Topic Editors

Institute for Research on Combustion (IRC)-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio, 80-80125 Napoli, Italy
Institute for Research on Combustion (IRC)-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio, 80-80125 Napoli, Italy

Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilisation Technologies (CCS/CCU) - 2nd Volume

Abstract submission deadline
30 April 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2024
Viewed by
16445

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a call for papers for the Topic “Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilisation Technologies (CCS/CCU) - 2nd Volume”. The release and accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with carbon dioxide (CO2) being one of the primary GHGs, has significantly altered the natural environment and is responsible for global warming. Reducing these CO2 emissions is, therefore, of paramount importance. In particular, aiming at keeping a global temperature rise well below 2 °C by the end of this century, according to the Paris Agreement, the European Union has set a binding target to cut at least 40% of the CO2 emissions by 2030 compared to 1990, and by 30% compared to 2005. In this framework, one of the most promising alternatives to reducing the increasing amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere and its negative impact on global climate change is represented by CO2 capture and storage (CCS), consisting of the separation of CO2 from large industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. Likewise, the captured CO2 can be also utilised in industrial processes for the production of value-added chemicals/fuels (CCU), in concrete curing, mineral carbonation and algae cultivation. Likewise, it can be reused and isolated permanently via enhanced oil recovery (EOR), enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM) and enhanced geothermal system (EGS) processes. The Topic “Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilisation Technologies (CCS/CCU) - 2nd Volume” seeks high-quality works focusing on the latest technical developments and scientific advances of CCS/CCU technology. Relevant themes include but are not limited to the following:

  • Carbon dioxide capture, transport (both by pipelines and ships), and sequestration;
  • Technically, environmentally, and economically viable processes for the CO2 utilisation (e.g., as a feedstock for the production of value-added chemicals/fuels, EOR, ECBM, EGS, algae cultivation, etc.);
  • Lifecycle assessment (LCA) for CCS/CCU.

Dr. Federica Raganati
Dr. Paola Ammendola
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • CCUS
  • CCS
  • CCU
  • CO2 capture
  • CO2 transportation
  • CO2 storage
  • geological sequestration
  • CO2 utilisation
  • techno-economic assessment
  • lifecycle analysis (LCA)

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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13 pages, 1128 KiB  
Article
Drainage Practice of Rice Paddies as a Sustainable Agronomic Management for Mitigating the Emission of Two Carbon-Based Greenhouse Gases (CO2 and CH4): Field Pilot Study in South Korea
by Wonjae Hwang, Minseok Park, Kijong Cho and Seunghun Hyun
Sustainability 2024, 16(7), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16072802 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Rice is one of the staple foods in Asian countries, and rice paddies are significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agricultural sectors. In addition, drainage practice has been recognized as a key factor influencing both rice production and GHG emissions. In [...] Read more.
