Topic Editors

Power System Automation and Cybersecurity Lab, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Koriyama 963-0298, Japan
Department of Computer Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2024)
Viewed by
34743

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Through power system evolution, distributed generators and storage devices have proliferated massively. They help to harvest sustainable energy and phase out power plants that operate using fossil fuels. Advanced storage technologies have contributed to this goal by increasing the stability of power supply. Such developments have morphed into different standalone systems such as electric vehicles, home energy systems, and isolated microgrids. All of these solutions are possible thanks to distributed generation and storage technologies.

Unsurprisingly, these developments have their own challenges. In contrast with traditional designs, these devices appear in distribution networks, thereby creating a multidirectional power flow. They almost always have capacities which are smaller than those of traditional bulk power plants. This creates issues with power supply security as well as system stability due to lack of inertia. These issues, along with others, need to be addressed for the successful application of distributed generation. Only in this fashion can very deep renewable energy penetration be achieved in power networks.

Therefore, this Topic solicits research work pertaining to distributed generation and storage technologies and their integration into all types of power networks (utility networks, microgrid, home energy system). Research work that focuses on auxiliary techniques that facilitate such migration are also of special interest, e.g., frequency control techniques or smart charging/discharging algorithms.

Dr. Taha Selim Ustun
Dr. Suhail Hussain
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • power system integration
  • power system stability
  • distributed generators
  • distributed storage
  • decentralized power system control
  • smart charging/discharging algorithms
  • electric vehicles
  • impact on power system control
  • impact on power system protection
  • frequency control of weak power networks
  • nature-inspired optimization algorithms
  • deep penetration of renewable energy
  • 100% renewable energy target
  • microgrid energy management systems

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400
World Electric Vehicle Journal
wevj
2.3 3.7 2007 14.1 Days CHF 1400

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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19 pages, 5003 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Grid-Connected Stability of VSG-Controlled PV Plant Integrated with Energy Storage System and Optimization of Control Parameters
by Qian Chen, Bing Zhu, Muyang Liu and Shanxiang Mao
Electronics 2024, 13(7), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13071343 - 02 Apr 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
In the static stability analysis of the grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) generation and energy storage (ES) system, the grid-side is often simplified using an infinite busbar equivalent, which streamlines the analysis but neglects the dynamic characteristics of the grid, leading to certain inaccuracies in [...] Read more.
In the static stability analysis of the grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) generation and energy storage (ES) system, the grid-side is often simplified using an infinite busbar equivalent, which streamlines the analysis but neglects the dynamic characteristics of the grid, leading to certain inaccuracies in the results. Furthermore, the control parameter design does not consider the coupling relationships among parameters, resulting in arbitrary values and the inability to achieve overall optimality. To address these issues, this paper presents a comprehensive parameter optimization method for the oscillation characteristics of grid-connected PV generation and ES systems in various frequency ranges. Firstly, a detailed modeling of the grid-connected PV generation and ES system is conducted, resulting in the derivation of the system’s small-signal model. This study investigates the impact of parameters related to PV arrays, ES units, and the virtual synchronous generator (VSG) on the system’s characteristic roots using participation factors, sensitivity analysis, and eigenvalue root trajectories. Subsequently, based on the analysis of system root trajectories and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, a holistic parameter optimization design method for the system’s oscillation modes is proposed, and the parameter optimization results are obtained. Finally, the accuracy of the theoretical analysis is validated through perturbation testing using both Matlab/Simulink models and the small-signal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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23 pages, 2166 KiB  
Article
Capacity Optimization Configuration for a Park-Level Hybrid Energy Storage System Based on an Improved Cuckoo Algorithm
by Zhangchenlong Huang, Lei Bei, Ben Wang and Linlin Xu
Processes 2024, 12(4), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12040718 - 01 Apr 2024
Viewed by 443
Abstract
To promote the development of green industries in the industrial park, a microgrid system consisting of wind power, photovoltaic, and hybrid energy storage (WT-PV-HES) was constructed. It effectively promotes the local consumption of wind and solar energy while reducing the burden on the [...] Read more.
