EVS36—International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (California, USA)

A special issue of World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 36057

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Guest Editor
MOBI—Electromobility Research Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussel, Belgium
Interests: electric and hybrid vehicles (batteries, power converters, and energy management simulations); the environmental and economical comparison of vehicles with different drive trains and fuels (LCA and TCO)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Electric Drive Transportation Association, Washington, DC 20005, USA
Interests: electric drive policy and regulation; electric drive markets and consumer adoption
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will gather updated versions of the best papers from EVS36, the 36th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, which will be held from 11 to 14 June 2023 in Sacramento, California, USA.

The International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS) is the world's longest, largest, and highest-spec event in the field of electric vehicles, covering areas including pure electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and core components. With the support of the World Electric Vehicle Association, the symposium is hosted by three regional professional organizations under the World Electric Vehicle Association in North America (Electric Drive Transportation Association, EDTA), Europe (The European Association for Electromobility, AVERE), and Asia (Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific, EVAAP), in turn. EVS has already had a long history since its birth in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, in 1969.

The theme of EVS36 is Driving the Transition to E-Mobility. As an annual gathering of the world’s EV experts, EVS36 features cutting-edge research and showcases innovative technologies and market developments. The papers cover research, market, and government activities across all fields related to hybrid, battery, and fuel cell technologies, associated infrastructure, and services. For more information, see https://evs36.com.

The authors of the best papers presented at EVS36 will be invited to further extend their EVS36 paper, including their most recent research findings. After a second thorough round of peer review, these papers will be published in this Special Issue of the World Electric Vehicle Journal (WEVJ), the official journal of the World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its members.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact the editorial office at wevj@mdpi.com.

Prof. Dr. Joeri Van Mierlo
Genevieve Cullen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. World Electric Vehicle Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 2673 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Vehicle-to-Grid in Sweden Using MATLAB/Simulink
by Jennifer Leijon, Jéssica Santos Döhler, Johannes Hjalmarsson, Daniel Brandell, Valeria Castellucci and Cecilia Boström
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040153 - 08 Apr 2024
Viewed by 319
Abstract
With more electric vehicles introduced in society, there is a need for the further implementation of charging infrastructure. Innovation in electromobility may result in new charging and discharging strategies, including concepts such as smart charging and vehicle-to-grid. This article provides an overview of [...] Read more.
With more electric vehicles introduced in society, there is a need for the further implementation of charging infrastructure. Innovation in electromobility may result in new charging and discharging strategies, including concepts such as smart charging and vehicle-to-grid. This article provides an overview of vehicle charging and discharging innovations with a cable connection. A MATLAB/Simulink model is developed to show the difference between an electric vehicle with and without the vehicle-to-grid capabilities for electricity grid prices estimated for Sweden for three different electric vehicle user profiles and four different electric vehicle models. The result includes the state-of-charge values and price estimations for the different vehicles charged with or without a bidirectional power flow to and from the electric grid. The results show that there is a greater difference in state-of-charge values over the day investigated for the electric vehicles with vehicle-to-grid capabilities than for vehicles without vehicle-to-grid capabilities. The results indicate potential economic revenues from using vehicle-to-grid if there is a significant variation in electricity prices during different hours. Therefore, the vehicle owner can potentially receive money from selling electricity to the grid while also supporting the electric grid. The study provides insights into utilizing vehicle-to-grid in society and taking steps towards its implementation. Full article
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18 pages, 4532 KiB  
Article
Optimal Sizing of a Battery-Supported Electric Vehicle Charging Hub with a Limited-Capacity Grid Connection
by Edward Heath, Rick Wolbertus and Renée Heller
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040133 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The ever-increasing electrification of society has been a cause of utility grid issues in many regions around the world. With the increased adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in the Netherlands, many new charge points (CPs) are required. A common installation practice of CPs [...] Read more.