Rice is one of the staple foods in Asian countries, and rice paddies are significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agricultural sectors. In addition, drainage practice has been recognized as a key factor influencing both rice production and GHG emissions. In this field pot study, the effect of drainage method (e.g., intermittent drainage (ID) and continuous flooding (CF)) on GHG (CO2 and CH4) emissions was determined from three Korean paddies (BG, MG, and JS series), varying soil properties such as soil texture, labile carbon, and mineral types. The emission of GHGs was evidently influenced by the drainage, depending on the paddy’s redox (Eh) shift upon flooding events. The Eh decline upon flooding was slower in JS pot, where pore-water concentration of ferric and sulfate ions is the highest (~up to 3-fold) among three paddies. MG pot was 2- to 3-fold more percolative than the others and the Eh drop during the flooding period was the smallest (staying above −50 mV). In ID treatment, CH4 emission (t CO2-eq ha−1 y−1) was reduced in a wide range by 5.6 for JS pot, 2.08 for BG pot, and 0.29 for MG pot relative to CF, whereas CO2 emissions (t CO2-eq ha−1 y−1) were increased by 1.25 for JS pot, 1.07 for BG pot, and 0.48 for MG pot due to the enhanced oxidation of labile carbon. Grain yield and aboveground biomass production from ID were no less than those from CF (p < 0.05). Consequently, the increase in global warming potential (Σ GWP) by ID varied as the order of JS (37%) > BG (14%) > MG (~0%) pots, and the negligible effect observed for MG pot is due to the equivalent trade-off between CO2 and CH4. The different benefits of drainage practices among paddy pots is due to the redox response of paddy systems. The findings will be helpful to promote the efficacy of drainage practice on mitigating GHG emissions for the sustainable agronomic management of rice paddies in response to climate change. Full article
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14 pages, 7421 KiB  
Article
The Treatment of Natural Calcium Materials Using the Supercritical Antisolvent Method for CO2 Capture Applications
by Luís C. S. Nobre, Paula Teixeira, Carla I. C. Pinheiro, António M. F. Palavra, Mário J. F. Calvete, Carlos A. Nieto de Castro and Beatriz P. Nobre
Processes 2024, 12(3), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12030425 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
The potential of the supercritical antisolvent micronization (SAS) technique was evaluated for the production of CaO-based particles with a size and a physical structure that could enable high performance for CO2 capture through the calcium looping process. Two sources of calcium derivative [...] Read more.
The potential of the supercritical antisolvent micronization (SAS) technique was evaluated for the production of CaO-based particles with a size and a physical structure that could enable high performance for CO2 capture through the calcium looping process. Two sources of calcium derivative compounds were tested, waste marble powder (WMP) and dolomite. The SAS micronization of the derivate calcium acetate was carried out at 60 °C, 200 bar, a 0.5 mL min−1 flow rate of liquid solution, and 20 mg mL−1 concentration of solute, producing, with a yield of more than 70%, needle-like particles. Moreover, since dolomite presents with a mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonates, the influence of the magnesium fraction in the SAS micronization was also assessed. The micronized mixtures with lower magnesium content (higher calcium fraction) presented needle-like particles similar to WMP. On the other hand, for the higher magnesium fractions, the micronized material was similar to magnesium acetate micronization, presenting sphere-like particles. The use of the micronized material in the Ca-looping processes, considering 10 carbonation-calcination cycles under mild and realistic conditions, showed that under mild conditions, the micronized WMP improved CaO conversion. After 10 cycles the micronization, WMP presented a conversion 1.8 times greater than the unprocessed material. The micronized dolomite, under both mild and real conditions, maintained more stable conversion after 10 cycles. Full article
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20 pages, 3431 KiB  
Article
Pressurized Chemical Looping for Direct Reduced Iron Production: Economics of Carbon Neutral Process Configurations
by Nicole K. Bond, Robert T. Symonds and Robin W. Hughes
Energies 2024, 17(3), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17030545 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
The replacement of the blast furnace—basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) steelmaking route with the direct reduced iron—electric arc furnace (DRI-EAF) route reduces the direct CO2 emissions from steelmaking by up to 68%; however, the DRI shaft furnace is one of the largest remaining [...] Read more.
The replacement of the blast furnace—basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) steelmaking route with the direct reduced iron—electric arc furnace (DRI-EAF) route reduces the direct CO2 emissions from steelmaking by up to 68%; however, the DRI shaft furnace is one of the largest remaining point source emitters in steelmaking. The capital and operating expenses of two potential nearly carbon-neutral DRI process configurations were investigated as a modification to a standard Midrex DRI facility. First, amine-based post-combustion capture with a 95% capture rate was considered as the benchmark, as it is currently commercially available. A second, novel configuration integrated the Midrex process with pressurized chemical looping—direct reduced iron (PCL-DRI) production. The capital expenditures were 71% and 28% higher than the standard Midrex process for a Midrex + amine capture plant, and a PCL-DRI plant, respectively. There was an incremental variable operating cost of USD 103 and USD 44 per tonne of CO2 for DRI production using amine capture and PCL-DRI, respectively. The amine capture configuration is most sensitive to the cost of steam generation, while PCL-DRI is more sensitive to the cost of electricity and the makeup oxygen carrier. An iron-based natural ore is recommended for PCL-DRI due to the low cost and availability. Based on the lower costs compared to amine-based post-combustion capture, PCL-DRI is an attractive means of eliminating CO2 emissions from DRI production. Full article
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15 pages, 11633 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Displacement in Fractured Horizontal Wells in Low Permeability Reservoirs
by Xiaochen Wang, Peijun Wang, Kang Tang, Peng Dong, Can Cui, Zepeng Yang and Zhenwei Sun
Processes 2024, 12(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010145 - 07 Jan 2024
Viewed by 872
Abstract
The increasing use of fossil fuels has raised concerns about rising greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is one of the most important technologies for achieving net zero carbon emissions. In oil reservoirs, fully understanding their geological characteristics, fluid characteristics, [...] Read more.