To promote the development of green industries in the industrial park, a microgrid system consisting of wind power, photovoltaic, and hybrid energy storage (WT-PV-HES) was constructed. It effectively promotes the local consumption of wind and solar energy while reducing the burden on the grid infrastructure. In this study, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to decompose the multi-objective function into a single-objective function. The economic and environmental benefits of the system were taken as the objective function. Furthermore, the cuckoo search algorithm (CS) was used to solve the specific capacity of each distributed power source. Different scenarios were applied to study the specific capacity of microgrid systems. The results show that the equivalent annual cost of the WT-PV-HES microgrid system is reduced by 7.3 percent and 62.23 percent, respectively. The carbon disposal cost is reduced by 1.71 and 2.38 times, respectively. The carbon treatment cost is more sensitive to load changes. The solution iteration of the cuckoo algorithm is 18 times. Meanwhile, the system requires four updates of capacity allocation results for 20 years of operation. This result validates the effectiveness of the proposed model and methodology. It also provides a reference for the research and construction of capacity allocation of microgrid systems at the park level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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17 pages, 10276 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Operating Characteristics of Excitation System for Variable Speed Pumped Storage Unit with Full-Size Converter
by Pengyu Pan, Huabo Shi, Gang Chen, Lijie Ding, Yuanzhi Zhang and Xiaoming Zha
Electronics 2024, 13(3), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13030505 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
The variable speed pumped storage unit with a full-size converter (FSC-VSPSU) can provide fast and flexible regulation capacity for the power grid, assisting the rapid development of the new energy-dominated power systems, and its application is gradually becoming widespread. The excitation system of [...] Read more.
The variable speed pumped storage unit with a full-size converter (FSC-VSPSU) can provide fast and flexible regulation capacity for the power grid, assisting the rapid development of the new energy-dominated power systems, and its application is gradually becoming widespread. The excitation system of FSC-VSPSU is crucial for maintaining the motor-port voltage and further supports the stable operation of the entire unit. However, there is currently no research on excitation system modeling, and their essential operating characteristics have not been discussed in detail, which needs further study. With this aim, this paper firstly establishes a detailed transfer function model for FSC-VSPSU, which is then used to study the influence rules of FSC-VSPSU parameters on the operating characteristics. In addition, based on the summarized operating characteristics, the excitation system can be optimized, and its complexity is greatly reduced while ensuring the original performance of the unit. Finally, the results of the simulation can verify the correctness of the established model and the explored operating characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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21 pages, 4191 KiB  
Article
Tariff-Based Optimal Scheduling Strategy of Photovoltaic-Storage for Industrial and Commercial Customers
by Zhiyuan Zeng, Tianyou Li, Jun Su and Longyi Sun
Energies 2023, 16(20), 7079; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16207079 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) power generation exhibits stochastic and uncertain characteristics. In order to improve the economy and reliability of a photovoltaic-energy storage system (PV-ESS), it is crucial to optimize both the energy storage capacity size and the charging and discharging strategies of the ESS. [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) power generation exhibits stochastic and uncertain characteristics. In order to improve the economy and reliability of a photovoltaic-energy storage system (PV-ESS), it is crucial to optimize both the energy storage capacity size and the charging and discharging strategies of the ESS. An optimal scheduling model for PV-ESS is proposed in this paper, comprehensively considering factors in terms of energy cost and charging/discharging constraints of the PV-ESS. Moreover, the model employs a particle swarm optimization-backpropagation (PSO-BP) neural network to predict the PV power using historical generation data from a factory in Xiamen. The proposed two PV-ESS scheduling strategies are compared under three weather conditions. In the demand management strategy, the ESS can flexibly respond to different weather conditions and load demand changes, and effectively reduce the electricity cost for users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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24 pages, 7766 KiB  
Article
Profit Extension of a Wind-Integrated Competitive Power System by Vehicle-to-Grid Integration and UPFC Placement
by Subhojit Dawn, Gummadi Srinivasa Rao, M. L. N. Vital, K. Dhananjay Rao, Faisal Alsaif and Mohammed H. Alsharif
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6730; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186730 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
Profit maximization is critical in the control of power system networks for both power providers and users. Electrical energy is freely accessible in the electrical grid during off-peak hours, with storage units helping to store excess energy and assist the electrical grid during [...] Read more.