The ever-increasing electrification of society has been a cause of utility grid issues in many regions around the world. With the increased adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in the Netherlands, many new charge points (CPs) are required. A common installation practice of CPs is to group multiple CPs together on a single grid connection, the so-called charging hub. To further ensure EVs are adequately charged, various control strategies can be employed, or a stationary battery can be connected to this network. A pilot project in Amsterdam was used as a case study to validate the Python model developed in this study using the measured data. This paper presents an optimisation of the battery energy storage capacity and the grid connection capacity for such a P&R-based charging hub with various load profiles and various battery system costs. A variety of battery control strategies were simulated using both the optimal system sizing and the case study sizing. A recommendation for a control strategy is proposed. Full article
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13 pages, 927 KiB  
Article
Economic and Environmental Assessment of Technologies Optimizing the Execution of Long Trips for Electric Vehicles
by Léa D’amore, Daniele Costa and Maarten Messagie
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040128 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Further advances in hardware and software features are needed to optimize battery and thermal management systems to allow for the execution of longer trips in electric vehicles. This paper assesses the economic and environmental impacts of the following features: eco-charging, eco-driving, smart fast [...] Read more.
Further advances in hardware and software features are needed to optimize battery and thermal management systems to allow for the execution of longer trips in electric vehicles. This paper assesses the economic and environmental impacts of the following features: eco-charging, eco-driving, smart fast charging, predictive thermal powertrain and cabin conditioning, and an advanced heat pump system. A Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and externalities calculation is carried out on two passenger cars and one light commercial vehicle (LCV). The energy consumption data from the vehicles are based on experiments. The analysis shows more benefits for the LCV, while the smart fast-charging feature on the car shows a slight increase in TCO. However, negative results did not contribute significantly compared to the ability to install a smaller battery capacity for similar use. Full article
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21 pages, 4453 KiB  
Article
A Digitalized Methodology for Co-Design Structural and Performance Optimization of Battery Modules
by Theodoros Kalogiannis, Md Sazzad Hosen, Joeri Van Mierlo, Peter Van Den Bossche and Maitane Berecibar
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030115 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 612
Abstract
In this study, we present an innovative, fully automated, and digitalized methodology to optimize the energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of Li-ion battery modules. Advancing on from today’s optimization schemes that rely on user experience and other limitations, the mechanical and thermal designs [...] Read more.
In this study, we present an innovative, fully automated, and digitalized methodology to optimize the energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of Li-ion battery modules. Advancing on from today’s optimization schemes that rely on user experience and other limitations, the mechanical and thermal designs are optimized simultaneously in this study by coupling 3D multi-physical behavior models to multi-objective heuristic optimization algorithms. Heat generation at various loading and ambient conditions are estimated with a physics-based, fractional-order battery cell-level model, which is extrapolated to a module that further accounts for the interconnected cells’ heat transfer phenomena. Several key performance indicators such as the surface temperature increase, the temperature variations on the cells, and heat uniformity within the module are recorded. For the air-cooled study case, the proposed coupled framework performs more than 250 module evaluations in a relatively short time for the whole available electro-thermal-mechanical design space, thereby ensuring global optimal results in the final design. The optimal module design proposed by this method is built in this work, and it is experimentally evaluated with a module composed of 12 series-connected Li-ion NMC/C 43Ah prismatic battery cells. The performance is validated at various conditions, which is achieved by accounting the thermal efficiency and pressure drop with regard to power consumption improvements. The validations presented in this study verify the applicability and overall efficiency of the proposed methodology, as well as paves the way toward better energy and cost-efficient battery systems. Full article
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17 pages, 8007 KiB  
Article
Simulation-Based Assessment of Energy Consumption of Alternative Powertrains in Agricultural Tractors
by Antti Lajunen, Klaus Kivekäs, Vincent Freyermuth, Ram Vijayagopal and Namdoo Kim
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030086 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
The objectives of this research were to develop simulation models for agricultural tractors with different powertrain technologies and evaluate the energy consumption in typical agricultural operations. Simulation models were developed for conventional, parallel hybrid electric, series hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid, and battery [...] Read more.
