Next Issue
Volume 15, December-2
Previous Issue
Volume 15, November-2
 
 
sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sustainability, Volume 15, Issue 23 (December-1 2023) – 410 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study explores the effects of seasonal and diel variations in thermal stratification on a river’s phytoplankton community, offering valuable high-frequency data that are seldom seen in similar studies. The authors hypothesized varying environmental drivers and effects on phytoplankton at different time scales. Interestingly, seasonal shifts in phytoplankton exhibited limited responses to stratification indices, while summer cyanobacterial blooms showed a positive correlation with diel variations. This work, which is timely amid heightened global temperature concerns, contributes to predicting short/long-term consequences in freshwater ecosystems. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
22 pages, 1827 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between High-Tech Industrial Agglomeration and Regional Innovation: A Meta-Analysis Investigation in China
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16545; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316545 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 837
Abstract
High-tech industrial agglomeration enhances the technological level and value of regional industries. It is considered to be a new and effective way to drive China’s regional innovation and development at present. Numerous studies indicate that high-tech industrial agglomeration contributes positively to regional innovation, [...] Read more.
High-tech industrial agglomeration enhances the technological level and value of regional industries. It is considered to be a new and effective way to drive China’s regional innovation and development at present. Numerous studies indicate that high-tech industrial agglomeration contributes positively to regional innovation, but the current academic discussion on this issue has not yet reached a unified opinion. In various research contexts, it has also been pointed out that there may be a negative correlation or non-linear relationship between the two. This contradictory relationship makes it difficult to generalize the current research findings to realistic application scenarios. Therefore, to clarify the relationship between the two scientifically, this study employs meta-analysis, reanalyzing 833 effect values derived from 69 independent research samples based on Chinese data. The findings reveal a moderately positive correlation (r = 0.204) between the agglomeration of high-tech industries and regional innovation in China. In particular, high-tech industrial agglomeration significantly contributes to regional innovation under the paths of diversified agglomeration and competitive agglomeration. We further found that sampling region, measurement approach, measurement perspective, research methodology, and year of publication all exhibit significant moderating effects on the relationship between the two variables. Based on meta-analysis, this study not only scientifically responds to the controversy of the relationship between high-tech industrial agglomeration and regional innovation but also further reveals the inner conduction mechanism between the two. It is of great significance in exploring future studies in related fields. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 3720 KiB  
Article
Pricing Decisions for Power Battery Closed-Loop Supply Chains with Low-Carbon Input by Echelon Utilization Enterprises
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16544; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316544 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Today, with the number of waste power batteries and consumers’ awareness of low-carbon both increasing, a new closed-loop supply chain model in which the node enterprises of reverse supply chains are being constructed. These are responsible for the recycling, echelon utilization and low-carbon [...] Read more.
Today, with the number of waste power batteries and consumers’ awareness of low-carbon both increasing, a new closed-loop supply chain model in which the node enterprises of reverse supply chains are being constructed. These are responsible for the recycling, echelon utilization and low-carbon innovation of waste power batteries. This provides a new way for the development of reverse supply chain node enterprises and lays a theoretical foundation. In this paper, we use the backward solution method to solve the Nash equilibrium solution of the Stackelberg game. Through numerical calculation and simulation, the decision variables, profit and income of the supply chain are analyzed and the equilibrium results are compared. The experimental results indicate that the implementation of low-carbon innovative production by cascaded utilization enterprises is conducive to the growth of their profits with lower cost inputs. The impact of the initial waste power battery recycling rate on the decision variables is negative, while, for the supply chain as a whole, the profit growth of the node companies can be positive and the location of the inflection point appears to be particularly important. The sensitivity coefficient of low-carbonization levels has a positive regulatory effect on decision variables and location of all parties. The closed-loop supply chain model proposed in this study promotes the overall development of a power battery closed-loop supply chain, and also provides theoretical guidance for reasonable pricing decisions of node enterprises under the new model. Based on the results of this paper, the government can implement incentives such as subsidies, or formulate reasonable policies for the development of a power battery closed-loop supply chain. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4057 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Groves on Aboveground Arthropod Diversity and Evolution in a Vineyard in Southern Romania
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16543; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316543 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 561
Abstract
This paper investigates the biodiversity of adult arthropods in two grapevine plantations influenced by two adjacent groves over a three-year period (2020–2022) in the viticultural center of Stefănești Argeș, located in southern Romania. The study holds significant implications for introducing parasitoid/predatory insect species [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the biodiversity of adult arthropods in two grapevine plantations influenced by two adjacent groves over a three-year period (2020–2022) in the viticultural center of Stefănești Argeș, located in southern Romania. The study holds significant implications for introducing parasitoid/predatory insect species into vineyards to control grapevine pests. A total of 164 arthropod species were identified, including 27 beneficial species. Additionally, two moth species, Lobesia botrana and Sparganothis pilleriana, were identified. L. botrana was consistently observed throughout the study, while S. pilleriana was only observed in 2022. The research reveals that the location with the highest number of identified species was in a grove near a black field, with 103 species. Other areas with notable species diversity included a vineyard maintained as a black field (89 species), a grove near permanent natural grassland (88 species), and a vineyard with intervals between rows of grapevines maintained as natural permanent grassland (81 species). Introducing beneficial organisms, such as the predator Crysoperla carnea, is recommended to control grapevine moths in this ecosystem. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2869 KiB  
Systematic Review
Exploring Lean Six Sigma as Dynamic Capability to Enable Sustainable Performance Optimisation in Times of Uncertainty