Profit maximization is critical in the control of power system networks for both power providers and users. Electrical energy is freely accessible in the electrical grid during off-peak hours, with storage units helping to store excess energy and assist the electrical grid during high-demand situations. Such techniques promote grid stability and ensure safe operation. Because renewable resources are intermittent, energy storage technologies are especially significant in renewable-associated power systems. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has recently acquired popularity in preserving power grid stability in the presence of renewable resources.V2G technology employs automobiles as mobile storage devices and focuses on the efficient utilization of extra power available during off-peak hours. The goal of this work is to improve the functioning of a V2G system in a power network to reduce energy production costs while increasing system profitability. This study for deregulated power environments also depicts the influence of V2G mixing on system voltage profile and locational marginal pricing (LMP), as well as the performance of the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on system economics. The MiPower simulation program is used in the study to find the best placement of the power storage unit for the modified IEEE 14-bus system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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16 pages, 6491 KiB  
Article
The Application of Photovoltaic-Electric Spring Technology to Rural Power Grids
by Zhibin Cui, Junsheng Shi, Guangpeng Li, Zihan Yuan, Dehua Zang and Lidi Wang
Processes 2023, 11(6), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11061830 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Rural power grids are essential for rural development, impacting the lives of farmers, the agricultural economy, and the overall efficiency of agricultural production. To ensure the reliable operation of these grids, finding ways to provide high-quality power is imperative. In recent years, the [...] Read more.
Rural power grids are essential for rural development, impacting the lives of farmers, the agricultural economy, and the overall efficiency of agricultural production. To ensure the reliable operation of these grids, finding ways to provide high-quality power is imperative. In recent years, the penetration rate of distributed photovoltaic (PV) in the distribution network has been increasing. When the output of PV and load are not matched, the voltage fluctuation of the network affects the safe and stable operation of the distribution network. In this study, we propose that the stable operation of rural power grids can be achieved by employing a photovoltaic-electric spring (PV-ES) device. A state space model of PV-ES is established and a single PV-ES voltage control method, based on a PI controller, is proposed, taking a rural user household with a monthly power consumption of about 120 access to distributed power supply as an example. We analyzed the device’s effectiveness in addressing voltage fluctuation issues as well as how light intensity impacts its effectiveness. The implementation of the PV-ES device solves the most significant problem faced by rural power grids, namely, the unstable power supply that occurs during peak electricity consumption periods. In addition, the PV-ES device ensures a high-quality electricity consumption experience for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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15 pages, 2362 KiB  
Article
Integration of Distributed Generation and Plug-in Electric Vehicles on Power Distribution System by Using Queuing Theory
by Anant Oonsivilai, Banyat Boribun and Padej Pao-la-or
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3146; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073146 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and distributed generation (DG) can positively and negatively impact the distribution system. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and analysis of DG and PEVs’ penetration levels of the three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system. The study aims to optimize the [...] Read more.
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and distributed generation (DG) can positively and negatively impact the distribution system. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and analysis of DG and PEVs’ penetration levels of the three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system. The study aims to optimize the distribution system’s DG sizing and PEV charging to minimize total power loss. The test system is the 4th circuit of the Nonsung service station along Thaharn Road, Muang District, Udon Thani, Thailand. According to objective function and constraints, such control variables as installation buses and rated outputs of DG and the penetration levels of PEVs were obtained to evaluate the total power loss. Significantly, the charging demand of PEVs is an uncertain load estimated by queuing theory integration with the minimization tool called the differential evaluation (DE) method. According to the result comparison of a four case simulation, the total power losses of queuing theory and DE application are minimum. Finally, total power losses conform to the regulation of the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA), Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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23 pages, 5114 KiB  
Article
Planning Strategies for Distributed PV-Storage Using a Distribution Network Based on Load Time Sequence Characteristics Partitioning
by Yuanbo Zhang, Yiqiang Yang, Xueguang Zhang, Wei Pu and Hong Song
Processes 2023, 11(2), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020540 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
At present, due to the fact that large-scale distributed photovoltaics can access distribution networks and that there is a mismatch between load demand and photovoltaic output time, it is difficult for traditional distributed photovoltaic planning to meet the partition-based control of high permeability [...] Read more.