The objectives of this research were to develop simulation models for agricultural tractors with different powertrain technologies and evaluate the energy consumption in typical agricultural operations. Simulation models were developed for conventional, parallel hybrid electric, series hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid, and battery electric powertrains. Autonomie vehicle simulation software (version 2022) was used for the simulations and the tractor models were simulated in two tilling cycles and in a road transport cycle with a trailer. The alternative powertrains were configured to have at least the same tractive performance as the conventional, diesel engine-powered tractor model. The simulation results showed that the potential of the parallel and series hybrid powertrains to improve energy efficiency depends heavily on the tractor size and the operating cycle conditions. The fuel cell hybrid and battery electric powertrains have a higher potential to reduce energy consumption and emissions but still have inherent technical challenges for practical operation. The battery-powered electric tractor would require improvements in the storage energy density to have a comparable operational performance in comparison to other powertrains. The fuel cell hybrid tractor already provided an adequate operating performance but the availability of hydrogen and refueling infrastructure could be challenging to resolve in the farming context. Full article
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16 pages, 1746 KiB  
Article
Multi-Use Optimization of a Depot for Battery-Electric Heavy-Duty Trucks
by Florian Biedenbach and Kai Strunz
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030084 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Battery-electric trucks offer a high battery capacity and good predictability, making them attractive for the implementation of bidirectional charging strategies. Nevertheless, most of the previous charging strategy studies focus on electric passenger cars. These charging strategies are usually formulated as separate use cases [...] Read more.
Battery-electric trucks offer a high battery capacity and good predictability, making them attractive for the implementation of bidirectional charging strategies. Nevertheless, most of the previous charging strategy studies focus on electric passenger cars. These charging strategies are usually formulated as separate use cases like tariff-optimized charging, arbitrage trading, peak shaving, and self-consumption optimization. By combining different use cases, their economic potential can be increased. In this paper, we introduce a model to optimize charging processes in depots for electric vehicles considering the combination of different use cases. This model is applied to a depot for battery-electric trucks. The savings obtained through optimized bidirectional charging highlight the enormous potential of this technology for the future, especially in the heavy-duty sector. Full article
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19 pages, 2794 KiB  
Article
BANULA—A Novel DLT-Based Approach for EV Charging with High Level of User Comfort and Role-Specific Data Transparency for All Parties Involved
by Daniel Stetter, Tobias Höpfer, Marc Schmid, Ines Sturz, Simon Falkenberger and Nadja Knoll
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15030079 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 893
Abstract
The core goal of the BANULA research project is to combine customer-oriented and grid-compatible charging of electric vehicles. It addresses the current challenges of the e-mobility ecosystem from the perspective of grid operators and charging infrastructure users and creates added value for every [...] Read more.
The core goal of the BANULA research project is to combine customer-oriented and grid-compatible charging of electric vehicles. It addresses the current challenges of the e-mobility ecosystem from the perspective of grid operators and charging infrastructure users and creates added value for every mass market role involved. In the project, the idea of a virtual balancing group based on blockchain technology is implemented. Thereby, it enables extended data acquisition, a real-time data exchange between grid and market participants, proper balancing and grid node-specific load flow determination and, thus, load management. Full article
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16 pages, 8889 KiB  
Article
Reducing the Environmental Impact of Large Battery Systems with Conductive Electric Road Systems—A Technical Overview
by David Wenander and Mats Alaküla
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020059 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
A radical transformation of the transport industry is required in order to achieve a fossil-fuel-free vehicle fleet and reach the greenhouse gas emissions goals. Electrification plays a crucial role in this radical process. An electric road system (ERS) is a road that supplies [...] Read more.
A radical transformation of the transport industry is required in order to achieve a fossil-fuel-free vehicle fleet and reach the greenhouse gas emissions goals. Electrification plays a crucial role in this radical process. An electric road system (ERS) is a road that supplies power to electric vehicles as they drive on it, offering numerous advantages. These include an extended driving range, decreased reliance on batteries, and increased flexibility and convenience for drivers, eliminating the need to stop for recharging. This paper highlights the transformative potential of ERS in revolutionizing the land transport sector. Through thorough testing with a conductive ERS demonstrator, the viability of the presented technology is validated. Essential aspects like power transfer, efficiency, safety, and environmental impact showcase ERS’s adaptability and scalability across diverse vehicle types. This study recommends widespread ERS support for battery electric vehicles, emphasizing the route toward a sustainable future. Full article
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13 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Optimization of H2 Supply to the Refuelling Infrastructure for Long-Haul Trucks: Centralized versus Local H2 Production, and Using Transportation by Tanker Truck or Pipeline
by Nafisa Mahbub and Hajo Ribberink
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020057 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
In a simulation study, it was investigated how the costs of supplying H2 for the refuelling of long-haul trucks along highways in Canada can be minimized by optimizing the design of the refuelling infrastructure. Scenarios using local or centralized blue H2 production were [...] Read more.
