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Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 15, Issue 1 (February 2023) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The mortality rate among individuals diagnosed during the pre-Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment era was substantial. Our retrospective single-center study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV long-term survivors in a cohort of people living with HIV diagnosed between 1985 and 1994, and to speculate about potential predictive factors associated with long-term survival. Subjects surviving more than 300 months (25 years) from HIV diagnosis were defined as long-term survivors. Overall, 210 subjects were enrolled. A hazard ratio of 12.45 (95% CI 7.91-19.59) was found between individuals who were exposed to HAART and individuals who were not, with the latter being at greater risk of death. The availability and accessibility of effective antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV remain the cornerstone of survival. View this paper
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8 pages, 1307 KiB  
Article
Methods of Cleaning Taps to Prevent Hospital-Associated Infections: An Environmental Survey-Based Study
by Masayoshi Hashimoto, Satomi Asai, Kazuo Umezawa, Ryosuke Tanitsu, Miki Miyazawa, Michiko Kobayashi, Yuji Kawakami, Yoshika Sekine, Yuji Suzuki, Hayato Miyachi and Kenji Okami
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 142-149; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010015 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2074
Abstract
In hospitals, outbreaks can occur due to pathogens accumulating in the areas around the wards’ washbasins. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) was detected in an environmental survey in the high-care unit of a university hospital in Isehara, Japan, and effective cleaning methods were investigated. This [...] Read more.
In hospitals, outbreaks can occur due to pathogens accumulating in the areas around the wards’ washbasins. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) was detected in an environmental survey in the high-care unit of a university hospital in Isehara, Japan, and effective cleaning methods were investigated. This study investigated methods of cleaning taps using commonly used detergents and disinfectants, and it assessed their effectiveness in removing hard scale and pathogens, including CRE. The taps were cleaned using various methods and cleaning agents, including environmentally neutral detergent, citric acid, baking soda, cleanser, 80% ethanol, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite, and a phosphoric acid-based environmental detergent (Space Shot). The cleaning effect was assessed based on the agent’s effectiveness at removing hard scale from taps. Biofilms and scale were identified on taps, and several bacterial species were cultured. Only phosphoric acid-based detergent was effective at removing hard scale. After cleaning with the phosphoric acid-based detergent, the bacterial count decreased, and no CRE or other pathogens were detected. These results provide a reference for other facilities considering introducing this cleaning method. Full article
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10 pages, 2586 KiB  
Case Report
Flea-Borne Typhus Causing Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: An Autopsy Case
by Divya Chandramohan, Moyosore Awobajo, Olivia Fisher, Christopher L. Dayton and Gregory M. Anstead
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 132-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010014 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
Infection with members of the order Rickettsiales (the genera Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Orientia, and Ehrlichia) is known to cause hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The literature is scant on flea-borne typhus (FBT) being implicated in this process. We present a case of [...] Read more.
Infection with members of the order Rickettsiales (the genera Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Orientia, and Ehrlichia) is known to cause hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The literature is scant on flea-borne typhus (FBT) being implicated in this process. We present a case of autopsy-proven HLH caused by FBT in a 71-year-old diabetic female who was initially suspected of having diabetic ketoacidosis who rapidly suffered decompensated multi-organ failure. Although she was suspected of having FBT and HLH pre-mortem, due to her rapid progression to multi-organ failure, she was transitioned to comfort care by her family five days after admission. A literature search yielded five other cases of HLH secondary to FBT, which are analyzed in this review. The literature on HLH occurring with infection due to other members of the order Rickettsiales is also surveyed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Diseases)
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7 pages, 238 KiB  
Communication
Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study at a Regional Hospital
by Judith Pannier, Norbert Nass, Mohamad-Kamal Yaakoub, Florian Michael Maria Stelzner, Susann Veit, Margarita Kalomoiri, Mahdi Yassine and Gerhard Behre
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 125-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010013 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Background: Monoclonal antibodies represent one option for treatment of COVID-19 early after infection. Although large clinical trials have been successfully conducted, real world data are needed to obtain a realistic assessment of the assumed effect on hospitalization rates. Methods: For this retrospective, observational [...] Read more.