At present, due to the fact that large-scale distributed photovoltaics can access distribution networks and that there is a mismatch between load demand and photovoltaic output time, it is difficult for traditional distributed photovoltaic planning to meet the partition-based control of high permeability photovoltaic grid-connected operations. As a solution to this problem, this paper proposes a planning method for photovoltaic storage partitions. First of all, a partitioning method for electrical distance modularity based on voltage/active power and voltage/reactive power is presented, along with a modified AP-TD-K-medoids trilevel clustering algorithm that was designed to cluster and partition the distribution network. In addition, according to the partitioning results, a bilevel co-ordination planning model for distributed photovoltaic storage was developed. The upper level aimed to minimize the annual comprehensive cost for which the decision variables are the photovoltaic capacity, energy storage capacity, and power of each partition. The lower level aimed to minimize system network losses, and the decision variables for this are the photovoltaic installation capacity and energy storage installation location of the intrapartition node. Finally, we adopted the particle swarm algorithm with bilevel iterative adaptive weight to solve the planning model, and the simulation was carried out on the distribution system of the IEEE33 nodes. The results show the rationality of the model and the effectiveness of the solution method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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37 pages, 16318 KiB  
Article
An Optimal Control Approach for Enhancing Transients Stability and Resilience in Super Smart Grids
by Turki Alsuwian, Abdul Basit, Arslan Ahmed Amin, Muhammad Adnan and Mansoor Ali
Electronics 2022, 11(19), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11193236 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Super smart grids (SSGs) are a wide area transmission network that mainly uses renewable energy resources (RERs), contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions and supporting the power infrastructure of multiple countries. The SSGs comprise two-way communication between the loads and [...] Read more.
Super smart grids (SSGs) are a wide area transmission network that mainly uses renewable energy resources (RERs), contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions and supporting the power infrastructure of multiple countries. The SSGs comprise two-way communication between the loads and sources of different countries, and these loads can be mostly served with numerous types of RERs tied with the grids. The RERs will play a pivotal role in the development of future grids and the generation of electricity. However, the main challenge to tackle in these RERs is that they are intermittent in nature. Due to intermittency in these RERs, transient stability issues have become one of the critical research challenges in SSGs. These stability issues are escalated and become more difficult to handle if a network is vulnerable to an arising of different kinds of faults. To address these problems, multiple approaches to enhance transient stability already exist in the current literature. After reviewing the literature, flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) devices proved more promising in improving transient stability. Among FACTSdevices, UPFC is a versatile FACTS device, which provides complete stability to power system networks in the form of series and shunt compensations. Considering this scenario, a hypothetical network for SSGs is designed in this research work based on the interconnection between two countries, i.e., Denmark and Norway, to address the transient stability issues in SSGs. The complete probabilistic model of the system is also designed to enhance the stability of the system. The results clearly showed that the insertion of UPFC is an effective technique to enhance the transient stability and resilience of the power system networks as compared to other purposed techniques in the literature. The main contribution of this paper is that extensive simulation studies employing accurate RERs models are used to analyze and investigate various problems arising due to the integration of many clusters of RERs in SSGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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11 pages, 426 KiB  
Article
An Effective Fault Diagnosis Technique for Wind Energy Conversion Systems Based on an Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
by Majdi Mansouri, Khaled Dhibi, Hazem Nounou and Mohamed Nounou
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11195; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811195 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The current paper proposes intelligent Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approaches, aimed to ensure the high-performance operation of Wind energy conversion (WEC) systems. First, an efficient feature selection algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. The main idea behind the use [...] Read more.