In a simulation study, it was investigated how the costs of supplying H2 for the refuelling of long-haul trucks along highways in Canada can be minimized by optimizing the design of the refuelling infrastructure. Scenarios using local or centralized blue H2 production were evaluated using two different modes of H2 transportation (liquid H2 tanker trucks and pipelines). For each scenario, the average H2 supply costs were determined considering H2 production costs from facilities of different sizes and transportation costs for H2 that was not produced locally. Average H2 supply costs were 2.83 CAD/kg H2 for the scenario with local H2 production at each refuelling site, 3.22–3.27 CAD/kg H2 for scenarios using centralized H2 production and tanker truck transportation, and 2.92–2.96 CAD/kg H2 for centralized H2 production scenarios with pipeline transportation. Optimized scenarios using the cheaper transportation option (tanker truck or pipeline) for each highway segment had average H2 supply costs (2.82–2.88 CAD/kg H2) similar to those of using only local H2 production, with slightly lower costs for the scenario using the largest H2 production volumes. Follow-on research is recommended to include the impact of CO2 transportation (from blue H2 production) on the design of an optimum supply infrastructure. Full article
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9 pages, 1312 KiB  
Communication
Flexibility Potential of Smart Charging Electric Trucks and Buses
by Christian Will and Fabian Ocker
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020056 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1733
Abstract
In addition to passenger vehicles, battery-electric trucks and buses could offer substantial flexibility to the energy system. Using a Bass diffusion model, we extrapolated the unidirectional charging needs and availability of trucks in five of eleven typical applications, as well as city buses, [...] Read more.
In addition to passenger vehicles, battery-electric trucks and buses could offer substantial flexibility to the energy system. Using a Bass diffusion model, we extrapolated the unidirectional charging needs and availability of trucks in five of eleven typical applications, as well as city buses, for Germany until 2040. Combined, these heavy-duty vehicles could provide up to 23 GW of down-regulating flexibility potential (i.e., in case of excess power supply) in 2040. The resulting revenues could contribute to reducing electricity costs for depot operators. These results illustrate the need to provide easy and automated market access to heavy-duty vehicle fleets. Full article
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14 pages, 3941 KiB  
Article
Series-Hybrid Powertrains: Advancing Mobility Control in Electric Tracked Vehicle Technology
by Dersu Çeliksöz and Varlık Kılıç
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020047 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1361
Abstract
This work focuses on developing a mobility control system for high-speed series-hybrid electric tracked vehicles, which operate with independent traction motors for each track. The scope of this research includes modeling a series-hybrid powertrain specific to military tracked vehicles and conducting an in-depth [...] Read more.
This work focuses on developing a mobility control system for high-speed series-hybrid electric tracked vehicles, which operate with independent traction motors for each track. The scope of this research includes modeling a series-hybrid powertrain specific to military tracked vehicles and conducting an in-depth analysis of its dynamic behavior. Subsequently, this study conducts a critical review of mobility control approaches sourced from the literature, identifying key techniques relevant to high-inertia vehicular applications. Building on foundational models, this study proposes a robust closed-loop mobility control system aimed at ensuring precise and stable off-road vehicle operations. The system’s resilience and adaptability to a variety of driving conditions are emphasized, with a particular focus on handling maneuvers such as steering and pivoting, which are challenging operations for tracked vehicle agility. The performance of the proposed mobility control system is tested through a series of simulations, covering a spectrum of operational scenarios. These tests are conducted in both offline simulation settings, which permit meticulous fine-tuning of system parameters, and real-time environments that replicate actual field conditions. The simulation results demonstrate the system’s capacity to improve the vehicular response and highlight its potential impact on future designs of mobility control systems for the heavy-duty vehicle sector, particularly in defense applications. Full article
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44 pages, 11721 KiB  
Article
An Empirical Study of the Policy Processes behind Norway’s BEV-Olution
by Erik Figenbaum
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020037 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Norway’s large battery electric vehicle (BEV) market and fleet are not the result of a comprehensive policy plan. Using the multiple streams (MS) framework and document analysis, it was identified that the most important Norwegian BEV policy decisions were made using inadequate policy [...] Read more.