The increasing use of fossil fuels has raised concerns about rising greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is one of the most important technologies for achieving net zero carbon emissions. In oil reservoirs, fully understanding their geological characteristics, fluid characteristics, and pressure distribution and injecting CO2 in a reasonable scheme, some remaining oil can be recovered to improve oil recovery and even obtain certain economic benefits. In this paper, we investigate the effect of CCUS implementation in low-permeability reservoirs from both technical and economic aspects. First, based on the parameters of a low-permeability reservoir, a numerical simulation model of a reservoir with gas injection in a multi-stage fractured horizontal well at the top of the reservoir and oil recovery in a multi-stage fractured horizontal well at the bottom is established. Next, four cases of continuous CO2 injection, intermittent CO2 injection, CO2 injection after water flooding, and water alternating gas drive (WAG) are designed to evaluate their effects on CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery. Finally, an economic evaluation model is developed to evaluate these four cases. The results show that fractured horizontal wells can improve the injection capacity, increase the swept volume of injected gas, cause CO2 to fully contact the crude oil, greatly increase the contact area between the wellbore and crude oil, and greatly improve oil recovery. The WAG injection-production method can effectively inhibit gas channeling, reduce the production gas–oil ratio, improve oil recovery, and, at the same time, bury more CO2 into the reservoir. Its economic benefit evaluation is also the best among the four cases. In addition, the remaining oil distribution and CO2 buried distribution under different injection-production schemes are also analyzed. This study provides a scientific basis for the operation scheme design of CCUS in low-permeability reservoirs. Full article
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13 pages, 2906 KiB  
Article
CO2 Compression and Liquefaction Processes Using a Distillation Column for the Flexible Operation of Transportation
by Semie Kim, Pyeong-Gon Jung, Young-Il Lim, Hyojoon Kim and Hung-Man Moon
Processes 2024, 12(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010115 - 02 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Impurities in the CO2 stream should be removed to prevent eventual phase changes in CO2 transportation because a two-phase flow caused by the phase change in the pipeline necessitates additional overpressure and can induce equipment damage. In this study, CO2 [...] Read more.
Impurities in the CO2 stream should be removed to prevent eventual phase changes in CO2 transportation because a two-phase flow caused by the phase change in the pipeline necessitates additional overpressure and can induce equipment damage. In this study, CO2 compression and liquefaction (CCL) processes with a distillation column were used to remove non-condensable impurities and were compared with those with a flash. Three different feeds with a flow rate of 50.1 t/h (400,500 t/y) were supplied to the CCL processes and compressed to 65 bar to gauge pressure (barg) and 20 °C. Although the CO2 mixtures obtained through dehydration and flashing met the purity requirements for transportation and storage recommended in literature, the flash-separated CO2 product at 65 barg demonstrated the coexistence of gas and liquid phases, which restricted the temperature window for liquid CO2 transportation. When the distillation column was used instead of the flash, the operating temperature window at 65 barg widened by 3–6 °C owing to the high purity of CO2. However, the levelized cost of CO2 liquefaction (LCCL) increased by 2–4 $/t-CO2 varying with the feed purity because the distillation column consumed more cooling and heating duties than the flash. This study highlighted that a two-phase flow existed under certain operating conditions despite a high purity of CO2 (over 97 mol%), and the distillation column enhanced the operability of liquid CO2 transportation. Full article
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17 pages, 7188 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cement Composites with a Granulation Technique
by Jeong-Bae Lee, Jun-Hyeong Kim, Byeong-Gi Min and Byeong-Hun Woo
Materials 2024, 17(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010053 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 557
Abstract
The cement industry emits a significant amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore, the cement industry should recycle the emitted CO2. However, sequestration by carbonation in cement composites absorbs a very small amount of CO2. Therefore, a direct [...] Read more.