The current paper proposes intelligent Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approaches, aimed to ensure the high-performance operation of Wind energy conversion (WEC) systems. First, an efficient feature selection algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. The main idea behind the use of the PSO algorithm is to remove irrelevant features and extract only the most significant ones from raw data in order to improve the classification task using a neural networks classifier. Then, to overcome the problem of premature convergence and local sub-optimal areas when using the classical PSO optimization algorithm, an improved extension of the PSO algorithm is proposed. The basic idea behind this proposal is to use the Euclidean distance as a dissimilarity metric between observations in which a single observation is kept in case of redundancies. In addition, the proposed reduced PSO-NN (RPSO-NN) technique not only enhances the results in terms of accuracy but also provides a significant reduction in computation time and storage cost by reducing the size of the training dataset and removing irrelevant and redundant samples. The experimental results showed the robustness and high performance of the proposed diagnosis paradigms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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24 pages, 3436 KiB  
Article
The Heat-Storing Micro Gas Turbine—Process Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Effects on Combustion
by Eleni Agelidou, Hannah Seliger-Ost, Martin Henke, Volker Dreißigacker, Thomas Krummrein and Peter Kutne
Energies 2022, 15(17), 6289; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176289 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics are the key to an environmentally friendly energy supply. However, their volatile power output is challenging in regard to supply security. Therefore, flexible energy systems with storage capabilities are crucial for the expansion of [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics are the key to an environmentally friendly energy supply. However, their volatile power output is challenging in regard to supply security. Therefore, flexible energy systems with storage capabilities are crucial for the expansion of renewable energy sources since they allow storing off-demand produced power and reconverting and supplying it on-demand. For this purpose, a novel power plant concept is presented where high-temperature energy storage (HTES) is integrated between the recuperator and the combustor of a conventional micro gas turbine (MGT). It is used to store renewable energy in times of oversupply, which is later used to reduce fuel demand during MGT operation. Hereby, pollutant emissions are reduced significantly, while the power grid is stabilized. This paper presents a numerical process simulation study, aiming to examine the influence of different storage temperatures and load profiles of HTES on the MGT performance (e.g., fuel consumption, efficiency). Furthermore, relevant operating points and their process parameters such as pressures, temperatures, and mass-flow rates are derived. As operation conditions for the combustor are strongly influenced by the HTES, the paper contains a detailed theoretical analysis of the impact on combustor operability and includes an experimental investigation of the first combustor design adapted for the compound and tested under higher inlet temperatures conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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20 pages, 4949 KiB  
Article
Sub-Synchronous Oscillation Suppression Strategy Based on Impedance Modeling by Attaching Virtual Resistance Controllers for Doubly-Fed Induction Generator
by Yingming Liu, Guoxian Guo, Xiaodong Wang, Hanbo Wang and Liming Wang
Electronics 2022, 11(14), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11142272 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1619
Abstract
A sub-synchronous oscillation (SSO) suppression strategy of attaching virtual resistance controllers to the rotor-side converter (RSC) of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is proposed in this study to suppress sub-synchronous oscillation (SSO) caused by series compensation and grid connection of DFIG. A DFIG-based [...] Read more.
A sub-synchronous oscillation (SSO) suppression strategy of attaching virtual resistance controllers to the rotor-side converter (RSC) of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is proposed in this study to suppress sub-synchronous oscillation (SSO) caused by series compensation and grid connection of DFIG. A DFIG-based frequency domain impedance model considering RSC control under small signal perturbations is developed in a three-phase stationary coordinate system. Subsequently, the factors and mechanisms of SSO in the system with different phase sequences are analyzed in combination with the equivalent RLC resonant circuit of a DFIG-based series-compensated grid-connected system (SCGCS). SSO occurs when RSC and rotor winding generate a large equivalent negative resistance at the SSO frequency, resulting in a negative total system resistance. Additionally, the influences of series compensation degree (SCD) of line and inner loop parameters (ILPs) of RSC related to the total impedance of the system on the SSO characteristics are analyzed to optimize the parameters and improve the system stability. Based on the causes of SSO, virtual resistance controllers are attached to RSC to provide positive resistance to the system and to offset the equivalent negative resistance of RSC and rotor winding at the SSO frequency, thereby avoiding SSO of the system. Finally, time-domain simulations using power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transients including dc (PSCAD/EMTDC) show that the SSO of the system is effectively suppressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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21 pages, 5616 KiB  
Article
A Strategy for System Risk Mitigation Using FACTS Devices in a Wind Incorporated Competitive Power System
by Arup Das, Subhojit Dawn, Sadhan Gope and Taha Selim Ustun
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138069 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Electricity demand is sharply increasing with the growing population of human beings. Due to financial, social, and political barriers, there are lots of difficulties when building new thermal power plants and transmission lines. To solve this problem, renewable energy sources and flexible AC [...] Read more.