Norway’s large battery electric vehicle (BEV) market and fleet are not the result of a comprehensive policy plan. Using the multiple streams (MS) framework and document analysis, it was identified that the most important Norwegian BEV policy decisions were made using inadequate policy processes that fall outside of traditional politics. This is contrary to the MS framework postulate that three independent streams of problems, policy solutions, and politics must align to pave the way for new policies. Politicians had limited information about the effects of policies they introduced in this “learning by doing process”. Impact assessments were rarely made. The decision rationale was often not documented. The future market expectation and thus the national budget consequences were low when important policy decisions were made, whereas the political gain was high. The processes were more aligned with traditional politics after 2014. The ambitious ZE vehicle targets for 2025 and the climate policy targets for 2030 locked in incentives, despite rising tax losses. In sum, these developments created the world’s largest per-capita BEV market. To avoid negative issues and keep the BEV policies’ potential to support the BEV transition, politicians should ensure that sufficient knowledge is available when making decisions about future policies. Such decisions should be taken transparently within traditional politics, be properly assessed as with EU policy processes, and regularly reviewed as with the California ZEV mandate process. The required knowledge should be developed in open-access research. Full article
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7 pages, 2615 KiB  
Communication
Subcooled Liquid Hydrogen Technology for Heavy-Duty Trucks
by Enrico Pizzutilo, Thomas Acher, Benjamin Reuter, Christian Will and Simon Schäfer
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010022 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Subcooled liquid hydrogen (sLH2) is an onboard storage, as well as a hydrogen refueling technology that is currently being developed by Daimler Truck and Linde to boost the mileage of heavy-duty trucks, while also improving performance and reducing the complexity of hydrogen refueling [...] Read more.
Subcooled liquid hydrogen (sLH2) is an onboard storage, as well as a hydrogen refueling technology that is currently being developed by Daimler Truck and Linde to boost the mileage of heavy-duty trucks, while also improving performance and reducing the complexity of hydrogen refueling stations. In this article, the key technical aspects, advantages, challenges and future developments of sLH2 at vehicle and infrastructure levels will be explored and highlighted. Full article
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15 pages, 5550 KiB  
Article
Speed Change Pattern Optimization for Improving the Electricity Consumption of an Electric Bus and Its Verification Using an Actual Vehicle
by Yiyuan Fang, Wei-hsiang Yang, Yushi Kamiya, Takehito Imai, Shigeru Ueki and Masayuki Kobayashi
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15010016 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
In this study, we focused on the eco-driving of electric vehicles (EVs). The target vehicle is an electric bus developed by our research team. Using the parameters of the bus and speed pattern optimization algorithm, we derived the EV’s eco-driving speed pattern. Compared [...] Read more.
In this study, we focused on the eco-driving of electric vehicles (EVs). The target vehicle is an electric bus developed by our research team. Using the parameters of the bus and speed pattern optimization algorithm, we derived the EV’s eco-driving speed pattern. Compared to the eco-driving of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs), we found several different characteristics. We verified these characteristics with actual vehicle driving test data of the target bus, and the results confirmed its rationality. The EV’s eco-driving method can improve electricity consumption by about 10–20% under the same average speed. Full article
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13 pages, 6044 KiB  
Article
A Novel Approach for a Predictive Online ECMS Applied in Electrified Vehicles Using Real Driving Data
by Felix Deufel, Malte Freund and Frank Gauterin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120353 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
To increase the efficiency of electrified vehicles, many energy management strategies (driving strategies) have been proposed. These include both offline optimization techniques to identify a system’s theoretical optimum and online optimization techniques created for onboard use in the vehicle. In the field of [...] Read more.