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16542; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316542 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to develop a nested theoretical model (LSS-DC) by critically examining two distinct theoretical concepts, including Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and Dynamic Capabilities (DC), for achieving organizational sustainable performance optimizations (PO). The robust integration of this dynamic concept [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to develop a nested theoretical model (LSS-DC) by critically examining two distinct theoretical concepts, including Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and Dynamic Capabilities (DC), for achieving organizational sustainable performance optimizations (PO). The robust integration of this dynamic concept is achieved using a systematic literature review, synthesis, and empirical evidence derived from 2005 to 2022. The vital benefits of LSS-DC are identified. This study utilizes a systematic literature review method adapted. It reveals the cross-sectional literature search strategy deploying selective keywords DCs, LSS, DCs and LSS, DCs and LSS and PO. In this niche domain employing descriptive and thematic analysis, key insights are extracted from the literature, encompassing a total of 21 peer-reviewed journals. The selection criteria revolve around three aspects: ‘Purpose’, ‘Authorship’, and ‘Credibility and Accuracy’. The authors gathered the secondary data from credible databases such as Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, ERIC, and IEEE using the keyword search. The study reveals the robust integration of theoretical concepts of LSS and DCs and their impact on organisational performance. The findings suggest that integrating the micro-foundations of DCs (sensing, seizing, and transforming) with LSS allows organisations to not only identify improvement opportunities but also efficiently and effectively act upon them, ultimately leading to sustainable performance optimisation across various aspects of the business. The specific type of DC integration with LSS depends on the organisation’s goals and priorities. The findings of this study are subjective to some extent due to the applied research methodology. Further empirical research is needed to gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. This study considers LSS as DC providing an empirical (LSS-DCs) model for sustainable performance optimisation. This is achieved by robustly integrating two distinct theoretical concepts derived from an extensive literature review and the analysis of the data-driven implementation. Finally, the study offers a deeper understanding in terms of how contextual organisational characteristics enhance the outcome of LSS-DC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2979 KiB  
Article
Green Chemistry in Medical Applications: Preliminary Assessment of Kuzu Starch Films with Plant-Based Antiseptics
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16541; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316541 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 705
Abstract
The current state of the natural environment requires medical products, including dressings, to be manufactured in accordance with the principles of a sustainable economy. This assumption is perfectly met by dressings made of renewable materials and additionally filled with natural antiseptics. The use [...] Read more.
The current state of the natural environment requires medical products, including dressings, to be manufactured in accordance with the principles of a sustainable economy. This assumption is perfectly met by dressings made of renewable materials and additionally filled with natural antiseptics. The use of such plant compounds is consistent with the principles of green chemistry. In this work, films based on Kuzu starch with rooibos extract and chili pepper oil extract were prepared and tested. Starch foil with silver nanoparticles and foil without additives were used as a comparative material. The chemical structures (ATR-FTIR) of the materials obtained, their thermal (DSC) and mechanical properties (tensile strength, hardness), density, swelling, water vapor permeability, water solubility, and effects on bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were examined. The Kuzu rooibos film had the lowest antimicrobial activity. At the same time, it was the most flexible foil and was characterized by having the best water vapor permeability and water absorption capacity. The starch film with chili extract was the weakest mechanically speaking, but it significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 bacteria at a level similar to that of the film with silver nanoparticles. The preliminary tests carried out on the properties of Kuzu starch films with plant extracts from rooibos tea and chili peppers indicate that they may be suitable for further research on dressing materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Sustainable and Eco-Friendly Advanced Material)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1353 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Agility Culture—The Case of a Pasta Company
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16540; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316540 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 601
Abstract
The ability of an organization to be agile, and, therefore, the organizational culture of agility that determines it, is a key characteristic necessary for enterprises to meet the challenges of the requirements of sustainable development under conditions of uncertainty. Uncertainty, in turn, is [...] Read more.
The ability of an organization to be agile, and, therefore, the organizational culture of agility that determines it, is a key characteristic necessary for enterprises to meet the challenges of the requirements of sustainable development under conditions of uncertainty. Uncertainty, in turn, is an inherent feature of achieving the challenging goals of growth and often survival in today’s competitive enterprise market. Analyzing the organization’s ability to be agile, the article includes the results of a study of the productivity of the pasta packaging process in a selected manufacturing company. The main purpose of the article was to identify the factors important for the implementation of the concept of organizational agility and to develop steps to follow the Shu Ha Ri methodology in a pasta packaging company in order to increase production productivity. Based on the data obtained in the form of the number of employees per shift and the amount of packed pasta, significant differences in the productivity of shifts were found, and the challenges of organizational agility were also identified, which include the changing nature of demand, the impact of the state of the machines on the continuity of production, and the occurrence of shortages at the packing stage due to the manual nature of the process. Based on the conducted research and analysis of the tools used in the formation of an agile culture, a proprietary approach to sustainably increase the productivity of the packaging process was proposed using the Shu Ha Ri methodology. The conducted research made it possible to formulate the paradigm of sustainable agility culture and its main dimensions for companies in the food industry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 5699 KiB  
Article
Optimization Model and Strategy for Dynamic Material Distribution Scheduling Based on Digital Twin: A Step towards Sustainable Manufacturing
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16539; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316539 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 742
Abstract
In the quest for sustainable production, manufacturers are increasingly adopting mixed-flow production modes to meet diverse product demands, enabling small-batch production and ensuring swift delivery. A key aspect in this shift is optimizing material distribution scheduling to maintain smooth operations. However, traditional methods [...] Read more.
