Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Human Health

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 11165

Special Issue Editors

Department of Public Health, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740, USA
Interests: environmental health; air pollution; indoor air; exposure science; particulate matter
Department of Nano-Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Seokyeong University, Seoul 02173, Republic of Korea
Interests: environmental health, risk assessment, air pollution; environmental health surveillance system; exposure science; indoor air qulaity; environmental monitoring; environmental modeling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human exposure to ambient air pollutants has been a global public health concern for decades. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that almost all of the worldwide population (99%) breathe air that exceeds WHO guidelines and contains high levels of pollutants. Exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SOx, CO, lead, ozone, VOCs, diesel particles, black carbons, and PAHs increases morbidity and mortality globally, disproportionately impacting poor communities and countries. In addition to the contribution of anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion, climate-change-associated wildfires and droughts increase ambient air pollution and the burden of disease. Several efforts in science have urged policy developments to reduce air pollution. Consequently, in the countries and regions that implemented stricter control of emission sources, there have been improvements in air quality, but fewer studies recognized the benefits. Spatial and temporal analyses of local, regional, and microenvironmental air pollution exposure assessments and human health effects will characterize the air pollution problems related to the changing emission sources and climates.  

The topics of interest, on which authors are invited and welcome to submit original research papers, reviews, and short communications, include (but are not limited to) the following:

  1. Exposure assessment in the microenvironments impacted by ambient air pollution;
  2. Spatial and temporal analyses on the mobile sources and human health impact;
  3. Impact of wildfire and drought on local/regional air pollution and toxic health effects;
  4. Ambient air pollution penetration indoor air quality problems;
  5. Real-time and continuous monitoring data and novel data modeling and analyses methodology;
  6. Evaluation of health risk assessments derived from ambient air pollution.

Dr. Jaymin Kwon
Prof. Dr. Cheol Min Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • spatial and temporal analysis
  • air pollutant characterization in microenvironments
  • continuous data utilization
  • fossil fuel combustion
  • biomass burning
  • climate change induced air pollution
  • human health impact and exposure assessment
  • progress in health effects by air quality policy implementation
  • environmental justice in air polluted areas
  • health effects of secondary aerosols and gases