To increase the efficiency of electrified vehicles, many energy management strategies (driving strategies) have been proposed. These include both offline optimization techniques to identify a system’s theoretical optimum and online optimization techniques created for onboard use in the vehicle. In the field of online optimization, predictive approaches can achieve additional savings. However, predictions are challenging, and robust usability in all driving situations of the vehicle is not guaranteed. In this study, a new approach for a predictive energy management strategy is presented. It is demonstrated how this so-called predictive Online Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) can achieve additional fuel savings compared to a non-predictive Online ECMS by predicting recuperation events using map data. As long as the route is known, map data are available, and the current position of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is given, the predictive Online ECMS can be applied. If these requirements are not met, the non-predictive basic implementation can still be used to ensure robust functionality. The methodology is investigated using a backward simulation model of a D-segment vehicle powered by a 48 V hybrid electric system in a P2 topology. A dataset including real driving cycles including map data from Open Street Map (OSM) is used. However, the investigations are limited to the consideration of traffic signal (TS) positions on the upcoming route. Simulation results focus on the interaction between the energy management strategy (EMS) and usable battery energy. More than 1 % average saving potentials compared to a non-predictive implementation are shown. The highest saving potentials are found with a usable battery energy of 100 Wh. Full article
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17 pages, 3206 KiB  
Article
Investigating Investment Plans for Expanding Battery and Electric Vehicle Production in Europe
by Hong Yang and Lewis Fulton
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120347 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 3435
Abstract
There has been significant EV sales growth in Europe, benefiting from its policies for promoting electric vehicles (EVs) and investments in manufacturing. This study investigates the investment announcements for EV and battery production announced by manufacturers and compares them to four scenarios with [...] Read more.
There has been significant EV sales growth in Europe, benefiting from its policies for promoting electric vehicles (EVs) and investments in manufacturing. This study investigates the investment announcements for EV and battery production announced by manufacturers and compares them to four scenarios with different EV penetration levels in Europe. This study projects the required capacities and estimates the investment needs to meet different EV sale targets in each scenario. The investigations show that, for Europe to achieve 60% new EV sales by 2030 and to be on track for 100% by 2035, its 4.8 million planned production capacity of EVs would fall short of the needed 9.2 million in 2030. The gap could close to 2.0 million when tentative announcements are counted. The results for batteries indicate that tentative plans are adequate and firm plans can satisfy most scenarios by 2030. More investments into EV production, along with policy support and incentives, are needed for more rapid scenarios. Full article
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13 pages, 1362 KiB  
Article
Incremental Profitability Evaluation of Vehicle-to-Grid-Enabled Automated Frequency Restoration Reserve Services for Semi-Public Charging Infrastructure: A Case Study in Belgium
by Andrei Goncearuc, Nikolaos Sapountzoglou, Cedric De Cauwer, Thierry Coosemans, Maarten Messagie and Thomas Crispeels
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120339 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2602
Abstract
The current paper defines a framework for the introduction of automated frequency restoration reserve services, enabled by vehicle-to-grid technology, into the business model of an entity owning and operating a network of semi-public Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. It assesses the profitability of this [...] Read more.
The current paper defines a framework for the introduction of automated frequency restoration reserve services, enabled by vehicle-to-grid technology, into the business model of an entity owning and operating a network of semi-public Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. It assesses the profitability of this introduction by performing a case study based on the real-life electric vehicle charging data from the EVSE network located in a hospital parking lot. From the results of the study, it is clearly visible that the introduction of vehicle-to-grid-enabled automated frequency restoration reserve services has a significant positive incremental profitability; however, this is heavily dependent on the plug-in ratio of the charging network, determined by electric vehicle users’ behavior. Full article
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17 pages, 5020 KiB  
Article
A System for the Efficient Charging of EV Fleets
by Tobias Fleck, Sascha Gohlke and Zoltan Nochta
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120335 - 02 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1568
Abstract
Smart charging is a means of monitoring and actively controlling EV chargers to optimize the distribution and consumption of energy with a focus on peak-load avoidance. This paper describes the most important requirements that have influenced the design and implementation of the “Smart [...] Read more.
Smart charging is a means of monitoring and actively controlling EV chargers to optimize the distribution and consumption of energy with a focus on peak-load avoidance. This paper describes the most important requirements that have influenced the design and implementation of the “Smart Charging System” (SCS). It presents the architecture and main functional building blocks of the SCS, which have been realized in an iterative development process as an extension component of the already existing open-source solution “Open e-Mobility”. We also provide details on the functionality of the core smart charging algorithm within SCS and show how various data sources can be utilized by the system to increase the safety and efficiency of EV charging processes. Furthermore, we describe our iterative approach to developing the system, introduce the real-world testbed at SAP Labs France in Mougins/France, and share evaluation results and experiences gathered over a three-year period. Full article
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17 pages, 4441 KiB  
Article
Energy Cost Analysis and Operational Range Prediction Based on Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicle Real-World Deployments across the United States
by Yin Qiu, Cristina Dobbelaere and Shuhan Song
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120330 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2025
Abstract
While the market for medium- and heavy-duty battery-electric vehicles (MHD EVs) is still nascent, a growing number of these vehicles are being deployed across the U.S. This study used over 2.3 million miles of operational data from multiple types of MHD EVs across [...] Read more.