In the quest for sustainable production, manufacturers are increasingly adopting mixed-flow production modes to meet diverse product demands, enabling small-batch production and ensuring swift delivery. A key aspect in this shift is optimizing material distribution scheduling to maintain smooth operations. However, traditional methods frequently encounter challenges due to outdated information tools, irrational task allocation, and suboptimal route planning. Such limitations often result in distribution disarray, unnecessary resource wastage, and general inefficiency, thereby hindering the economic and environmental sustainability of the manufacturing sector. Addressing these challenges, this study introduces a novel dynamic material distribution scheduling optimization model and strategy, leveraging digital twin (DT) technology. This proposed strategy aims to bolster cost-effectiveness while simultaneously supporting environmental sustainability. Our methodology includes developing a route optimization model that minimizes distribution costs, maximizes workstation satisfaction, and reduces carbon emissions. Additionally, we present a cloud–edge computing-based decision framework and explain the DT-based material distribution system’s components and operation. Furthermore, we designed a DT-based dynamic scheduling optimization mechanism, incorporating an improved ant colony optimization algorithm. Numerical experiments based on real data from a partner company revealed that the proposed material distribution scheduling model, strategy, and algorithm can reduce the manufacturer’s distribution operation costs, improve resource utilization, and reduce carbon emissions, thereby enhancing the manufacturer’s economic and environmental sustainability. This research offers innovative insights and perspectives that are crucial for advancing sustainable logistics management and intelligent algorithm design in analogous manufacturing scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Technology in Sustainable Manufacturing Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1094 KiB  
Article
Exploring Extension Implications for Slow Food Development in Iran: A Comprehensive Analysis
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16538; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316538 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 866
Abstract
This research aimed to ascertain the prerequisites for the advancement of the slow food movement in Iran. Employing both quantitative and qualitative methods, it adopted a descriptive and survey-oriented design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 experts well-versed in the extension of slow [...] Read more.
This research aimed to ascertain the prerequisites for the advancement of the slow food movement in Iran. Employing both quantitative and qualitative methods, it adopted a descriptive and survey-oriented design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 experts well-versed in the extension of slow food, employing a snowball sampling technique. The interview data underwent coding and analysis employing open coding, axial coding, and selective coding methods. The study encompassed experts and managers in agricultural extension and education across the nation. For statistical analysis, a structural equation model and confirmatory factor analysis were employed, utilizing SMART PLS 3 and SPSS 26 software. The goodness-of-fit index (GoF) was utilized to evaluate the comprehensive validity of the research model. From a qualitative perspective, six primary facets of the slow food model emerged: 1. Extension strategies in harmony with slow food principles; 2. Methods of extending the slow food movement; 3. Supportive policies for slow food propagation; 4. Intervening conditions; 5. Causal conditions (triggers and applications) of the slow food paradigm; and 6. Outcomes resulting from the adoption of the slow food ethos. These facets collectively comprised a total of 38 sub-components. Through analysis of the structural equation model, key facets with substantial operational weight and significant influence on the promotion of slow food were identified. These prominent components encompass disease prevention, the organization of festivals and exhibitions, the revision of laws, the shaping of individuals’ lifestyles, the enhancement of food tourism capacity, and the optimization of human resources. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5367 KiB  
Article
Automatic Plastic Greenhouse Extraction from Gaofen-2 Satellite Images with Fully Convolution Networks and Image Enhanced Index
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16537; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316537 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
Plastic greenhouses (PGs) play a vital role in modern agricultural development by providing a controlled environment for the cultivation of food crops. Their widespread adoption has the potential to revolutionize agriculture and impact the local environment. Accurate mapping and estimation of PG coverage [...] Read more.
Plastic greenhouses (PGs) play a vital role in modern agricultural development by providing a controlled environment for the cultivation of food crops. Their widespread adoption has the potential to revolutionize agriculture and impact the local environment. Accurate mapping and estimation of PG coverage are critical for strategic planning in agriculture. However, the challenge lies in the extraction of small and densely distributed PGs; this is often compounded by issues like irrelevant and redundant features and spectral confusion in high-resolution remote-sensing imagery, such as Gaofen-2 data. This paper proposes an innovative approach that combines the power of a full convolutional network (FC-DenseNet103) with an image enhancement index. The image enhancement index effectively accentuates the boundary features of PGs in Gaofen-2 satellite images, enhancing the unique spectral characteristics of PGs. FC-DenseNet103, known for its robust feature propagation and extensive feature reuse, complements this by addressing challenges related to feature fusion and misclassification at the boundaries of PGs and adjacent features. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. By incorporating the image enhancement index into the DenseNet103 model, the proposed method successfully eliminates issues related to the fusion and misclassification of PG boundaries and adjacent features. The proposed method, known as DenseNet103 (Index), excels in extracting the integrity of PGs, especially in cases involving small and densely packed plastic sheds. Moreover, it holds the potential for large-scale digital mapping of PG coverage. In conclusion, the proposed method providing a practical and versatile tool for a wide range of applications related to the monitoring and evaluation of PGs, which can help to improve the precision of agricultural management and quantitative environmental assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainability in Geographic Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4079 KiB  
Article
A Wind Power Scenario Generation Method Based on Copula Functions and Forecast Errors
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16536; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316536 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
The scenario of renewable energy generation significantly affects the probabilistic distribution system analysis. To reflect the probabilistic characteristics of actual data, this paper proposed a scenario generation method that can reflect the spatiotemporal characteristics of wind power generation and the probabilistic characteristics of [...] Read more.
The scenario of renewable energy generation significantly affects the probabilistic distribution system analysis. To reflect the probabilistic characteristics of actual data, this paper proposed a scenario generation method that can reflect the spatiotemporal characteristics of wind power generation and the probabilistic characteristics of forecast errors. The scenario generation method consists of a process of sampling random numbers and a process of inverse sampling using the cumulative distribution function. In sampling random numbers, random numbers that mimic the spatiotemporal correlation of power generation were generated using the copula function. Furthermore, the cumulative distribution functions of forecast errors according to power generation bins were used, thereby reflecting the probabilistic characteristics of forecast errors. The wind power generation scenarios in Jeju Island, generated by the proposed method, were analyzed through various indices that can assess accuracy. As a result, it was confirmed that by using the proposed scenario generation method, scenarios similar to actual data can be generated, which in turn allows for preparation of situations with a high probability of occurrence within the distribution system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Management and Design of Renewable Power Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2734 KiB  
Article
Research on the Application of NbS in Watershed Ecological Restoration: A Case Study of Jiulong River Watershed Shan-Shui Initiative
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16535; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316535 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Nature-based solutions (NbS) rapidly develop globally to address societal challenges and provide human well-being and biodiversity. Watershed restoration plays an essential role in enhancing the ecological and socio-economic benefits of the region. The design and implementation of watershed restoration projects are crucial to [...] Read more.