Electricity demand is sharply increasing with the growing population of human beings. Due to financial, social, and political barriers, there are lots of difficulties when building new thermal power plants and transmission lines. To solve this problem, renewable energy sources and flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) can operate together in a power network. Renewable energy sources can provide additional power to the grid, whereas FACTS devices can increase the thermal limit of existing transmission lines. It is always desirable for an electrical network to operate under stable and secure conditions. The system runs at risk if any abnormality occurs in the generation, transmission, or distribution sections. This paper outlines a strategy for reducing system risks via the optimal operation of wind farms and FACTS devices. Here, a thyristor-controlled series compensator (TCSC) and a unified power flow controller (UPFC) have both been considered for differing the thermal limit of transmission lines. The impact of the wind farm, as well as the combined effect of the wind farm and FACTS devices on system economy, were investigated in this work. Both regulated and deregulated environments have been chosen to verify the proposed approach. Value at risk (VaR) and cumulative value at risk (CVaR) calculations were used to evaluate the system risk. The work was performed on modified IEEE 14 bus and modified IEEE 30-bus systems. A comparative study was carried out using different optimization techniques, i.e., Artificial Gorilla Troops Optimizer Algorithm (AGTO), Honey Badger Algorithm (HBA), and Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to check the effect of renewable integration in the regulated and deregulated power systems in terms of system risk and operating cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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16 pages, 4689 KiB  
Article
Modelling Electric Vehicle Charge Demand: Implementation for the Greek Power System
by Stavros G. Mitrakoudis and Minas C. Alexiadis
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13070115 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
The emerging popularity of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) is creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will bring new opportunities and challenges to a system of growing complexity. The electrification of transport will increase energy security, reduce carbon [...] Read more.
The emerging popularity of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) is creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will bring new opportunities and challenges to a system of growing complexity. The electrification of transport will increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. The actual expansion of electric vehicles (EVs) will depend on several factors: the evolution of autonomy, the acquisition price, the charging process and infrastructure, etc. This paper provides a guide for simulating the accumulative load profile for EV charging on a national level. The importance of all the parameters and variables involved (deterministic or stochastic) is investigated. Detailed tables and references concerning the distribution of values and the composition of the EV fleet are provided. A multivariate probabilistic model is developed considering the EV classes, weekly and seasonal driving patterns, charging strategies, battery capacities, consumption per EV, etc., leading to an accurate estimation of aggregated EV charging demand. Finally, a net-metering scheme is proposed, in which a photovoltaic (PV) system of a certain size will be able to provide the annual energy needs of the first 10,000 EVs in the Greek market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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15 pages, 3750 KiB  
Article
Load Flow and Short-Circuit Methods for Grids Dominated by Inverter-Based Distributed Generation
by Luiz Guilherme Riva Tonini, Renato Santos Freire Ferraz and Oureste Elias Batista
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4723; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134723 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2028
Abstract
The use of power-electronics-based devices in distribution generation seeks to improve energy quality and reduce costs. The inverter-based distributed generator, that works in different operation modes, has emerged as a promising technology. In a high distributed generation penetration scenario it is important to [...] Read more.
The use of power-electronics-based devices in distribution generation seeks to improve energy quality and reduce costs. The inverter-based distributed generator, that works in different operation modes, has emerged as a promising technology. In a high distributed generation penetration scenario it is important to know the voltage profile and fault information due to the uncertainty in the generator operation and the impact that have on the network. This study aims to use two proposed methods of analysis: for power flow, based on backward/forward sweep method, and short-circuit, based on hybrid impedance matrix, that considers the inverter operation modes and represents each generator as a voltage-controlled current source. The chosen network is the IEEE 34-Node Test Feeder with a generator on each load per phase. The voltage profiles obtained will be validated with a Simulink/Matlab phasorial model. The results show an average error of 2.39% and a gain in voltage profile processing time of 2185.24%, making its use consistent for larger systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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22 pages, 14357 KiB  
Article
Zero Non-Detection Zone for Islanding Detection Based on a Novel Hybrid Passive-Active Technique with Fuzzy Inference System
by Yasser A. Elshrief, Sameh Abd-Elhaleem, Sulayman Kujabi, Dalal H. Helmi, Belal A. Abozalam and Amin D. Asham
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6325; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106325 - 22 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Distributed generation (DG) has reformed the meaning of power generation from large scale to small scale, but unintentional islanding is the main issue when connecting DG and the utility grid. A lot of techniques have been used for detecting islanding, among these techniques, [...] Read more.