The cement industry emits a significant amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore, the cement industry should recycle the emitted CO2. However, sequestration by carbonation in cement composites absorbs a very small amount of CO2. Therefore, a direct way of achieving this is to improve the absorption performance of CO2 in cement composites. In this study, to improve absorption, unlike in existing studies, a granulation technique was applied, and the material used was calcium hydroxide (CH). In addition, granulated CH was coated to prevent a reaction during the curing of cement paste. The coated CH granule (CCHG) was applied to 5% of the cement weight as an additive material, and the specimens were cured for 91 days to wait for the coating of CCHG to fully phase-change. The experiment of CO2 absorption showed an unexpected result, where the use of blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA) had a negative effect on CO2 sequestration. This was because BFS and FA had a filler effect in the cement matrix, and the filler effect caused the blocking of the path of CO2. In addition, BFS and FA are well-known pozzolanic materials; the pozzolan reaction caused a reduction in the amount of CH because the pozzolan reaction consumed the CH to produce a calcium silicate hydrate. Therefore, the pozzolan reaction also had a negative effect on the CO2 sequestration performance combined with the filler effect. The CO2 sequestration efficiency was decreased between ordinary cement paste and BFS-applied specimens by 45.45%. In addition, compared to cases of ordinary cement paste and FA-applied specimens, the CO2 sequestration performance was decreased by 63.64%. Comprehensively, CO2 sequestration performance depends on the porosity and amount of CH. Full article
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13 pages, 3683 KiB  
Article
Graphene-Oxide-Modified Metal–Organic Frameworks Embedded in Mixed-Matrix Membranes for Highly Efficient CO2/N2 Separation
by Long Feng, Qiuning Zhang, Jianwen Su, Bing Ma, Yinji Wan, Ruiqin Zhong and Ruqiang Zou
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14010024 (registering DOI) - 21 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
MOF-74 (metal–organic framework) is utilized as a filler in mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) to improve gas selectivity due to its unique one-dimensional hexagonal channels and high-density open metal sites (OMSs), which exhibit a strong affinity for CO2 molecules. Reducing the agglomeration of nanoparticles [...] Read more.
MOF-74 (metal–organic framework) is utilized as a filler in mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) to improve gas selectivity due to its unique one-dimensional hexagonal channels and high-density open metal sites (OMSs), which exhibit a strong affinity for CO2 molecules. Reducing the agglomeration of nanoparticles and improving the compatibility with the matrix can effectively avoid the existence of non-selective voids to improve the gas separation efficiency. We propose a novel, layer-by-layer modification strategy for MOF-74 with graphene oxide. Two-dimensional graphene oxide nanosheets as a supporting skeleton creatively improve the dispersion uniformity of MOFs in MMMs, enhance their interfacial compatibility, and thus optimize the selective gas permeability. Additionally, they extended the gas diffusion paths, thereby augmenting the dissolution selectivity. Compared with doping with a single component, the use of a GO skeleton to disperse MOF-74 into Pebax®1657 (Polyether Block Amide) achieved a significant improvement in terms of the gas separation effect. The CO2/N2 selectivity of Pebax®1657-MOF-74 (Ni)@GO membrane with a filler concentration of 10 wt% was 76.96, 197.2% higher than the pristine commercial membrane Pebax®1657. Our results highlight an effective way to improve the selective gas separation performance of MMMs by functionalizing the MOF supported by layered GO. As an efficient strategy for developing porous MOF-based gas separation membranes, this method holds particular promise for manufacturing advanced carbon dioxide separation membranes and also concentrates on improving CO2 capture with new membrane technologies, a key step in reducing greenhouse gas emissions through carbon capture and storage. Full article
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15 pages, 3803 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of IOR Potential in Shale Oil Reservoirs by Surfactant and CO2 Injection: A Case Study in the Lucaogou Formation
by Yaoli Shi, Changfu Xu, Heng Wang, Hongxian Liu, Chunyu He, Jianhua Qin, Baocheng Wu, Yingyan Li and Zhaojie Song
Energies 2023, 16(24), 8085; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16248085 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The current oil recovery of the Lucaogou shale oil reservoir is predicted to be about 7.2%. It is crucial to explore improved oil recovery (IOR) technologies, and further experimental and field research needs to be conducted to study the complex mechanism. In this [...] Read more.