Nature-based solutions (NbS) rapidly develop globally to address societal challenges and provide human well-being and biodiversity. Watershed restoration plays an essential role in enhancing the ecological and socio-economic benefits of the region. The design and implementation of watershed restoration projects are crucial to their effectiveness, and NbS has been applied as a concept in ecosystem-related projects. This paper proposes an evaluation method to assess the implementation of the Shan-Shui Initiative in the Jiulong River Watershed restoration projects based on the eight criteria proposed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Standard for Nature-Based Solutions. The aim is to standardize the implementation process of watershed restoration projects to achieve more significant benefits and practically apply the concept of NbS in watershed restoration. The implementation scheme of the Shan-Shui Initiative in the Jiulong River Watershed is designed to evaluate and improve the design and implementation scheme of ecological restoration projects in the actual basin. According to the assessment results, the degree of matching based on NbS for the implementation scheme of the Jiulong River Watershed Shan-Shui Initiative is 73%, which meets the criteria of NbS but needs to be improved in terms of monitoring and assessment, synergistic management, and benefit trade-offs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 16343 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Combined Approach for Sulfate and Ammonia Recovery from Treated Brine Using a Simultaneous Chemical Precipitation and Electrocoagulation Processes
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16534; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316534 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Soda ash (Na2CO3) is produced using the traditional Solvay process. It entails the reaction of CO2 with high-salinity water in the presence of ammonia (NH3), which produces insoluble sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and soluble ammonium [...] Read more.
Soda ash (Na2CO3) is produced using the traditional Solvay process. It entails the reaction of CO2 with high-salinity water in the presence of ammonia (NH3), which produces insoluble sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and soluble ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). In the current work, a newly combined approach has been developed to effectively manage the removal of ammonia and sulfate from the effluent of the Solvay process. The devised technique centers on an electrochemical coagulation process, complemented with the utilization of calcium oxide (CaO) as a buffering reagent. This innovative approach excels at achieving high recovery rates for both ammonia and sulfate. The recovered ammonia holds the potential for recycling, thereby contributing to the sustainability of the Solvay process by reusing ammonia in its initial stages. Furthermore, sulfate ions are recuperated in the form of calcium sulfate, a value-added product boasting various industrial applications. The results gleaned from this study underscore the efficacy of the ammonia recovery process, particularly when operating at elevated current densities and with higher calcium oxide concentrations. On the other hand, sulfate recovery demonstrates superior performance when exposed to moderate current densities and limited calcium oxide concentrations. Consequently, the integration of both stages within a single, cohesive process necessitates the development of an optimization methodology to cater to varying operational conditions. To address this need, second-order polynomial equations were formulated and employed to anticipate ammonia and sulfate removal rates in the integrated approach. Four independent variables come into play: calcium oxide concentration, current density, temperature, and mixing rate. The findings reveal that most of these variables exert substantial influences on both ammonia and sulfate removal rates, underscoring the need for careful consideration and fine-tuning to optimize the overall process. The maximum ammonia and sulfate removal were found to reach 99.50% and 96.03%, respectively, at a calcium oxide concentration of 3.5 g/100 mL, a current density of 19.95 mA/cm2, a temperature of 35 °C, and a mixing rate of 0.76 R/s. The results are promising, and the developed process is also suitable for recovering high concentrations of sulfate and ammonia from various wastewater sources. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Indoor Environmental Quality Assessment of Train Cabins and Passenger Waiting Areas: A Case Study of Nigeria
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16533; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316533 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The adequacy of the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in mass transit microenvironments is crucial to the well-being of exposed commuters. By 2050, many developing tropical countries will host even more megacities, which will feature an increase in people mobility and higher occupancy density. [...] Read more.
The adequacy of the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in mass transit microenvironments is crucial to the well-being of exposed commuters. By 2050, many developing tropical countries will host even more megacities, which will feature an increase in people mobility and higher occupancy density. The paucity of IEQ studies, the technology gap, and inadequate policy measures to assure safer and sustainable mobility in many developing tropics have reinforced the current study objective. Also, the recent COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the IEQ links and risks to health in transport, which, given the climate peculiarities, transport reforms, and huge commuter traffic in Nigeria, inform the study motivation. The indoor air quality (CO2, PM, VOCs, NO2), thermal, acoustic, and visual environments were objectively assessed in train passenger cabins and waiting areas, during 15 trips in the dry and rainy seasons in Nigeria. The results were analyzed by following the IEQ requirements defined in the ISO, CEN, ASHRAE, and SAE standards. The results indicate gaps in the IAQ (inadequate ventilation in 9 trains), defective thermal comfort (9 trains), exceedance in the PM limit (PM10: 47.9–115 μg/m3, PM2.5: 22.5–51.3 μg/m3), noise (Leq range: 64–85 dBA), and low illuminance levels (10 trains), hence the need for IEQ, interventions, stakeholder awareness, and broader IEQ studies on transport cabins in these regions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 1829 KiB  
Review
On the Definition, Assessment, and Enhancement of Circular Economy across Various Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review and Recent Findings
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16532; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316532 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1269
Abstract
The circular economy (CE) has recently emerged as a key strategy for promoting sustainability and reducing waste in various industrial sectors. This paper provides an overview of the definition, assessment and enhancement of circularity in general and in five key industries, including aerospace, [...] Read more.
The circular economy (CE) has recently emerged as a key strategy for promoting sustainability and reducing waste in various industrial sectors. This paper provides an overview of the definition, assessment and enhancement of circularity in general and in five key industries, including aerospace, wind energy, transportation, automotive and sports goods, by using data and information from the literature and for the section of the definitions of the CE also using information from the EC funded project “RECREATE”. The survey reviews in detail the different definitions, assessment methods and metrics used to explore and evaluate circularity, including assessment frameworks such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and assessment indicators. Furthermore, it explores the challenges, possibilities and available tools for enhancing circularity, focusing on digital tools. The survey highlights the importance of a holistic and systemic approach to circularity concerning all stakeholders along the value chain. Overall, this study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the circular economy's definition, assessment, and enhancement and provides insights for future research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 5662 KiB  
Review
A Review of Research on the Impact Mechanisms of Green Development in the Transportation Industry
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16531; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316531 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
Green development in the transportation industry is a new type of development. As the huge energy consumption and carbon emissions generated by the transportation industry have caused many environmental problems, the healthy and environmentally friendly mode of industrial development has received more and [...] Read more.