Distributed generation (DG) has reformed the meaning of power generation from large scale to small scale, but unintentional islanding is the main issue when connecting DG and the utility grid. A lot of techniques have been used for detecting islanding, among these techniques, there are passive and active. The main problem of passive techniques is their large non-detection zone (NDZ), while the main drawback of active techniques is their undesirable effect on power quality. In this paper, a proposed hybrid passive–active systematic methodology based on a smart classifier that decides to use an active method instead of a passive one is presented. In the proposed scheme, sensors are used for measuring the reactive power at three terminals: the DG terminal, grid terminal, and load terminal. The novelty in this paper is the accurate detection of islanding within a shorter time either in the normal case or NDZ; also it can differentiate between islanding and grid faults without degrading the power quality of the overall system as the active technique does not have to be used continuously, and so total harmonic distortion does not exceed the standard value (5%) detected by IEEE standards. The proposed scheme was simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink platform, and the results reflect its potential with a comparative study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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9 pages, 1700 KiB  
Article
Research on Control Inertia and Stability of PMSG
by Xiaoning Ge, Yuxin Shi, Fang Yan, Xi Zhu and Chunming Liu
Electronics 2022, 11(10), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11101583 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
With the large-scale development and application of offshore wind resources, the proportion of powered electronic equipment in power systems is increasing, which leads to the reduction of traditional mechanical inertia and system oscillation. To solve the above problems, this paper takes the grid [...] Read more.
With the large-scale development and application of offshore wind resources, the proportion of powered electronic equipment in power systems is increasing, which leads to the reduction of traditional mechanical inertia and system oscillation. To solve the above problems, this paper takes the grid connected converter of an offshore full power fan as the research object, deduces the “inertia” expression and physical significance of its inner and outer loop controller, and compares it with the mechanical inertia motion equation to obtain a unified mathematical expression. On this basis, combined with the control bandwidth and Rouse criterion, the discrimination method of system stability is proposed, and the correlation of the internal and external control parameters of the full power fan grid connected converter and its influence on the grid connected stability of offshore fans are explained according to the derived judgment expression. Finally, the correctness and scope of application of the theoretical analysis and judgment method are verified by PSCAD/EMTDC time-domain simulation software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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16 pages, 471 KiB  
Article
Fuel Cell Electrical Vehicles as Mobile Coupled Heat and Power Backup-Plant in Neighbourhoods
by Tobias Tiedemann, Michael Kroener, Martin Vehse and Carsten Agert
Energies 2022, 15(7), 2704; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15072704 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) can be used during idle times to convert hydrogen into electricity in a decentralised manner, thus ensuring a completely renewable energy supply. In addition to the electric power, waste heat is generated in the fuel cell stack that [...] Read more.
Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) can be used during idle times to convert hydrogen into electricity in a decentralised manner, thus ensuring a completely renewable energy supply. In addition to the electric power, waste heat is generated in the fuel cell stack that can also be used. This paper investigates how the energy demand of a compiled German neighbourhood can be met by FCEVs and identifies potential technical problems. For this purpose, energy scenarios are modelled in the Open Energy System Modelling Framework (oemof). An optimisation simulation finds the most energetically favourable solution for the 10-day period under consideration. Up to 49% of the heat demand for heating and hot water can be covered directly by the waste heat of the FCEVs. As the number of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) to be charged increases, so does this share. 5 of the 252 residents must permanently provide an FCEV to supply the neighbourhood. The amount of hydrogen required was identified as a problem. If the vehicles cannot be supplied with hydrogen in a stationary way, 15 times more vehicles are needed than required in terms of performance due to the energy demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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22 pages, 2890 KiB  
Review
Power Electronics for Modern Sustainable Power Systems: Distributed Generation, Microgrids and Smart Grids—A Review
by Marcus Evandro Teixeira Souza Junior and Luiz Carlos Gomes Freitas
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3597; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063597 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4480
Abstract
This work presents and discusses the application of power electronics for the integration of several distributed generation sources, as well as those related to it, the microgrids and the smart grids, to the power sector. Trends and challenges are addressed for the area [...] Read more.