While the market for medium- and heavy-duty battery-electric vehicles (MHD EVs) is still nascent, a growing number of these vehicles are being deployed across the U.S. This study used over 2.3 million miles of operational data from multiple types of MHD EVs across various regions and operating conditions to address knowledge gaps in total cost of ownership and operational range. First, real-world energy cost savings were determined: MHD fleets should experience energy cost savings each year from 2021 to 2035, regardless of vehicle platform, with the greatest savings seen in transit buses (up to USD 4459 annually) and HD trucks (up to USD 3284 annually). Second, to help fleets across various geographies throughout the U.S. assess the suitability of EVs for their year-round operating needs, operational range was modeled using the XGBoost algorithm (R2: 70%) given 22 input features relevant to vehicle efficiency. Finally, this paper recommends (1) that MHD fleets apply energy-saving practices to minimize the impacts of cold temperatures and high congestion levels on vehicle efficiency and range, and (2) that local hauling fleets select trucks with a nominal range nearly double the expected maximum daily range to account for range losses under local, urban driving conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 3770 KiB  
Article
Impact of V2G Flexibility on Congestion Management in the German Transmission Grid
by Manuel Ruppert, Nora Baumgartner, Alexandra Märtz and Tim Signer
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120328 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the effect of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) flexibility potential on solving transmission grid congestion in Germany using congestion management measures. We extend existing work on effects of V2G on transmission grid congestion by determining the flexibility provided for improving grid [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the effect of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) flexibility potential on solving transmission grid congestion in Germany using congestion management measures. We extend existing work on effects of V2G on transmission grid congestion by determining the flexibility provided for improving grid operation based on mobility behavior and findings on V2G user requirements from real-world electric vehicle users. Furthermore, the impact on transmission grid operation is analyzed using an optimal congestion management model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Using a scenario for the year 2030 with ambitious targets for European renewable generation development and electrification of private vehicles, our findings show that by enabling the available fleet of V2G vehicles to participate in congestion management, cost and amount can be reduced by up to 11%. However, the required capacity is shown to be lower than installed capacities in ambitious future scenarios, implying that a limited number of vehicles close to congestion centers will be utilized for transmission grid operation. Our results further suggest that high numbers of vehicles with low availability of V2G for grid operation purposes can lead to an increase in congestion management measures, while V2G proves beneficial for congestion management emissions and cost in all scenarios. Full article
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9 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Acceptance of E-Motorcycles: A Longitudinal Survey at Loewensteiner Platte, South Germany
by Daniela Ludin, Norbert Schreier, Erika Mueller, Wanja Wellbrock, Patrick Melber and Jonas Sollner
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120326 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
The acceptance of e-motorcycles among German motorcyclists is the focus of this quantitative longitudinal study. By comparing survey results from 2017 and 2022, questions about changes in perception of e-motorcycles over time as well as possible stimulating factors are analyzed. The research design [...] Read more.
The acceptance of e-motorcycles among German motorcyclists is the focus of this quantitative longitudinal study. By comparing survey results from 2017 and 2022, questions about changes in perception of e-motorcycles over time as well as possible stimulating factors are analyzed. The research design is built upon literature research, a secondary literature analysis, and a survey of motorcyclists. Statistical procedures are used for data analysis and interpretation. The literature analysis enables the present study to be integrated into the current state of research. The findings show that the willingness to consider an e-motorcycle as the next purchase was low in 2017 and dropped from 20% to 5% in 2022, which contrasts with the rising sales figures of e-motorcycles in the German market. Based on these findings, conclusions are drawn about the market potential of e-motorcycles in Germany and an overview of the general assessments and concerns of motorcyclists is provided. Full article
12 pages, 3463 KiB  
Article
Modular and Scalable Powertrain for Multipurpose Light Electric Vehicles
by Mehrnaz Farzam Far, Damijan Miljavec, Roman Manko, Jenni Pippuri-Mäkeläinen, Mikaela Ranta, Janne Keränen, Jutta Kinder and Mario Vukotić
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110309 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Light electric vehicles are best suited for city and suburban settings, where top speed and long-distance travel are not the primary concerns. The literature concerning light electric vehicle powertrain design often overlooks the influence of the associated driving missions. Typically, the powertrain is [...] Read more.