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 2482 KiB  
Article
Effects of PM10 Airborne Particles from Different Regions of a Megacity on In Vitro Secretion of Cytokines by a Monocyte Line during Different Seasons
Toxics 2024, 12(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12020149 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) in air pollution can be involved in the genesis or aggravation of different cardiovascular, respiratory, perinatal, and cancer diseases. This study assessed the in vitro effects of PM10 on the secretion of cytokines [...] Read more.
Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) in air pollution can be involved in the genesis or aggravation of different cardiovascular, respiratory, perinatal, and cancer diseases. This study assessed the in vitro effects of PM10 on the secretion of cytokines by a human monocytic cell line (THP-1). We compared the chemotactic, pro-inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory cytokines induced by PM10 collected for two years during three different seasons in five different Mexico City locations. MIP-1α, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α, and VEGF were the main secretion products after stimulation with 80 μg/mL of PM10 for 24 h. The THP-1 cells showed a differential response to PM10 obtained in the different sites of Mexico City. The PM10 from the north and the central city areas induced a higher pro-inflammatory cytokine response than those from the south. Seasonal pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion always exceeded anti-inflammatory secretion. The rainy-season-derived particles caused the lowest pro-inflammatory effects. We concluded that toxicological assessment of airborne particles provides evidence supporting their potential role in the chronic exacerbation of local or systemic inflammatory responses that may worsen the evolution of some chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Human Health)
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11 pages, 662 KiB  
Article
Teeth as an Indicator of the Environmental Exposure of Silesia Province’s Inhabitants in Poland to Metallic Trace Elements
Toxics 2024, 12(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12010090 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 634
Abstract
(1) Background: The elemental composition of teeth can provide an estimate of environmental exposure to heavy metals. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibility of using teeth in the biomonitoring of environmental exposure to heavy metals as an indicator of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The elemental composition of teeth can provide an estimate of environmental exposure to heavy metals. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibility of using teeth in the biomonitoring of environmental exposure to heavy metals as an indicator of contaminants present in the human residential environment. (2) Methods: The research materials were 110 samples of extracted teeth. The samples were taken from people living in three areas in the province of Silesia. The concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the samples were determined. (3) Results: The results of the chemical analysis of the collected samples showed a significant variation in the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) in the analyzed teeth. Furthermore, the mean concentrations of the analyzed heavy metals in the teeth varied according to the patient’s place of residence, the type of tooth analyzed, the presence of caries in the patient, and the smoking or non-smoking status of the patient. (4) Conclusions: The results of the chemical analysis of the teeth of inhabitants of three cities in the most polluted region of Poland indicate that they can be used as an indicator of environmental exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Human Health)
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19 pages, 3120 KiB  
Article
The Long-Term Mortality Effects Associated with Exposure to Particles and NOx in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort
Toxics 2023, 11(11), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11110913 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3728
Abstract
In this study, the long-term mortality effects associated with exposure to PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 10 µm), PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 2.5 µm), BC (black carbon), and [...] Read more.
In this study, the long-term mortality effects associated with exposure to PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 10 µm), PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 2.5 µm), BC (black carbon), and NOx (nitrogen oxides) were analyzed in a cohort in southern Sweden during the period from 1991 to 2016. Participants (those residing in Malmö, Sweden, born between 1923 and 1950) were randomly recruited from 1991 to 1996. At enrollment, 30,438 participants underwent a health screening, which consisted of questionnaires about lifestyle and diet, a clinical examination, and blood sampling. Mortality data were retrieved from the Swedish National Cause of Death Register. The modeled concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, BC, and NOx at the cohort participants’ home addresses were used to assess air pollution exposure. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the associations between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, BC, and NOx and the time until death among the participants during the period from 1991 to 2016. The hazard ratios (HRs) associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each air pollutant were calculated based on the exposure lag windows of the same year (lag0), 1–5 years (lag1–5), and 6–10 years (lag6–10). Three models were used with varying adjustments for possible confounders including both single-pollutant estimates and two-pollutant estimates. With adjustments for all covariates, the HRs for PM10, PM2.5, BC, and NOx in the single-pollutant models at lag1–5 were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.11), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.95–1.08), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04–1.11), and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.07–1.16) per IQR increase, respectively. The HRs, in most cases, decreased with the inclusion of a larger number of covariates in the models. The most robust associations were shown for NOx, with statistically significant positive HRs in all the models. An overall conclusion is that road traffic-related pollutants had a significant association with mortality in the cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Human Health)
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11 pages, 1153 KiB  
Article
Association between Air Pollution and Short-Term Outcome of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Toxics 2023, 11(6), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060541 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 869
Abstract
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), one of the primary factors leading to global mortality, has been shown through epidemiological studies to have a relationship with short-term exposure to air pollutants; however, the association between air pollutants and the outcome of STEMI has not [...] Read more.