Green development in the transportation industry is a new type of development. As the huge energy consumption and carbon emissions generated by the transportation industry have caused many environmental problems, the healthy and environmentally friendly mode of industrial development has received more and more attention. However, the quantification of green development in the transportation industry varies in terms of boundaries, scope, and methods. Due to digital empowerment, the degree of influence and direction of the factors affecting the green development are not fixed. The prediction of future development prospects is relatively single-minded, lacking a comprehensive simulation scenario setting from multiple perspectives. This paper systematically reviews the research progress of green development of the transportation industry from three aspects: development performance assessment, influence mechanism analysis, and development path exploration. After a critical analysis, this study concludes that (1) a clear methodology is needed to assess the direct and indirect non-desired output results of the transportation industry; (2) considering the endogenization of the level of technology, the influence of the interaction between the influencing factors, etc., on the degree and direction of the role of the factors, a more scientific econometric model should be established for in-depth discussion; (3) resident travel options are an important factor affecting environmental issues in transportation. Carbon emission projections and analyses of emission reduction scenarios should integrate the multiple possibilities of residential preferences and policy incentives. The findings of this paper provide valuable references to the energy saving and emission reduction goals of the transportation industry, and the coordinated development of the industry and the economy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 15629 KiB  
Article
Identifying Key Issues in Climate Change Litigation: A Machine Learning Text Analytic Approach
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16530; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316530 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 687
Abstract
As climate change, environmental, social, and governance (ESG), along with sustainability, become increasingly crucial for businesses and society, there is a noticeable scarcity of information and transparency regarding corporate practices. Often, government agency enforcement actions lead to litigation and are ultimately resolved by [...] Read more.
As climate change, environmental, social, and governance (ESG), along with sustainability, become increasingly crucial for businesses and society, there is a noticeable scarcity of information and transparency regarding corporate practices. Often, government agency enforcement actions lead to litigation and are ultimately resolved by court decisions. Moreover, in instances when there is perceived inadequacy in government enforcement, citizens frequently turn to the courts for preventive judgments against businesses or agencies. In an effort to shed light on the multifaceted aspects of climate change, we adopted a novel, exploratory approach to analyze climate change-related litigation cases. Utilizing a blend of machine learning-based text analytics, we have extracted key insights from individual case narratives. Our analysis encompassed over four hundred cases from the Westlaw database through various keyword searches. The emergent topics from our case dataset revolved around four critical environmental themes: forest, land, water, and air emissions. Our findings provide insight into the nature and dimensions of climate change and also carry significant policy implications, laying the groundwork for future research in this domain. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 8607 KiB  
Article
Determination of Nitrate Migration and Distribution through Eutric Cambisols in an Area without Anthropogenic Sources of Nitrate (Velika Gorica Well Field, Croatia)
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16529; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316529 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Natural potential sources of nitrate contamination involve decaying of organic matter, bacterial production, atmospheric deposition, and soil N. The study presents the first results of nitrate distribution and migration through soil horizons of the Eutric Cambisols, one of the most common soils developed [...] Read more.
Natural potential sources of nitrate contamination involve decaying of organic matter, bacterial production, atmospheric deposition, and soil N. The study presents the first results of nitrate distribution and migration through soil horizons of the Eutric Cambisols, one of the most common soils developed in the area of the Zagreb aquifer and situated in an area without potential anthropogenic sources of nitrate (first sanitary protection zone of the Velika Gorica well field). A total of 16 parameters of soil water and 16 parameters of soil were used to conduct statistical techniques and analyse associated factors within the soil zone. The results indicate that in the deepest soil horizon, nitrogen is present mostly as nitrate due to nitrification under aerobic conditions which promote stability and the potential for nitrate transport. It was found that nitrate concentrations are the result of soil N nitrification, caused by a NO3/Cl molar ratio higher than 1 and the absence of precipitation isotopic signature. The results also show that within the coarse-grained Eutric Cambisols N primarily migrates to deeper parts of unsaturated zone in the form of nitrate and nitrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil and Water Pollution: Causes, Effects and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 5549 KiB  
Review
Exploring the Integration of the Land, Water, and Energy Nexus in Sustainable Food Systems Research through a Socio-Economic Lens: A Systematic Literature Review
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16528; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316528 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 744
Abstract
The efficient use of land, water, and energy resources in Africa is crucial for achieving sustainable food systems (SFSs). A SFS refers to all the related activities and processes from farm to fork and the range of actors contributing to the availability of [...] Read more.