Background: Monoclonal antibodies represent one option for treatment of COVID-19 early after infection. Although large clinical trials have been successfully conducted, real world data are needed to obtain a realistic assessment of the assumed effect on hospitalization rates. Methods: For this retrospective, observational study, clinical data were collected in 2021 from outpatients (402) as well as hospitalized patients (350) receiving monoclonal antibodies Bamlanivimab, Casirivimab/Imdevimab or Etesevimab/Bamlanivimab. These data were compared with data from a control group of patients not receiving antibodies because admission to the hospital was too late for this therapy. Results: Both groups showed a comparable spectrum of risk factors. Due to the late hospitalization of control patients, a higher frequency of severe symptoms, such as fever, dyspnea, syncope and lower viral load, were observed. CRP and leukocytes counts were also higher in the untreated group. Most importantly, hospitalization time was significantly shorter and the number of deaths was also lower in the treated group. Conclusions: Apparently, the application of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies reduced the work load of our hospital as shown by the shorter hospitalization time and lower number of COVID-19-related deaths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viral Infections)
13 pages, 1647 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Performance of Individual Symptoms to Predict SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Positivity and Symptom Persistence among Suspects Presenting in Primary Care during the First Wave of COVID-19
by Mona Savoy, Benoît Kopp, Aziz Chaouch, Christine Cohidon, Alexandre Gouveia, Patrick Lombardo, Muriel Maeder, Sylvie Payot, Jean Perdrix, Joëlle Schwarz, Nicolas Senn and Yolanda Mueller
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 112-124; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010012 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
This study aimed to estimate the diagnostic performance of patient symptoms and to describe the clinical course of RT-PCR-positive compared with RT-PCR-negative patients in primary care. Symptomatic COVID-19 suspects were assessed clinically at the initial consultation in primary care between March and May [...] Read more.
This study aimed to estimate the diagnostic performance of patient symptoms and to describe the clinical course of RT-PCR-positive compared with RT-PCR-negative patients in primary care. Symptomatic COVID-19 suspects were assessed clinically at the initial consultation in primary care between March and May 2020, followed by phone consultations over a span of at least 28 days. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated for each symptom using the initial RT-PCR result as a reference standard. The proportions of symptomatic patients according to the RT-PCR test results were compared over time, and time to recovery was estimated. Out of 883 patients, 13.9% had a positive RT-PCR test, and 17.4% were not tested. Most sensitive symptoms were cough, myalgia, and a history of fever, while most specific symptoms were fever for ≥4 days, hypo/anosmia, and hypo/ageusia. At the final follow up (median time 55 days, range 28–105 days), 44.7% of patients still reported symptoms in the RT-PCR-positive group, compared with 18.3% in the negative group (p < 0.001), mostly with hypo/anosmia (16.3%), dyspnea (12.2%), and fatigue (10.6%). The discriminative value of individual symptoms for diagnosing COVID-19 was limited. Almost half of the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients still reported symptoms at least 28 days after the initial consultation. Full article
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10 pages, 613 KiB  
Case Report
Mucosal Sporotrichosis from Zoonotic Transmission: Descriptions of Four Case Reports
by Yong Yaw Yeow, Xue Ting Tan and Lee Lee Low
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 102-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010011 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Background: Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus of the genus Sporothrix. Zoonotic-transmitted sporotrichosis has become a major public health concern and is characterised by a different clinical pattern from the traditional epidemiology of sporotrichosis. Case presentation: [...] Read more.