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), one of the primary factors leading to global mortality, has been shown through epidemiological studies to have a relationship with short-term exposure to air pollutants; however, the association between air pollutants and the outcome of STEMI has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of air pollutants on the outcomes of STEMI. Data on particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), <10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) at each of the 11 air monitoring stations in Kaohsiung City were collected between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2017. Medical records of non-trauma patients aged > 20 years who had presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a principal diagnosis of STEMI were extracted. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders and meteorological variables, we found that an increase in the interquartile range (IQR) in NO2 was associated with an elevated risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI. Moreover, there was an observed higher risk of in-hospital mortality associated with an increase in the IQR of NO2 during the warm season, specifically in lag 3 (3 days prior to the onset, OR = 3.266; 95%CI: 1.203–8.864, p = 0.02). Conversely, an IQR increase in PM10 was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI in lag 3 (OR = 2.792; 95%CI: 1.115–6.993, p = 0.028) during the cold season. Our study suggests that exposure to NO2 (during the warm season) and PM10 (during the cold season) may contribute to a higher risk of poor prognosis in patients with STEMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Human Health)
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21 pages, 4907 KiB  
Article
Proposal of a Methodology for Prediction of Indoor PM2.5 Concentration Using Sensor-Based Residential Environments Monitoring Data and Time-Divided Multiple Linear Regression Model
Toxics 2023, 11(6), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060526 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
This study aims to propose an indoor air quality prediction method that can be easily utilized and reflects temporal characteristics using indoor and outdoor input data measured near the indoor target point as input to calculate indoor PM2.5 concentration through a multiple [...] Read more.
This study aims to propose an indoor air quality prediction method that can be easily utilized and reflects temporal characteristics using indoor and outdoor input data measured near the indoor target point as input to calculate indoor PM2.5 concentration through a multiple linear regression model. The atmospheric conditions and air pollution detected in one-minute intervals using sensor-based monitoring equipment (Dust Mon, Sentry Co Ltd., Seoul, Korea) inside and outside houses from May 2019 to April 2021 were used to develop the prediction model. By dividing the multiple linear regression model into one-hour increments, we attempted to overcome the limitation of not representing the multiple linear regression model’s characteristics over time and limited input variables. The multiple linear regression (MLR) model classified by time unit showed an improvement in explanatory power by up to 9% compared to the existing model, and some hourly models had an explanatory power of 0.30. These results indicated that the model needs to be subdivided by time period to more accurately predict indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Human Health)
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12 pages, 529 KiB  
Article
Associations between Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure during Pregnancy among PRINCESA Cohort Participants
Toxics 2023, 11(5), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11050424 - 03 May 2023
Viewed by 1417
Abstract
High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for hypertensive disease during pregnancy. Exposure to multiple toxic air pollutants can affect BP in pregnancy but has been rarely studied. We evaluated trimester-specific associations between air pollution exposure and systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP [...] Read more.
High blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for hypertensive disease during pregnancy. Exposure to multiple toxic air pollutants can affect BP in pregnancy but has been rarely studied. We evaluated trimester-specific associations between air pollution exposure and systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). Ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10, PM2.5) in the Pregnancy Research on Inflammation, Nutrition, & City Environment: Systematic Analyses (PRINCESA) study. Multipollutant generalized linear regression models with each pollutant and O3 were fit. Due to nonlinear pollution/BP associations, results are presented for “below the median” or “above the median”, where the beta estimate is the change in BP at a pollutant’s median versus BP at the pollutant’s minimum or maximum, respectively. Associations varied across trimesters and pollutants, and deleterious associations (higher blood pressure with higher pollution) were found only at pollutant values below the median: for SBP with NO2 in the second and third trimesters, and PM2.5 during the third trimester, and for DBP, PM2.5, and NO2 in the second and third trimesters. Findings suggest that minimizing prenatal exposure to air pollution may reduce the risks of changes in BP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Human Health)
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14 pages, 1517 KiB  
Article
Future Health Risk Assessment of Exposure to PM2.5 in Different Age Groups of Children in Northern Thailand
Toxics 2023, 11(3), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11030291 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 (PM2.5) is one of the major threats posed by air pollution to human health. It penetrates the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. In northern Thailand, the PM2.5 concentrations have significantly increased in [...] Read more.
Particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 (PM2.5) is one of the major threats posed by air pollution to human health. It penetrates the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. In northern Thailand, the PM2.5 concentrations have significantly increased in the past decade, becoming a major concern for the health of children. This study aimed to assess the health risk of PM2.5 in different age groups of children in northern Thailand between 2020 and 2029. Based on the PM2.5 data from the simulation of the Nested Regional Climate Model with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem), the hazard quotient (HQ) was used to estimate the possible risk from PM2.5 exposure in children. In general, all age groups of children in northern Thailand will tend to experience the threat of PM2.5 in the future. In the context of age-related development periods, infants are at a higher risk than other groups (toddlers, young children, school age and adolescents), but adolescents also have a lower risk of exposure to PM2.5, albeit maintaining a high HQ value (>1). Moreover, the analysis of risk assessment in different age groups of children revealed that PM2.5 exposure might indeed affect adolescent risk differently depending on gender, with males generally at a heightened risk than females in adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Human Health)
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