The efficient use of land, water, and energy resources in Africa is crucial for achieving sustainable food systems (SFSs). A SFS refers to all the related activities and processes from farm to fork and the range of actors contributing to the availability of food at all times. This study aimed to analyse the growth in the land–water–energy (LWE) nexus integration in sustainable food system research. The focus was on publication growth, the thematic areas covered, and how the research addressed the policies, programmes, and practices using a socio-economic lens. The study utilised a systematic literature review approach, following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The study underscored the limited emphasis on the socio-economic perspective in the examination of the LWE nexus within sustainable food system research in Africa. Policies, governance, institutional influences, and social inclusion are crucial for addressing the region-specific challenges and achieving sustainable outcomes, but they seemed to be underrepresented in current research efforts. More so, this review revealed a paucity of research on key influencing factors like gender, conflict, culture, and socio-political dynamics. Ignoring these social factors might contribute to an inadequate management of natural resources, perpetuating issues related to food security and equity in resource use and decision-making. Additionally, the dominance of non-African institutions in knowledge production found in this review highlighted a potential gap in locally owned solutions and perspectives, which are crucial for effective policy development and implementation, often leading to failures in addressing region-specific challenges and achieving sustainable outcomes. Overall, the study highlighted the need for a more holistic approach that not only considers the technical aspects of the LWE nexus but also the social, cultural, and institutional dimensions. Additionally, fostering collaboration with local institutions and ensuring a diverse range of influencing factors can contribute to more comprehensive and contextually appropriate solutions for achieving sustainable food systems in Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

2 pages, 662 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Surma et al. Assessing Employee Engagement in a Post-COVID-19 Workplace Ecosystem. Sustainability 2021, 13, 11443
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16527; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316527 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1082 KiB  
Article
Adherence to the EAT-Lancet Dietary Recommendations for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet—The Case of the Brazuca Natal Study
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16526; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316526 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Background: The “EAT-Lancet Commission Summary Report” commission remodeled the concept of healthy and sustainable diets by proposing a “diet for the Anthropocene”, encouraging the development of indices that measure adherence to sustainable diets with a planetary scope. We aimed to report the adherence [...] Read more.
Background: The “EAT-Lancet Commission Summary Report” commission remodeled the concept of healthy and sustainable diets by proposing a “diet for the Anthropocene”, encouraging the development of indices that measure adherence to sustainable diets with a planetary scope. We aimed to report the adherence of adults and elderly people in a northeastern Brazilian capital to the EAT-Lancet recommendations. Methods: We used data from 411 participants in the population-based study. The dietary data were collected with Globodiet, over a standardized 24 h. The diet sustainability data were verified using the Planetary Health Diet Index (PHDI). A Pearson correlation test verified the correlation between the PHDI and the independent variables. We conducted linear regression models that were adjusted for potential confounding variables to examine the correlation between the adherence to the PHDI and the independent variables. Results: The mean total score for the adherence to the PHDI was 29.4 points in a score with a possible range from 0 to 150. Regarding the component scores, the highest scores in the adequacy component were for fruits, followed by legumes and vegetables, while the lowest scores in the moderation group were for animal fat and red meat. We observed, in the final model, that the explanatory variables for the PHDI were being male and not consuming alcohol, which were directly related to the PHDI, while having 1 to 9 years of study and being food insecure were indirectly related to the score. Conclusions: Our results showed a low adherence to a sustainable eating pattern, far from the EAT-Lancet recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Insecurity, Consumption and Sustainable Behavior)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1394 KiB  
Article
Side Effects of Single-Transgene or Pyramided Genetically Modified Maize on the Generalist Endoparasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16525; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316525 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 651
Abstract
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an agricultural pest native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, with considerable potential for global invasion and seasonal migration. Although genetically modified (GM) plants have shown positive impacts on the economy [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an agricultural pest native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, with considerable potential for global invasion and seasonal migration. Although genetically modified (GM) plants have shown positive impacts on the economy and the environment as they synthesize proteins that act as natural insecticides and are primarily intended to protect the crops from damage by specific pests, potential effects of Bt toxins on non-target organisms can occur. This experiment aimed to evaluate the potential impacts on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), using the pupae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as hosts, which were fed with transgenic maize genotypes such as Herculex®, expressing Cry1F protein, and PowerCore®, expressing Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and Cry2Ab2 proteins, or their non-transgenic isohybrid. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replicates. Spodoptera frugiperda larvae were fed ad libitum with transgenic and non-transgenic maize until the pupal stage and then individually exposed to six P. elaeisis females for 78 h. The total number of adults, emerged males, tibia size, cephalic capsule size, and parasitoid body size were not influenced by host feeding. However, the number of emerged females from the Herculex® and PowerCore® treatments was lower than that for the isohybrid treatment. The sex ratio and longevity of parasitoids emerging from PowerCore® were 1.05 and 1.26 times lower, respectively, than that of those from the isohybrid. Furthermore, the number of dead P. elaeisis within the host pupa was 10.56 times higher in the PowerCore® genotype. Combining Bt proteins within pyramided genotypes should cause minimal impacts and promote the conservation and integration of beneficial insects. The results of this study provide helpful information for developing effective and compatible integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Pest Control and Sustainable Agricultural Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1444 KiB  
Article
Influence of Consumption Decisions of Rural Residents in the Context of Rapid Urbanization: Evidence from Sichuan, China
by and
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16524; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316524 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Background: Promoting the transformation and upgrading of China’s rural consumer market is of strategic significance for maintaining sustainable economic development in the process of urbanization. Research objects and methods: Our objectives were to explore the influencing factors of rural residents’ consumption decision making [...] Read more.
Background: Promoting the transformation and upgrading of China’s rural consumer market is of strategic significance for maintaining sustainable economic development in the process of urbanization. Research objects and methods: Our objectives were to explore the influencing factors of rural residents’ consumption decision making and to provide reference for formulating relevant policies. This study adopted the questionnaire survey method and collected 300 valid questionnaires. Through statistical analysis of questionnaire data and multiple linear regression analysis, the key factors affecting rural residents’ consumption decision making were determined. Results: Education level, family income, consumption view and sociocultural factors are the main factors affecting the consumption decision of rural residents. In addition, personal cognition and attitude are also important factors affecting rural residents’ consumption decisions. In addition, social influence also has a certain positive impact on consumer decisions. Conclusion: The key factors affecting rural residents’ consumption decision making are external factors, including education level and sociocultural factors, and internal factors, namely family income and family consumption concept. At the same time, personal cognition and attitude also play an important role in consumption decisions. The purpose of this study is to provide objective suggestions for improving and expanding the rural consumption market at the policy level, so as to promote the upgrading of rural consumption in China. The influence of rural residents’ consumption decisions on local economic stability was investigated. The economic stability of farmers’ consumption can be understood by analyzing their consumption tendency and consumption pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Sustainable Household Behaviors: Consumption and Mobility)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 12855 KiB  
Article
Trends of High and Low Values of Annual and Seasonal Precipitation in Turkey
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16523; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316523 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 700
Abstract
The exploration of precipitation data trends using innovative analysis methods is anticipated to offer significant contributions to sustainability across various domains, including water resources management, agricultural planning, climate change understanding, environmental protection, risk assessment, and preparedness. This study employs an improved visualization of [...] Read more.