Background: Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus of the genus Sporothrix. Zoonotic-transmitted sporotrichosis has become a major public health concern and is characterised by a different clinical pattern from the traditional epidemiology of sporotrichosis. Case presentation: We present the details of four patients with mucosal sporotrichosis with regional lymphadenopathy (three cases of granulomatous conjunctivitis and one case of nasal sporotrichosis). The patients’ age range was between 23 to 46 years old and their gender was three female and one male patient. All four patients shared the same ethnicity, Malay, and they had a common history of owning domestic cats as pets. Sporothrix schenckii were isolated from all the culture samples and its antifungal susceptibility patterns were compared in the mycelial and yeast phases. All four patients recovered with oral itraconazole treatment, but the treatment duration was variable among patients. Conclusions: People who have a history of contact with domestic cats should be aware of the possibility of sporotrichosis infection. It can present in cutaneous, lymphocutaneous, disseminated, or systemic forms. Early treatment and the prevention of disease progression are more beneficial to patients. The published data concludes that antifungal treatment is highly efficacious, although the reported treatment duration is variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fungal Infections)
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8 pages, 566 KiB  
Brief Report
HIV Infection Indicator Disease-Based Active Case Finding in a University Hospital: Results from the SHOT Project
by Andrea De Vito, Agnese Colpani, Maria Sabrina Mameli, Paola Bagella, Vito Fiore, Claudio Fozza, Maria Antonia Montesu, Alessandro Giuseppe Fois, Fabiana Filigheddu, Noemi Manzoni, Carlo Putzu, Sergio Babudieri and Giordano Madeddu
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 94-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010010 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
In 2014, UNAIDS launched renewed global targets for HIV control to achieve by 2025, known as “the three 95”: 95% of people living with HIV (PWH) diagnosed, of which 95% are receiving treatment, of which 95% are on sustained virological suppression. In Italy, [...] Read more.
In 2014, UNAIDS launched renewed global targets for HIV control to achieve by 2025, known as “the three 95”: 95% of people living with HIV (PWH) diagnosed, of which 95% are receiving treatment, of which 95% are on sustained virological suppression. In Italy, new HIV diagnoses have been steadily decreasing since 2012. However, in 2020, 41% of new diagnoses presented with less than 200 CD4+ cells/µL and 60% with less than 350 CD4+ cells/µL. Implementing testing and early treatment is a key strategy to prevent AIDS, late presentation, and HIV transmission. We selected non-Infectious Diseases Units based on the European project HIDES and engaged colleagues in a condition-guided HIV screening strategy. We enrolled 300 patients, of which 202 were males (67.3%) and 98 were females (32.7%). Most of the screening was performed in Infectious Diseases (ID) and Hematologic wards. In total, we diagnosed eleven new HIV infections with a hospital prevalence in the study population of 3.7%. Five (45.4%) had a CD4 count <100/mm3, one (9.1%) <200/mm3, and one (9.1%) <300/mm3. Regarding risk factors, 81.8% declared having had unprotected sexual intercourse and 54.5% were heterosexual. All patients promptly started a combination antiretroviral regimen and 10 (90.9%) obtained an undetectable HIV-RNA status. Eight of the eleven (72.7%) patients are currently on follow-up in our outpatient clinic. A proactive indicator disease-guided screening can help avoid missed opportunities to diagnose HIV infection in a hospital setting. Implementing this kind of intervention could favor early diagnosis and access to treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV/AIDS: Transmission, Prevention and Treatment)
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10 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
A Cross-Sectional Study of Coronavirus Disease Prevention Practices among University Staff and Students in Durban, South Africa in 2020–2021
by Maureen Nokuthula Sibiya, Kelechi Elizabeth Oladimeji, Felix Emeka Anyiam and Olanrewaju Oladimeji
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 84-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010009 - 23 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2090
Abstract
Background: Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on individuals, education, and the economy. During its peak, the pandemic forced school closures. Although there is currently no cure for corona virus, non-pharmaceutical measures can help prevent its spread. Among these preventive [...] Read more.
