibrating energy, viscosity, and inertia of motion, and they go through transient and damping attenuation processes. Based on the long-wavelength approximation, in this paper, we use the energy conservation law to analyze the effect of the viscosity of the medium on acoustic attenuation. We derive the acoustic attenuation coefficient by combinations of the dynamical equation of a solid in an acoustic field with conventional longitudinal wave propagation under a spring oscillator model. Considering the attenuation of propagating waves and the damping attenuation of particle vibration, we develop a frequency dispersion relation of phase velocity for the longitudinal wave propagating inside viscous solid media. We find that the acoustic impulse response and vibrational system function depends on the physical properties of the viscous solid media and their internal structure. Combined with system function, the impulse response can be an excellent tool to invert the physical properties of solids and their internal structures. We select a well-known rock sample for analysis, calculate the impulse response and vibrational system function, and reveal new physical insight into creating acoustic attenuation and frequency dispersion of phase velocity. The results showed that the newly developed acoustic attenuation coefficients enjoy a substantial improvement over the conventional acoustic attenuation coefficients reported in the literature, which is essential for industrial applications; so are the dispersion characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A:Physics)
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