The exploration of precipitation data trends using innovative analysis methods is anticipated to offer significant contributions to sustainability across various domains, including water resources management, agricultural planning, climate change understanding, environmental protection, risk assessment, and preparedness. This study employs an improved visualization of the innovative trend analysis (IV-ITA) method for detecting annual and seasonal trends in precipitation variables across 194 stations in Turkey over the period 1969–2020. The outcomes derived from the IV-ITA method were further juxtaposed with the results obtained from the classical Mann–Kendall (MK) test. Using the MK test, statistically significant increasing trends were detected in the annual pattern along the northern coasts of Turkey. Based on the results obtained from the IV-ITA, substantial decreasing trends were identified in the basins within the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. Conversely, an increasing trend was observed in the basins situated in the northwest. It was also established that an increasing trend was observed throughout Turkey, except for some stations in the low-data group. The most significant increasing trend was noted in the basins along the southern coastline, characterized by the prevalence of the Mediterranean climate. In the high-data group, an increase of up to 50% was noted along the southwest coast. Upon comparing the outcomes derived from the IV-ITA method with those obtained using the MK test, it becomes apparent that the IV-ITA yields significantly more detailed results than the MK test. Additionally, applying the IV-ITA method in climate-sensitive regions and basins is envisioned to enhance the accuracy of assessments, foster a sustainable environment, and improve the effective management of water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air, Climate Change and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 3170 KiB  
Review
Applications of Information Technology in Building Carbon Flow
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16522; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316522 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 951
Abstract
The construction industry, as one of the three major carbon emission (CE) industries, accounts for about 39% of the global CE. Thus, approaches for energy saving and emission reduction (ES/ER) cannot be delayed. With the advent of the Industry 4.0 era, information technology [...] Read more.
The construction industry, as one of the three major carbon emission (CE) industries, accounts for about 39% of the global CE. Thus, approaches for energy saving and emission reduction (ES/ER) cannot be delayed. With the advent of the Industry 4.0 era, information technology (IT) is used to investigate CE in the construction industry, which provides great convenience for measuring and calculating building carbon emissions (BCE) and proposing effective ES/ER measures. However, limited studies have provided a holistic overview of the application of IT in BCE. To fill this gap, this study searched related articles and screened 170 relevant papers. Based on the characteristics of the literature, building carbon flow (BCF) was defined. Based on scientometric analysis and network mapping analysis, combined with quantitative and qualitative analysis methods, the functions, advantages, and limitations of IT in each stage of BCF research were reviewed. Finally, the research trends and future research directions of IT in the BCF were discussed. Specifically, the building information model technology penetrates the whole process of BCF research, deep learning and artificial intelligence have great potential in BCF research, and multi-information technology integration will become the focus of subsequent research in the construction industry. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

23 pages, 3508 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Design of UAS Air Route Network Based on a Hierarchical Location–Allocation Model
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16521; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316521 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 572
Abstract
This research concentrates on the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) demand sites’ hierarchical location–allocation problem in air route network design. With demand sites (locations where UAS operations are requested) organized and allocated according to the spatial hierarchy of UAS traffic flows, the hierarchical structure [...] Read more.
This research concentrates on the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) demand sites’ hierarchical location–allocation problem in air route network design. With demand sites (locations where UAS operations are requested) organized and allocated according to the spatial hierarchy of UAS traffic flows, the hierarchical structure guarantees resource conservation and economies of scale through traffic consolidation. Therefore, in this paper, the UAS route network with a three-level hierarchy is developed under a multi-objective decision-making framework, where concerns about UAS transportation efficiency from the user side and construction efficiency from the supplier side are both simultaneously considered. Specifically, a bi-level Hybrid Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm (HSAGA) with global and local search combined is proposed to determine the optimal number, location, and allocation of hierarchical sites. Moreover, using the information of site closeness and UAS demand distribution, two problem-specific local search operators are designed to explore elite neighborhood regions instead of all the search space. A case study based on the simulated UAS travel demand data of the Beijing area in China was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the impact of critical parameter settings on the network layout was explored as well. Findings from this study will offer new insights for UAS traffic management in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development of Airspace Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 3788 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Complexity Analysis of R&D Levels in the Automotive Industry under the Dual-Credit Policy
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16520; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316520 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 632
Abstract
The dual-credit policy, as an important emerging policy in the Chinese automotive industry intended to achieve energy savings, emissions reductions, and promote the development of new energy vehicles (NEVs), has attracted considerable attention from scholars. This study investigates how this policy affects the [...] Read more.
The dual-credit policy, as an important emerging policy in the Chinese automotive industry intended to achieve energy savings, emissions reductions, and promote the development of new energy vehicles (NEVs), has attracted considerable attention from scholars. This study investigates how this policy affects the research and development (R&D) levels of both component suppliers and vehicle manufacturers in the automotive supply chain. Assuming the bounded rationality of the participants, we construct a complex dynamic evolutionary model under Stackelberg games to explore the impact of the policy on the dynamic game behavior and equilibrium stability of R&D levels. Furthermore, we examine the influences of various parameters on the R&D level complex system. The findings reveal that the disparity in the proportion of NEVs in the policy should not be too large; otherwise, bifurcation and chaos may occur in the R&D level game system. Moreover, higher supplier research efficiency contributes to the stability of R&D levels, while the higher credit trading price is not suitable for stable R&D levels. This paper theoretically reveals the dynamic impact of the dual-credit policy on the R&D levels in the automotive supply chain, bridging the gap between previous studies assuming decision-makers as fully rational and the reality of bounded rationality. It also provides managerial recommendations for the implementation details of this policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Perspective on Power Systems and Renewable Energy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 2635 KiB  
Article
Security Risk Assessment Framework for the Healthcare Industry 5.0
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16519; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316519 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
The relevance of Industry 5.0 confirms the collaborative relationship between humans and machines through an inclusive automation process. The healthcare industry at present is facilitated by the use of these emerging technologies, which promise a more personalized, patient-centric approach, enabling more prompt, cost-effective, [...] Read more.