Background: Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on individuals, education, and the economy. During its peak, the pandemic forced school closures. Although there is currently no cure for corona virus, non-pharmaceutical measures can help prevent its spread. Among these preventive measures are regular handwashing with soap and water or the use of hand sanitizers, avoiding touching the mouth, nose, and eyes, social distancing, and the use of face masks. As a result, this study investigated COVID-19 prevention practices among Durban University of Technology staff and students in South Africa. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, data were gathered online via self-administered, structured questionnaires from 5849 university students and staff members between May 2020 and March 2021. Utilizing descriptive statistics, the characteristics of the study sample were reported. Using logistic regression models, the relationship between demographic characteristics and the overall level of COVID-19 preventive practices was evaluated. Results: The multivariate logistic regression model showed statistically significantly associations for COVID-19 preventive practices by: male (AOR: 9.815, 95% CI: 1.721–55.959, p = 0.01) compared to female participants, single participants (AOR: 6.012, 95% CI: 2.070–17.461, p = 0.001) compared to other marital categories, and those in the faculty of Health Sciences (AOR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.023–2.894, p = 0.041) compared to other faculties. Conclusions: Overall, the study’s preventive practices were commendable; they were also influenced by socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, marital status, and university faculty. Increasing age was associated with reduced compliance with COVID-19 preventive practices. In addition, men demonstrated greater caution than women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viral Infections)
14 pages, 1934 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Survivors in a Cohort of People Living with HIV Diagnosed between 1985 and 1994: Predictive Factors Associated with More Than 25 Years of Survival
by Federica Cosentino, Andrea Marino, Laura Anile, Vittoria Moscatt, Maria Gussio, Vincenzo Boscia, Roberto Bruno, Giuseppe Nunnari, Alfredo Pulvirenti, Grete Francesca Privitera, Bruno Santi Cacopardo, Manuela Ceccarelli and Benedetto Maurizio Celesia
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 70-83; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010008 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Although the mortality rate among individuals diagnosed during the pre-Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment era has been substantial, a considerable number of them survived. Our study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV long-term survivors in a cohort of People Living with HIV diagnosed [...] Read more.
Although the mortality rate among individuals diagnosed during the pre-Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment era has been substantial, a considerable number of them survived. Our study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV long-term survivors in a cohort of People Living with HIV diagnosed between 1985 and 1994 and to speculate about potential predictive factors associated to long survival. This is a retrospective single-center study. Subjects surviving more than 300 months (25 years) from HIV diagnosis were defined as Long Term Survivors. Overall, 210 subjects were enrolled. More than 75.24% of the included people living with HIV were males, with a median age of 28 years (IQR 25–34). The prevalent risk factors for HIV infection were injection drug use (47.62%), followed by unprotected sex among heterosexual individuals (23.81%). Ninety-three individuals (44.29%) could be defined as LTS with a median (IQR) survival of 333 (312–377) months. A hazard ratio of 12.45 (95% CI 7.91–19.59) was found between individuals who were exposed to Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment (HAART) and individuals who were not, with the latter being at greater risk of death. The availability and accessibility of effective antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV remain the cornerstone of survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viral Infections)
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4 pages, 151 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Infectious Disease Reports in 2022
by Infectious Disease Reports Editorial Office
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 66-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010007 - 19 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
11 pages, 270 KiB  
Review
Impact of COVID-19 on Patients Hospitalized with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the United States during the Early Pandemic: An Analysis of Outcomes, Care Delivery, and Racial Disparities in Mortality
by Harris Majeed, Karthik Gangu, Rahul Shekhar, Shazib Sagheer, Ishan Garg, Hina Shuja, Aniesh Bobba, Prabal Chourasia, Sindhu Reddy Avula and Abu Baker Sheikh
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 55-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010006 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare delivery to patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the effect of COVID-19 on inpatient STEMI outcomes and to investigate changes in cardiac care delivery during 2020. We [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare delivery to patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the effect of COVID-19 on inpatient STEMI outcomes and to investigate changes in cardiac care delivery during 2020. We utilized the National Inpatient Sample database to examine inpatient mortality and cardiac procedures among STEMI patients with and without COVID-19. In our study, STEMI patients with COVID-19 had higher inpatient mortality (47.4% vs. 11.2%, aOR: 3.8, 95% CI: 3.2–4.6, p < 0.001), increased length of stay (9.0 days vs. 4.3 days, p < 0.001) and higher cost of hospitalization (USD 172,518 vs. USD 131,841, p = 0.004) when compared to STEMI patients without COVID-19. STEMI patients with COVID-19 also received significantly less invasive cardiac procedures (coronary angiograms: 30.4% vs. 50.8%, p < 0.001; PCI: 32.9% vs. 70.1%, p < 0.001; CABG: 0.9% vs. 4.1%, p < 0.001) and were more likely to receive systemic thrombolytic therapy (4.2% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001) when compared to STEMI patients without COVID-19. Our findings are the result of complications of SARS-CoV2 infection as well as alterations in healthcare delivery due to the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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12 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Georgia Matthiopoulou, Petros Ioannou, Anna Mathioudaki, John A. Papadakis, Vasiliki N. Daraki, Angelos Pappas, Sotiris Souris, Sofia Maraki, Chrysoula Stathopoulou and Diamantis P. Kofteridis
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 43-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010005 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2584
Abstract
Objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common finding in patients with diabetes. Moreover, patients with diabetes and ASB have a greater risk for symptomatic urinary tract infections and associated severe complications. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ASB, [...] Read more.
Objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common finding in patients with diabetes. Moreover, patients with diabetes and ASB have a greater risk for symptomatic urinary tract infections and associated severe complications. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ASB, as well as to identify independent risk factors and related pathogens associated with ASB in female and male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Methods: This prospective case-control study was performed at the University hospital, and the Venezeleion General Hospital, Heraklion, Greece between 2012 and 2019. All patients with T2D attending the diabetes and hypertension outpatient clinics at both hospitals were enrolled, and data regarding their medical history and clinical and laboratory profiles were recorded. Asymptomatic patients with positive urine cultures were assigned as cases while those with negative urine cultures were designated as controls. Results: A total of 437 adult patients of which 61% were female and 39% were male patients with a mean age of 70.5 ± 9.6 years, were enrolled. The prevalence of ASB was 20.1%, in total. ASB was noted in 27% of female participants and 9.4% of male participants. Higher glycated hemoglobin (OR = 3.921, 95%CI: 1.521–10.109, p < 0.001) and urinary tract infection within the previous year (OR = 13.254, 95%CI: 2.245–78.241, p < 0.001) were independently positively associated with ASB, while higher levels of vitamin B12 were independently negatively associated with ASB (OR = 0.994 per ng/mL, 95%CI: 0.989–0.999, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Development of ASB was associated with specific factors, some of which may be modifiable. Interestingly, high B12 was found to be negatively associated with ASB. Full article
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9 pages, 782 KiB  
Article
Strategies to Increase Willingness to Receive a COVID-19 Vaccine among Nursing Home Staff
by Lisa S. van Tol, Wendy Meester, Monique A. A. Caljouw and Wilco P. Achterberg
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 34-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010004 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Background: Nursing home (NH) staff and residents have been prioritized to receive COVID-19 vaccinations. However, NH staff have been hesitant. This study explored what strategies were used to overcome this hesitancy and which of these were found to be important by NH staff [...] Read more.
Background: Nursing home (NH) staff and residents have been prioritized to receive COVID-19 vaccinations. However, NH staff have been hesitant. This study explored what strategies were used to overcome this hesitancy and which of these were found to be important by NH staff to increase their willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: This study employed a sequential exploratory qualitative design. The COVID-19 MINUTES study aimed to describe the challenges presented by, responses to, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in NHs. The minutes of COVID-19 outbreak teams (COTs) in Dutch long-term care organizations (n = 41) were collected and coded using content analysis. Textual units from December 2020 to April 2021 that regarded strategies to increase staff’s vaccination willingness (n = 67) were selected. Subsequently, to validate these data, two panels of NH healthcare workers (HCWs) and policy workers (PWs) (n = 8) selected, discussed, and ranked the strategies that they found to be important using a modified nominal group technique. Results: The strategies described in the minutes included financial reimbursements, personal contact, story sharing, logistics support, role models, visual information, and written information. Except for financial reimbursement, all these strategies were considered important or very important by the panel participants. Some organizations combined multiple strategies. Conclusion: The strategies that were found important in combination may be used more broadly and should be developed further with the involvement of HCWs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in COVID-19)
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10 pages, 1234 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response Following Two Doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine: A Japanese Single-Center Primary Care Clinic Report Involving Volunteers and Patients with Autoimmune Disease
by Tomoko Sugiura, Hiroaki Sugiura, Hiroaki Kato, Yuko Nariai, Yuuki Mizumoto, Kozue Hanada, Rieko Takahashi, Yukari Hinotubo, Naoko Tanaka, Mutsumi Sasaki, Haruki Eguchi, Hiroki Kamino and Takeshi Urano
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 24-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010003 - 26 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2272
Abstract
Despite the promising effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination using an mRNA vaccine, the short efficacy duration and some poor responses to the vaccination remain major concerns. We aimed to clarify the monthly kinetics of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain antibody response [...] Read more.