This work presents and discusses the application of power electronics for the integration of several distributed generation sources, as well as those related to it, the microgrids and the smart grids, to the power sector. Trends and challenges are addressed for the area of study and an embracing overview of the main technologies and techniques is presented for future investigation. As there are many power electronics devices available for employment, in each one of these crucial, modern, sustainable electrical systems, it is important for students, researchers and professionals to understand and compare the state of the art of them all, for the right choice in their respective uses. These apparatuses not only allow grid matching, but also provide new functions that enhance these artifacts’ operations, and of the entire power system. Thus, in this paper, the relationship between power electronics and distributed generation is detailed, with the role and classification of each static converter for the improved operation of wind power, photovoltaic systems, fuel cells, small hydro and microturbines exposed. While the first two are more widely covered in the literature, the last three are rarely discussed and differentiated, in terms of their power electronics interfaces. Then, the same is made for microgrids and smart grids, also scarcely approached in other works, with regard to the characteristics of the power converters applied, confirming their superior performances with the use of power electronics. Finally, conclusions are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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18 pages, 6116 KiB  
Article
Voltage Fluctuations and Flicker in Prosumer PV Installation
by Krzysztof Łowczowski and Zbigniew Nadolny
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062075 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
In this paper, we present problems connected with voltage fluctuations in low-voltage networks caused by small PV sources installed in an LV network. For the purpose of analysis, high-resolution data gathered at the output of real PV sources for 4 months in 2 [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present problems connected with voltage fluctuations in low-voltage networks caused by small PV sources installed in an LV network. For the purpose of analysis, high-resolution data gathered at the output of real PV sources for 4 months in 2 locations are used. Data are processed to analyze the impact of different network parameters on voltage fluctuations and voltage flicker. The resulting values of flicker and fluctuations are given so the assessment of the impact of PV sources can be made before the connection of new sources to the power grid. Moreover, the methodology of analysis is presented in detail so the impact of similar PV sources on voltage could be analyzed. Finally, general conclusions connected with measurement, analysis, and mitigation are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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12 pages, 1996 KiB  
Article
An Adaptive Energy Optimization Method of Hybrid Battery-Supercapacitor Storage System for Uncertain Demand
by Xiaomin Wu, Shaoyi Li, Shengfeng Gan and Changhui Hou
Energies 2022, 15(5), 1765; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15051765 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
To address the problem of DC bus voltage surge caused by load demand fluctuation in an off-grid microgrid, here, an adaptive energy optimization method based on a hybrid energy-storage system to maintain the stability of DC bus voltage is presented. The adaptive energy [...] Read more.
To address the problem of DC bus voltage surge caused by load demand fluctuation in an off-grid microgrid, here, an adaptive energy optimization method based on a hybrid energy-storage system to maintain the stability of DC bus voltage is presented. The adaptive energy optimization method consists of three parts: the average filtering algorithm, extracting fluctuating power in demand load; the supercapacitor terminal voltage control, keeping the terminal voltage of the supercapacitor near reference; and the battery pack balance control, adjusting the charge/discharge to balance the state of charge for battery packs. In this proposed method, after extracting the fluctuating power by the low-pass filter when the demand load fluctuates, the battery packs release the power to offset the low-frequency fluctuation load and the supercapacitor to instantaneously compensate the high-frequency fluctuation power, to prolong the service life of batteries and maintain the stability of DC bus voltage. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive energy optimization method is validated and is confirmed to maintain the stable operation of the off-grid microgrid, extend the cycle life of batteries in off-grid microgrid simulations and experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Generation and Storage in Power Systems)
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