The current oil recovery of the Lucaogou shale oil reservoir is predicted to be about 7.2%. It is crucial to explore improved oil recovery (IOR) technologies, and further experimental and field research needs to be conducted to study the complex mechanism. In this study, laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the performance of one-step and multi-step depletion, CO2 huff-n-puff, and surfactant imbibition based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The sweep efficiencies were assessed via NMR imaging. In addition, hybrid methods of combining surfactant with CO2 huff-n-puff and the performance of injection sequence on oil recovery were investigated. The experimental results indicate that oil recoveries of depletion development at different initial pressures range from 4% to 11%. CO2 huff-n-puff has the highest oil recovery (30.45% and 40.70%), followed by surfactant imbibition (24.24% and 20.89%). Pore size distribution is an important factor. After three more cycles of surfactant imbibition and CO2 huff-n-puff, the oil recovery can be increased by 11.27% and 26.27%, respectively. Surfactant imbibition after CO2 huff-n-puff shows a viable method. Our study can provide guidance and theoretical support for shale oil development in the Lucaogou shale oil reservoir. Full article
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24 pages, 7545 KiB  
Article
Global Decarbonization: Current Status and What It Will Take to Achieve Net Zero by 2050
by Hon Chung Lau and Steve C. Tsai
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7800; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237800 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
A review of global CO2 emissions over the last century shows that emissions from 80 economies contributed to 95% of global emissions. Among them, 55 economies were decarbonizers, where CO2 emissions had either plateaued or were declining, while 25 economies were [...] Read more.
A review of global CO2 emissions over the last century shows that emissions from 80 economies contributed to 95% of global emissions. Among them, 55 economies were decarbonizers, where CO2 emissions had either plateaued or were declining, while 25 economies were polluters, where CO2 emissions were still increasing. In 2021, the global CO2 emissions were 37.1 Gtpa, with 56% coming from polluters and 39% from decarbonizers. If current trends continue, global CO2 emissions will reach 49.6 Gtpa by 2050, with 81% coming from polluters and 14% from decarbonizers. Only 14 economies will reach net zero. The decarbonization target, over and above current efforts, to achieve net zero is calculated for each economy. Decarbonizers need to mitigate 230 Mtpa CO2 and polluters 1365 Mtpa CO2 beginning in 2021 to reach the net-zero target by 2050. This target will increase each year decarbonization is delayed. Analyses show that renewable energies’ share in the total final energy consumption in most economies increased by an average of only 4 percentage points in the last decade, which is inadequate for achieving net zero by 2050. Other means of decarbonization, including low-carbon fossil solutions through carbon capture and storage, will be needed. Pathways to accelerate decarbonization are proposed and their policy implications are discussed. Full article
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17 pages, 5007 KiB  
Article
Sustainable CO2 Fixation onto Bio-Based Aromatics
by Aleksa Kojčinović, Blaž Likozar and Miha Grilc
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16321; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316321 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Carboxylation reactions using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a reactant to produce new C-C bonds represent one of the most promising routes in carbon capture and utilization practices, which yield higher-atom and energy-efficient products. Kolbe–Schmitt-type reactions represent the carboxylation of aromatic compounds [...] Read more.
Carboxylation reactions using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a reactant to produce new C-C bonds represent one of the most promising routes in carbon capture and utilization practices, which yield higher-atom and energy-efficient products. Kolbe–Schmitt-type reactions represent the carboxylation of aromatic compounds to their carboxylic acid derivatives. This study was the first and only to systematically investigate, thoroughly explain preparation procedures, and minutely describe the analytical methods of Kolbe–Schmitt and Marasse carboxylation of phenol. Most importantly, this study provides guidelines for the utilization of state-of-the-art technology in this century-old yet not sufficiently described reaction system. Kolbe–Schmitt carboxylation of phenol was found to be possible using sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), while the Marasse method was active only with potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a reactant. The formation of metal phenoxide is the rate-determining step, which, however, could be more efficiently prepared under reflux. A new, simple, and repeatable HPLC method was described to identify and quantify all possible products of mono- and dicarboxylated phenols. It was found that all procedures result in the highest selectivity for salicylic acid (SA), followed by minor amounts of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HBA) and 4-hydroxyisophthalic acid (4HiPh). Full article
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30 pages, 4446 KiB  
Review
Thermodynamic Properties of a Gas–Liquid–Solid System during the CO2 Geological Storage and Utilization Process: A Review
by Meiheriayi Mutailipu, Qingnan Xue, Tao Li, Yande Yang and Fusheng Xue
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7374; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217374 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Emission reduction in the main greenhouse gas, CO2, can be achieved efficiently via CO2 geological storage and utilization (CCUS) methods such as the CO2 enhanced oil/water/gas recovery technique, which is considered to be an important strategic technology for the [...] Read more.
Emission reduction in the main greenhouse gas, CO2, can be achieved efficiently via CO2 geological storage and utilization (CCUS) methods such as the CO2 enhanced oil/water/gas recovery technique, which is considered to be an important strategic technology for the low-carbon development of China’s coal-based energy system. During the CCUS, the thermodynamic properties of the CO2–water–rock system, such as the interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability of the caprock, determine the injectability, sealing capacity, and safety of this scheme. Thus, researchers have been conducting laboratory experiments and modeling work on the interfacial tension between CO2 and the water/brine, wettability of caprocks, the solubility of gas–liquid binary systems, and the pH of CO2-saturated brine under reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. In this study, the literature related to the thermodynamic properties of the CO2–water–rock system is reviewed, and the main findings of previous studies are listed and discussed thoroughly. It is concluded that limited research is available on the pH of gas-saturated aqueous solutions under CO2 saline aquifer storage conditions, and less emphasis has been given to the wettability of the CO2–water/brine–rock system. Thus, further laboratory and modeling research on the wettability alternations of caprock in terms of molecular dynamics is required to simulate this phenomenon at the molecular level. Moreover, simplified IFT and solubility prediction models with thermodynamic significance and high integrity need to be developed. Furthermore, interaction mechanisms coupling with multi-factors associated with the gas–liquid–solid interface properties and the dissolution and acidification process need to be explored in future work. Full article
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24 pages, 7596 KiB  
Article
Research on the Timing of WAG Intervention in Low Permeability Reservoir CO2 Flooding Process to Improve CO2 Performance and Enhance Recovery
by Lekun Zhao, Guoqiang Sang, Jialei Ding, Jiangfei Sun, Tongjing Liu and Yuedong Yao
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7373; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217373 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 634
Abstract
In low permeability reservoirs, CO2 flooding usually leads to gas channeling, whereby a significant amount of CO2 bypasses the oil-bearing formation and fails to effectively displace oil. Introducing water-alternating-gas (WAG) flooding, utilizing water phase stability-driven processes, serves to suppress gas channeling [...] Read more.
In low permeability reservoirs, CO2 flooding usually leads to gas channeling, whereby a significant amount of CO2 bypasses the oil-bearing formation and fails to effectively displace oil. Introducing water-alternating-gas (WAG) flooding, utilizing water phase stability-driven processes, serves to suppress gas channeling and enhance oil recovery rates. Implementing WAG flooding, which utilizes water phase stability-driven processes, helps suppress gas channeling and improve oil recovery rates. The timing of implementing WAG flooding is crucial. Initiating WAG flooding prematurely can limit the efficiency of CO2 displacement, while initiating it with delays may result in severe gas channeling, resulting in decreased production and increased environmental risks. Finding the balance point is the challenge. The balance point can effectively control gas channeling without reducing the efficiency of CO2 flooding. In this paper, the timing of WAG flooding in low permeability reservoirs is studied in detail. Firstly, this study conducted experimental research to investigate the CO2 displacement process in both homogeneous and heterogeneous cores. Furthermore, it validated the correlation between the timing of WAG injection and the heterogeneity of the cores. The experimental results indicated the existence of an optimal timing for WAG injection, which is correlated with the degree of heterogeneity. Numerical simulation studies were performed to simulate the characteristics of the light oil–CO2 system using the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation. Furthermore, a history matching analysis was performed to validate the experimental results and investigate the correlation between WAG injection and the degree of heterogeneity. The study concluded that as the degree of heterogeneity increases, initiating WAG injection earlier leads to a more significant suppression of gas channeling, increased water–gas interaction, improved gas–oil contact, and enhanced the synergistic effect of increasing the resistance and pressure of WAG flooding and controlling gas channeling. This finding has significant practical implications, as the optimization of WAG injection timing can enhance oilfield production efficiency. Full article
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16 pages, 2809 KiB  
Article
Clean Energy from Poplar and Plastic Mix Valorisation in a Gas Turbine with CO2 Capture Process
by Nela Slavu and Cristian Dinca
Processes 2023, 11(10), 2922; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11102922 - 07 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 682
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to explore the utilisation of plastic waste via the gasification process to produce electricity with low carbon dioxide emissions. Worldwide, plastic production has increased, reaching 390 million tons in 2021, compared to 1.5 million tons in 1950. [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to explore the utilisation of plastic waste via the gasification process to produce electricity with low carbon dioxide emissions. Worldwide, plastic production has increased, reaching 390 million tons in 2021, compared to 1.5 million tons in 1950. It is known that plastic incineration generates approximately 400 million tons of CO2 annually, and consequently, new solutions for more efficient plastic reuse in terms of emissions generated are still expected. One method is to use plastic waste in a gasifier unit and the syngas generated in a gas turbine for electricity production. The co-gasification process (plastic waste with biomass) was analysed in different ratios. Gasification was carried out with air for an equivalent ratio (ER) between 0.10 and 0.45. The volume concentration of CO2 in syngas ranged from 2 to 12%, with the highest value obtained when the poplar content in the mix was 95%. In this study, the option of pre- and post-combustion integration of the chemical absorption process (CAP) was investigated. As a result, CO2 emissions decreased by 90% compared to the case without CO2 capture. The integration of the capture process reduced global efficiency by 5.5–6.1 percentage points in a post-combustion case, depending on the plastic content in the mix. Full article
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16 pages, 2515 KiB  
Article
Process Design and Techno-ECONOMIC Evaluation of a Decarbonized Cement Production Process Using Carbon Capture and Utilization
by Wei Wu, Zhong-Lin Jian, Bang-Yan Chou, Chun-Yang You and Yu-Ning Kuo
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072043 - 07 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
To address a decarbonized cement production process (DCPP), a calcium looping process is connected to an industrial cement production process (CPP) for capturing CO2 by 93.5~96%. Since the captured CO2 purity is up to 99.9 wt%, the carbon capture and utilization [...] Read more.