Despite the promising effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination using an mRNA vaccine, the short efficacy duration and some poor responses to the vaccination remain major concerns. We aimed to clarify the monthly kinetics of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain antibody response after two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a Japanese population. A chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the antibody levels in 81 Japanese adults (age, <65 years). The antibody levels increased 10-fold at 2–3 weeks following the second dose of BNT162b2 and declined thereafter to approximately 50%, 20%, and 10% of the peak levels at 2, 3, and 6 months, respectively. To compare the antibody titers among different groups, older adults (age, >65 years; n = 38) and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 14) were also investigated. A decline in the mean relative antibody titers was observed in older men compared with younger men and in patients with SLE compared with individuals aged <65 years. Although the antibody levels increased drastically following two BNT162b2 doses, they then declined rapidly. Furthermore, poor responders to the vaccination were observed. Repeated vaccinations are required to maintain high antibody levels. Full article
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8 pages, 710 KiB  
Article
Leptospira Seroprevalence in Free-Ranging Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at Kosumpee Forest Park, Maha Sarakham, Thailand
by Natapol Pumipuntu, Tawatchai Tanee, Pensri Kyes, Penkhae Thamsenanupap, Apichat Karaket and Randall C. Kyes
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 16-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010002 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is ubiquitously distributed and is classified as a re-emerging infectious disease in humans and animals. Many serovars are carried by wildlife; all of them are capable of causing illness in humans. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is ubiquitously distributed and is classified as a re-emerging infectious disease in humans and animals. Many serovars are carried by wildlife; all of them are capable of causing illness in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Leptospirosis in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at Kosumpee Forest Park, Mahasarakham, Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the park. Blood samples were collected via saphenous vein from 30 free-ranging long-tailed macaques. All samples were tested by the microscopic agglutination test. The LipL32 gene was used to detect pathogenic Leptospira in blood samples by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Results: Screening of the 30 wild macaques showed an overall Leptospira seroreactivity of 13.33%. Three of 30 macaques reacted against Leptospira serovar Shermani and one macaque was infected with Leptospira serovar Sejroe. None of the macaques presented clinical signs of leptospirosis. None of the blood samples showed the detection of the LipL32 gene. Conclusions: The results indicate that the long-tailed macaques at Kosumpee Forest Park may act as natural reservoirs for Leptospirosis. Further, the results provide evidence-based information indicating that several pathogenic Leptospira serovars are circulating in the wild macaques in the study area. Full article
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15 pages, 1325 KiB  
Review
Universal Health Coverage for Antiretroviral Treatment: A Review
by Aklilu Endalamaw, Charles F Gilks, Fentie Ambaw, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold and Yibeltal Assefa
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2023, 15(1), 1-15; https://doi.org/10.3390/idr15010001 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Universal health coverage is essential for the progress to end threats of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. The current review assesses the publication rate, strategies and barriers for antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage, equity, quality of care, and financial protection. We searched Web of [...] Read more.
Universal health coverage is essential for the progress to end threats of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. The current review assesses the publication rate, strategies and barriers for antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage, equity, quality of care, and financial protection. We searched Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Of the available articles, 43.13% were on ART coverage, 40.28% were on financial protection, 10.43% were on quality of care, and 6.16% were on equity. A lack of ART, fear of unwanted disclosure, lack of transportation, unaffordable health care costs, long waiting time to receive care, and poverty were barriers to ART coverage. Catastrophic health care costs were higher among individuals who were living in rural settings, walked greater distances to reach health care institutions, had a lower socioeconomic status, and were immunocompromised. There were challenges to the provision of quality of care, including health care providers’ inadequate salary, high workload and inadequate health workforce, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of training opportunities, unclear division of responsibility, and the presence of strict auditing. In conclusion, ART coverage was below the global average, and key populations were disproportionally less covered with ART in most countries. Huge catastrophic health expenditures were observed. UHC contexts of ART will be improved by reaching people with poor socioeconomic status, delivering appropriate services, establishing a proper health workforce and service stewardship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viral Infections)
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