Light electric vehicles are best suited for city and suburban settings, where top speed and long-distance travel are not the primary concerns. The literature concerning light electric vehicle powertrain design often overlooks the influence of the associated driving missions. Typically, the powertrain is initially parameterized, established, and then evaluated with an ex-post-performance assessment using driving cycles. Nevertheless, to optimize the size and performance of a vehicle according to its intended mission, it is essential to consider the driving cycles right from the outset, in the powertrain design. This paper presents the design of an electric powertrain for multipurpose light electric vehicles, focusing on the motor, battery, and charging requirements. The powertrain design optimization is realized from the first stages by considering the vehicle’s driving missions and operational patterns for multipurpose usage (transporting people or goods) in European urban environments. The proposed powertrain is modular and scalable in terms of the energy capacity of the battery as well as in the electric motor shaft power and torque. Having such a possibility gives one the flexibility to use the powertrain in different combinations for different vehicle categories, from L7 quadricycles to light M1 vehicles. Full article
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14 pages, 2135 KiB  
Article
Utility Factor Curves for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Beyond the Standard Assumptions
by Karim Hamza and Kenneth P. Laberteaux
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110301 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1965
Abstract
The utility factor (UF) of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) refers to the ratio of miles traveled in electric mode to the total miles traveled. Standard UF curves provide a prediction of the expected achievable UF by a PHEV given its all-electric [...] Read more.
The utility factor (UF) of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) refers to the ratio of miles traveled in electric mode to the total miles traveled. Standard UF curves provide a prediction of the expected achievable UF by a PHEV given its all-electric range (AER), but such predictions entail assumptions about both the driving patterns (distance traveled and energy intensity) and charging behavior. Studies have attempted to compare the real-world UF achieved by PHEVs to their standard values, but deviations can stem from deviations in assumptions about: (i) achievable electric range, (ii) travel distance and (iii) charging frequency. In this paper, we derive analytical models for modified utility factor curves as a function of both AER and charging behavior. We show that average charging frequency is insufficient to exactly predict UF but can still estimate bounds. Our generalized model can also provide insights into the efficacy of PHEVs in reducing carbon emissions. Full article
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11 pages, 3145 KiB  
Article
Zero-Emission Truck Powertrains for Regional and Long-Haul Missions
by Mikko Pihlatie, Mikaela Ranta, Pekka Rahkola and Rafael Åman
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(9), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14090253 - 08 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Zero-emission trucks for regional and long-haul missions are an option for fossil-free freight. The viability of such powertrains and system solutions was studied conceptually in project ESCALATE for trucks with GVW of 40 tonnes and beyond through various battery electric and fuel cell [...] Read more.
Zero-emission trucks for regional and long-haul missions are an option for fossil-free freight. The viability of such powertrains and system solutions was studied conceptually in project ESCALATE for trucks with GVW of 40 tonnes and beyond through various battery electric and fuel cell prime mover combinations. The study covers battery and fuel cell power sources with different degrees of battery electric as well as H2 and fuel cell operation. As a design basis, two different missions with a single-charge/H2 refill were analysed. The first mission was the VECTO long-haul profile repeated up to 750 km, whereas the second was a real 520 km on-road mission in Finland. Based on the simulated energy consumption on the driving cycle, on-board energy demand was estimated, and the initial single-charge and H2 refill operational scenarios were produced with five different power source topologies and on-board storage capacities. The traction motors of the tractor were dimensioned so that a secondary mission of GVW up to 76 tonnes on a shorter route or a longer route with more frequent battery recharge and/or H2 refill can be operated. Based on the powertrain and vehicle model, various infrastructure options for charging and H2 refuelling strategies as well as various operative scenarios with indicative total cost of ownership (TCO) were analysed. Full article
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