To address a decarbonized cement production process (DCPP), a calcium looping process is connected to an industrial cement production process (CPP) for capturing CO2 by 93.5~96%. Since the captured CO2 purity is up to 99.9 wt%, the carbon capture and utilization (CCU) process is connected to generate the additional products of urea and methanol. An integration of DCPP and CCU, named the DCPP-based polygeneration system, is being developed for three scenarios. To meet the power demand for producing high-purity hydrogen and oxygen, Scenario 1 adopts water electrolysis and the full green electricity grid; Scenario 2 adopts the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle and the partial green electricity grid; and Scenario 3 adopts water electrolysis and the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Through the techno-economic analysis and comparisons, the CO2 avoided costs of three scenarios are estimated between 16.53 and 21.42 USD/ton, which are lower than the conventional DCPP of around 40 USD/ton. It is due to the fact that the polygeneration scheme could reduce the LCOP (levelized cost of producing 1 ton of clinker) due to the production of valorized products. It is noted that Scenario 2 is superior to other scenarios since the RenE2P cost in Scenario 2 is lower than it is in Scenario 1 and the captured CO2 rate in Scenario 2 is lower than it is in Scenario 3. Full article
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27 pages, 4138 KiB  
Article
Experimental Development of Calcium Looping Carbon Capture Processes: An Overview of Opportunities and Challenges
by Rubens C. Toledo, Gretta L. A. F. Arce, João A. Carvalho, Jr. and Ivonete Ávila
Energies 2023, 16(9), 3623; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16093623 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Global warming might be mitigated if emissions were interrupted through carbon capture technologies, as there is a significant amount of comprehensive studies on them. An outline of the main gaps and trends of a technology is critical for further development. In this context, [...] Read more.
Global warming might be mitigated if emissions were interrupted through carbon capture technologies, as there is a significant amount of comprehensive studies on them. An outline of the main gaps and trends of a technology is critical for further development. In this context, this study provides an overview of calcium looping carbon capture processes that have proven their potential and commercial viability. A bibliometric analysis is conducted on both Scopus and Web of Science database by seeking the keywords “calcium looping”, “co2 capture”, and “fluidized bed” in titles, abstracts, and keywords. Word selection was based on a list of relevant papers on the topic. These items of data have been processed and analyzed based on the number of publications and citations by emphasizing recent publication evolution, journal influence, the use of specific keywords, and co-citation. Results reveal that the European Union (EU) leads the rankings on the topic, followed by Canada. Keyword choice might have affected the number of citations. Recent studies used limestone as a sorbent and a dual fluidized bed reactor with a calciner or resistance depending on its size. Most studies are focused on technology scale-up. Although scale-up seems to be a priority, multiple studies are designed to assess the effect of steam generation and SO2 on the process. Full article
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21 pages, 6947 KiB  
Review
Microseismic Monitoring Technology Developments and Prospects in CCUS Injection Engineering
by Lingbin Meng, Jing Zheng, Ruizhao Yang, Suping Peng, Yuan Sun, Jingyu Xie and Dewei Li
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073101 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1785
Abstract
CO2 geological storage projects are an essential tool for China to achieve the double carbon target of energy savings and emission reductions. In order to safely and effectively control the implementation of injection projects and monitor the dynamics of CO2 injection, [...] Read more.
CO2 geological storage projects are an essential tool for China to achieve the double carbon target of energy savings and emission reductions. In order to safely and effectively control the implementation of injection projects and monitor the dynamics of CO2 injection, multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary monitoring tools are required. Among them, microseismic monitoring is a key technology for predicting reservoir dynamics and reflecting reservoir geomechanical behavior. Such monitoring has been carried out previously for reservoirs in other countries, but experimental projects are also gradually being developed in China. In this paper, we focus on the research and analysis results of microseismic monitoring of carbon storage projects in various work areas. For different reservoir conditions, we explore combinations of the monitoring implementation methods in China, comparing the differences in each work area. We propose a joint well and ground microseismic monitoring method and a multi-spatial and multi-physical field coupling research system for use in the implementation of domestic demo projects for the future research and development of microseismic monitoring of carbon storage projects. The monitoring program can meet the requirements for certain periodic repeated or continuous observations and can intelligently assess the risk and handle the alert behavior. The foundation is laid for the development of the future microseismic monitoring technology to achieve the goal of developing cost-controllable, permanent, and real-time monitoring equipment. The application of the monitoring system in China has been effective, and this experience can contribute to the development of injection engineering in the future. Full article
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