The relevance of Industry 5.0 confirms the collaborative relationship between humans and machines through an inclusive automation process. The healthcare industry at present is facilitated by the use of these emerging technologies, which promise a more personalized, patient-centric approach, enabling more prompt, cost-effective, and efficacious medical care to the affected. However, managing enormous data volumes, lack of standards, risks to data security, and regulatory obstacles, such as regulatory compliance, are critical issues that must be addressed to ensure that Industry 5.0 can be effectively integrated into the healthcare industry. This research assumes significance in the stated context as it seeks to reveal the gaps between security risks and threats assessments for personalized healthcare services based on Industry 5.0. The study’s investigations cite that the identification of security risks and various threats is an imperative need and must be prioritized so as to ensure optimal security for the healthcare system. Furthermore, the study peruses various security threats and security risk assessments for enhancing and safeguarding the healthcare industry. Moreover, the study also proposes a framework for security risk assessment based on Industry 5.0 (SRVFHI5.0) for the healthcare security system. A step-wise procedure is applied to validate the proposed framework and provide support for designing feasible security evaluation criteria and tools for future research. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the measure of the applicability of multiple criteria, the tool’s reliability, and factor analysis. This offers an adequate basis for accepting the suggested risk assessment methodology based on Healthcare Industry 5.0 for implementation as well as further research and analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sustainable Techniques and Technologies for Industry 5.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 5386 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Changing Socioeconomic Conditions in Europe on the Prioritisation of Risks in Travel Behaviour: A Case Study
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16518; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316518 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Pandemics, political instability, social conflict and unrest, the economic crisis resulting from changes in energy supply contracts, terrorism, and civil and international wars exert a negative impact on the lives of millions of people. These events undermine economic and social stability, and they [...] Read more.
Pandemics, political instability, social conflict and unrest, the economic crisis resulting from changes in energy supply contracts, terrorism, and civil and international wars exert a negative impact on the lives of millions of people. These events undermine economic and social stability, and they affect travel behaviour (TB). Understanding preferences in travel behaviour is essential for designing effective and sustainable transport systems. Agenda 2030 (the global sustainable development strategy) assigns a central role to mobility and transport in sustainable development and its components: economic, social, and environmental. Relevant research is scarce, which is why potential threats, including changes in socioeconomic factors that affect TB in functional urban areas (FUAs), should be identified and prioritised. The main aim of this study was to determine changes in the prioritisation of threats to TB resulting from the socioeconomic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and the energy crisis in Europe. The study involved an analysis of the literature, a comprehensive classification of potential threats that could impact TB, as well as an expert survey. The results of these analyses were used to develop a list of 46 factors that were grouped into six categories of key threats: social, economic, legal, infrastructural, technological/SMART, and environmental. The level of significance, similarities, and differences in the prioritisation of threats during the COVID-19 pandemic and the energy crisis after the outbreak of the military conflict in Ukraine (duration and range) were compared across 22 European countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7214 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Construction Projects’ Alternatives Using Lean Construction and Sustainability Principles in an Information Model Framework
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16517; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316517 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 586
Abstract
This study evaluates and validates how BIM functionalities can foster the consideration of lean construction and sustainability principles in building design. To this end, a plugin was developed and implemented in a BIM-enabled visualization environment. This system aims to help a user decide [...] Read more.
This study evaluates and validates how BIM functionalities can foster the consideration of lean construction and sustainability principles in building design. To this end, a plugin was developed and implemented in a BIM-enabled visualization environment. This system aims to help a user decide the best design between alternatives, while considering the user’s perspective on what generates value in the project. To illustrate and validate the usability and importance of the system, the design of a warehouse with specific requirements was considered. Four design alternatives were modeled considering different types of superstructures, building envelopes, and materials. The system imported an external database and calculated the general costs, CO2 emissions, and thermal comfort indicators for each model. It also incorporated user-defined weights for each indicator and graphically displayed the results indicating the best options through a multiple attribute decision method. From the obtained results, it was concluded that it is possible to integrate BIM and lean principles to support sustainable development in the construction industry. Through an experiment with warehouse alternatives, the proposed approach revealed that the best project could save nearly 50% of CO2 emissions when compared to the worst project and that the second-best project had the best performance in terms of thermal heat flow (1.80 Megawatts). The results also indicate that the system can be a great asset in supporting the decision-making process of selecting the best design alternative and understanding the impact of design changes on cost and on the environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 4163 KiB  
Review
Waste-Based Adsorbents for the Removal of Phenoxyacetic Herbicides from Water: A Comprehensive Review
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16516; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316516 - 03 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
An overview of different adsorbents, based on agricultural and household waste, for chlorophenoxy herbicides removal from water is presented. Several groups of adsorbents are discussed, taking into account the modification method used on the initial material and the type of final product obtained. [...] Read more.
An overview of different adsorbents, based on agricultural and household waste, for chlorophenoxy herbicides removal from water is presented. Several groups of adsorbents are discussed, taking into account the modification method used on the initial material and the type of final product obtained. The adsorbent characteristics and the conditions of the adsorption measurements are given, and a discussion on the obtained results is presented, along with a theoretical description, following the application of various equations and models. A group of the most effective adsorbents is indicated, based on the analysis of the adsorption capacity, towards 2,4-D and/or MCPA, and the adsorption rate. Some important problems connected with adsorbent utility are discussed, taking into account economic and ecological aspects. Moreover, the effectiveness of the analyzed materials is observed through the analysis of its interactions with other components present in real systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling Agricultural Waste towards Low Carbon)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop