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Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 27842

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Guest Editor
Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE), UM Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC), Level-4, Wisma R&D, University of Malaya, Jalan Pantai Baharu, Kuala Lumpur 59990, Malaysia
Interests: energy technologies and conversion; energy and sustainability; sustainable energy systems; renewable energies; energy policy; energy conservation and management; energy and buildings; energy and transport; smart transport and electric vehicles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy is the driving force for automation, modernization and economic development, where an uninterrupted energy supply is one of the major challenges in the modern world. To ensure the energy supply, the world still highly depends on fossil fuels that have a negative impact on the environment. These challenges are coming from both supply and demand sides. Energy demand increasing rapidly, whereas the supply is mainly from fossil fuels. A sustainable energy system is a major challenge in energy systems. There are many initiatives and innovations that are required to solve the challenges and to ensure a sustainable energy supply as well as energy security. As part of the initiatives and innovations of sustainable energy systems, this Special Issue will investigate the challenges, potential energy technologies, energy analysis, energy efficiency, energy storage, energy management, energy economics and related policies. Relevant areas include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Challenges in the energy sector.
  • Energy demand in different sectors.
  • Sustainable energy systems.
  • Clean energy technologies.
  • Energy systems and energy analysis.
  • Energy efficiency.
  • Energy consumption and energy savings.
  • Energy storage.
  • Energy economic.
  • Energy policies.
  • Energy incentive and social benefits.
  • Renewable energy integration.

Dr. Md. Hasanuzzaman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy
  • energy demand
  • sustainable energy systems
  • clean technologies
  • energy efficiency
  • energy storage
  • energy economics
  • energy policies
  • renewable energy integration

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 10880 KiB  
Article
Applications of Kepler Algorithm-Based Controller for DC Chopper: Towards Stabilizing Wind Driven PMSGs under Nonstandard Voltages
by Basiony Shehata Atia, Mohamed Metwally Mahmoud, I. M. Elzein, Abdel-Moamen Mohamed Abdel-Rahim, Abdulaziz Alkuhayli, Usama Khaled, Abderrahmane Beroual and Salma Abdelaal Shaaban
Sustainability 2024, 16(7), 2952; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16072952 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 710
Abstract
An optimization technique, the Kepler optimizer (KO), is presented to enable permanent magnet synchronous wind generators (PMSWG) to run safely under faults and to accomplish the goal of low-carbon efficient power delivery and sustainable development. Utility companies are struggling, which is preventing the [...] Read more.
An optimization technique, the Kepler optimizer (KO), is presented to enable permanent magnet synchronous wind generators (PMSWG) to run safely under faults and to accomplish the goal of low-carbon efficient power delivery and sustainable development. Utility companies are struggling, which is preventing the increase in wind penetration, in spite of the grid incorporation of PMSWG. One of these undisputed concerns is the grid-side voltage dip (VD) and swell (VS) at the PCC. Converters and DCL capacitors are particularly vulnerable to PCC nonstandard voltages because of an imbalance in the DCL input–output powers. Because of this, it is essential to provide WF-GCs to support grid operations, and developing techniques to realize FRTCs has become a crucial GC need. Installing an industrial braking chopper (BC) across the DCL is the suggested technique, due to its effectiveness and low price. In addition, a new KO-based control system for BC is used to enhance its effectiveness. Four situations were examined to assess and analyze the proposed control system regarding the transient response of the system. These situations exposed the investigated system to an irregular grid condition: without BC, with BC controlled by a hysteresis controller, and with BC controlled by KO-based PI (proposed) at (a) 100% VD, (b) 70% VD, (c) 30% VD, and (d) 20% VS. To verify the advantages and efficacy of the suggested control systems in the examined circumstances, MATLAB/SIMULINK was utilized. The simulation findings confirmed the feasibility of the suggested system as a whole and the control structures in suppression of all parameter transient changes, while also achieving FRTC. Furthermore, maintaining a steady DCL voltage serves as an advantage that would lengthen the electrical converters’ lifetime and shorten the time that the unit would be turned off if it happens to fail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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25 pages, 7313 KiB  
Article
Multiport Converter Utility Interface with a High-Frequency Link for Interfacing Clean Energy Sources (PV\Wind\Fuel Cell) and Battery to the Power System: Application of the HHA Algorithm
by Nagwa F. Ibrahim, Sid Ahmed El Mehdi Ardjoun, Mohammed Alharbi, Abdulaziz Alkuhayli, Mohamed Abuagreb, Usama Khaled and Mohamed Metwally Mahmoud
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13716; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813716 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
The integration of clean energy sources (CESs) into modern power systems has been studied using various power converter topologies. The challenges of integrating various CESs are facilitated by the proper design of multi-port power converter (MPPC) architecture. In this study, a brand-new two-stage [...] Read more.
The integration of clean energy sources (CESs) into modern power systems has been studied using various power converter topologies. The challenges of integrating various CESs are facilitated by the proper design of multi-port power converter (MPPC) architecture. In this study, a brand-new two-stage MPPC is suggested as a solution to the intermittent nature and slow response (SR) of CESs. The suggested system combines a DC\DC and a DC\AC converter and storage unit, and the suggested circuit additionally incorporates a number of CESs (PV\wind\fuel cell (FC)). This article discusses the power management and control technique for an integrated four-port MPPC that links three input ports (PV, wind, and FC), a bidirectional battery port, and an isolated output port. One of the recent optimization techniques (Harris Hawk’s algorithm) is applied to optimize the system’s controller gains. By intelligently combining CESs with complementary characteristics, the adverse effects of intermittency are significantly mitigated, leading to an overall enhancement in system resilience and efficiency. Furthermore, integrating CESs with storage units not only addresses SR challenges but also effectively combats intermittent energy supply. The proposed system exhibits improved dynamic capabilities, allowing it to efficiently distribute excess energy to the load or absorb surplus energy from external sources. This dual functionality not only optimizes system operation but also contributes to a reduction in system size and cost, concurrently enhancing reliability. A comprehensive investigation into operational principles and meticulous design considerations are provided, elucidating the intricate mechanics of the suggested MPPC system. Employing MATLAB/Simulink, the proposed architecture and its control mechanisms undergo rigorous evaluation, affirming the feasibility and efficacy of this innovative system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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25 pages, 7200 KiB  
Article
Thermoeconomic Analysis of Subcritical and Supercritical Isobutane Cycles for Geothermal Power Generation
by Andrea Arbula Blecich and Paolo Blecich
Sustainability 2023, 15(11), 8624; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15118624 - 25 May 2023
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
This article presents a novel and comprehensive approach for the thermoeconomic evaluation of subcritical and supercritical isobutane cycles for geothermal temperatures of Tgeo = 100–200 °C. The isobutane cycles are optimized with respect to the maximum net power or minimum levelized cost [...] Read more.
This article presents a novel and comprehensive approach for the thermoeconomic evaluation of subcritical and supercritical isobutane cycles for geothermal temperatures of Tgeo = 100–200 °C. The isobutane cycles are optimized with respect to the maximum net power or minimum levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Cycle optimization is also included, using a minimum superheat temperature to avoid turbine erosion, which is usually neglected in the literature. The results show that economic optimums are found in the far superheated region, while thermal optimums are obtained with dry saturated or with slightly superheated vapor at the turbine inlet (ΔTsup < 5 °C). Supercritical cycles achieve better thermal performance than subcritical cycles for Tgeo = 179–200 °C. Internal heat recuperation improves the cycle performance: the net power output increases and the LCOE decreases, but specific installation costs (SICs) increase due to the additional heat exchanger. For geothermal temperatures of Tgeo = 120 → 150 °C, the costs are LCOE = 100 → 80 USD2022/MWh and SIC = 7000 → 5250 USD2022/kW, while for geothermal temperatures of Tgeo = 150 → 200 °C, the estimated costs are LCOE = 80 → 70 USD2022/MWh and SIC = 5250 → 4600 USD2022/kW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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22 pages, 2915 KiB  
Article
Proposal and Investigation of a New Tower Solar Collector-Based Trigeneration Energy System
by Eydhah Almatrafi, Abdul Khaliq, Rajesh Kumar, Ahmad Bamasag and Muhammad Ehtisham Siddiqui
Sustainability 2023, 15(9), 7474; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097474 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
These days, the low efficiency of solar-based thermal power plants results in uneconomical performance and high-cost uncompetitive industries compared with conventional fossil fuels. In order to overcome such issues, a novel combined cooling–power–heating (trigeneration) system is proposed and analyzed in this paper. This [...] Read more.
These days, the low efficiency of solar-based thermal power plants results in uneconomical performance and high-cost uncompetitive industries compared with conventional fossil fuels. In order to overcome such issues, a novel combined cooling–power–heating (trigeneration) system is proposed and analyzed in this paper. This system uses an ammonia–water binary mixture as a working fluid and a solar heat source to produce diverse types of energy for a multi-unit building in a sustainable fashion. In addition to the basic cooling–power cogeneration cycle, a flashing chamber that will boost the flow rate of refrigerant without any additional heat supply is employed. By developing a mathematical model, the system performance is analyzed using varying parameters of solar irradiation, hot oil temperature, process heat pressure, and ambient temperature to investigate the influence on electrical power, cooling capacity, refrigeration exergy, energy utilization factor (EUF), and system exergy efficiency. Increasing direct normal irradiation (DNI) from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 reduces the system EUF and exergy efficiency from 53.62% to 43.12% and from 49.02% to 25.65%, respectively. Both power and refrigeration exergy increase with increasing DNI and ambient temperature, while heating exergy remains constant. It is demonstrated that of 100% solar energy supplied, 46.03% is converted into energetic output and 53.97% is recorded as energy loss. The solar exergy supplied is distributed into 8.34% produced exergy, 29.78% exergy loss, and the remaining 61.88% is the destructed exergy. The highest destruction of solar exergy (56.89%) occurs in the central receiver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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18 pages, 4432 KiB  
Article
Time Series Forecast of Cooling Demand for Sustainable Chiller System in an Office Building in a Subtropical Climate
by Fu-Wing Yu and Wai-Tung Ho
Sustainability 2023, 15(8), 6793; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086793 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Commercial buildings can take up one-third of the energy related carbon emissions. There is limited research on forecasting cooling demands to evaluate sustainable air conditioning systems under climate change. This paper develops a simplified cooling demand model based on the time series of [...] Read more.
Commercial buildings can take up one-third of the energy related carbon emissions. There is limited research on forecasting cooling demands to evaluate sustainable air conditioning systems under climate change. This paper develops a simplified cooling demand model based on the time series of climatic and architectural variables to analyze carbon reduction by a sustainable chiller system. EnergyPlus is used to simulate hourly cooling demands of a hypothesized high-rise office building in Hong Kong under a change of architectural parameters and future climate conditions. An hourly cooling demand model with R2 above 0.9 is developed with inputs of the window-to-wall ratio, outdoor air enthalpy, global solar radiation, wind speed and their two steps ahead. The validated model is then used to analyze carbon reduction potentials by free cooling and a full variable speed chiller system. The low carbon technologies reduce carbon emissions by over 20% with but the reduction shrinks to 2.51–4.93% under future climate conditions. The novelty of this study is the simplified cooling demand model based on the time series of climatic and architectural variables. The significances of this study are to quantify carbon reduction by a sustainable chiller system under climate change and to appeal for more carbon reduction technologies for carbon neutrality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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16 pages, 7667 KiB  
Article
Thermal Assessment of Dielectric Microspacer Technology Using an Advanced Three-Dimensional Simulation Model
by Myrto Zeneli, Alessandro Bellucci, Gianfranco Sabbatella, Maria Fotopoulou, Vasilis Apostolopoulos, Panagiotis Stamatopoulos, Daniele M. Trucchi, Aristeidis Nikolopoulos and Dimitrios Rakopoulos
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15031786 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Dielectric microspacers (DMS) are a novel micro-technology that can be used to achieve a fixed micron/sub-micron gap distance between two separated surfaces, such as the emitter (cathode) and the PV cell (anode) of a near-field thermophotovoltaic converter (TPV). One of the system’s challenges [...] Read more.
Dielectric microspacers (DMS) are a novel micro-technology that can be used to achieve a fixed micron/sub-micron gap distance between two separated surfaces, such as the emitter (cathode) and the PV cell (anode) of a near-field thermophotovoltaic converter (TPV). One of the system’s challenges is the flow of undesirable excess thermal energy from the cathode to the anode that might cause the PV cell to overheat. This work investigates the possibility of integrating this technology into a hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) converter operating at ultra-high temperatures (>1000 °C) without any risk of collector’s overheating, which might lead to its mechanical failure. A steady-state 3-D CFD model was developed in Fluent v17.1 solver to assess the system’s thermal behavior when the two electrodes were separated by a distance of 8–10 μm. The heat transfer through conduction across the system components and the net photon/electron flux between the two electrodes were simulated. Different cathode temperatures within the range of 1500–2500 K and various DMS shapes (capillary, cylindrical), patterns (e.g., ring-shaped) and sizes were studied. Results show that thermal performance is not affected by the DMS pattern, even for thermal conductivities of 80 W/(m·K), whereas the possibility of mechanical failure is considerable for Tcathode > 2000 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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20 pages, 7277 KiB  
Article
Evaluation Study on a Novel Structure CCHP System with a New Comprehensive Index Using Improved ALO Algorithm
by Jie Ji, Fucheng Wang, Mengxiong Zhou, Renwei Guo, Rundong Ji, Hui Huang, Jiayu Zhang, Muhammad Shahzad Nazir, Tian Peng, Chu Zhang, Jiahui Huang and Yaodong Wang
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 15419; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215419 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
The CCHP system is a reasonable and effective method to improve the current situation of energy use. Capacity allocation is of great significance in improving the performance of the CCHP system. Due to the particularity of chemical enterprises’ production process, the demand for [...] Read more.
The CCHP system is a reasonable and effective method to improve the current situation of energy use. Capacity allocation is of great significance in improving the performance of the CCHP system. Due to the particularity of chemical enterprises’ production process, the demand for cooling, heating, and power load is also relatively particular, which makes the dynamic loads challenging to be satisfied. Because of the above problems, the structure of the typical CCHP system is improved, embodied in the collocation of multi-stage lithium bromide chiller, and the use of various energy storage devices. Based on the improved ant lion intelligent optimization (ALO) algorithm, the comprehensive evaluation index coupled with energy benefit, economic benefit, and environmental benefit, is taken as the objective function, and the equipment capacity configuration of the CCHP system for chemical enterprises is studied. Considering winter, summer, and transition seasons, the results show that the system is better than the typical CCHP system. The annual cost savings of the new structural system are up to 13%, and the carbon dioxide emissions of the new structural system are reduced by up to 36.39%. The primary energy utilization rate of the new structure system is increased by 18%, and the comprehensive evaluation index also performs better. The optimal index can reach 0.814. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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18 pages, 1913 KiB  
Article
Energy Analysis, Building Energy Index and Energy Management Strategies for Fast-Food Restaurants in Malaysia
by Muthu Kumaran Gunasegaran, Md Hasanuzzaman, ChiaKwang Tan, Ab Halim Abu Bakar and Vignes Ponniah
Sustainability 2022, 14(20), 13515; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013515 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3425
Abstract
Commercial buildings in Malaysia contribute to 35% of the total electricity demand. During the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the global economy faced a challenging situation that forced many businesses to shut down. However, fast-food restaurants with drive-through features managed to get through this pandemic [...] Read more.
Commercial buildings in Malaysia contribute to 35% of the total electricity demand. During the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the global economy faced a challenging situation that forced many businesses to shut down. However, fast-food restaurants with drive-through features managed to get through this pandemic phase without much effect from the economic impact. Since COVID-19, the operational guidelines have changed for restaurants. However, from an energy perspective, fast–food restaurants are high energy consumers in the retail sector. This paper analyses the load profile of fast-food restaurants and the potential strategies that can be adopted in a free-standing fast-food restaurant. From analysis, it is calculated that a total of RM 97,365.9 of utility savings can be obtained in a year. A total of 91,392.1 kg CO2, 881.8 kg SO2 and 385.5 kg CO pollutant emissions can be reduced. The BEI for the restaurant was reduced to 856.4 kWh/m2/year. By converting to energy-saving strategies, the return on investment was 27.3% and 3.7 years, which is a very short period of time and is attractive for businesses of this nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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28 pages, 3704 KiB  
Article
Decarbonization of Heat through Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery: Proposal of a Tool for the Preliminary Evaluation of Technologies in the Industrial Sector
by Daniele Dadi, Vito Introna and Miriam Benedetti
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12626; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912626 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
In an industrial energy scenario increasingly focused on decarbonization and energy cost containment, waste heat is a resource that is no longer negligible. Despite the great abundance of waste heat, its recognized potential, and numerous technologies available for its use, the rate of [...] Read more.
In an industrial energy scenario increasingly focused on decarbonization and energy cost containment, waste heat is a resource that is no longer negligible. Despite the great abundance of waste heat, its recognized potential, and numerous technologies available for its use, the rate of waste heat recovery (WHR) is still low, especially at low temperatures (<230 °C). Non-technological barriers, such as the lack of knowledge and support tools, strongly limit the diffusion of WHR technologies. The work presented in this paper aims to overcome non-technological gaps by developing a simple and operational tool that can support companies in the preliminary stages of evaluating a WHR application. The methodology followed involved the development of specific data-based models for WHR technology sizing by correlating waste heat input characteristics with dimensional and economic parameters of the technologies evaluated. We considered the most representative technologies in the WHR scenario: organic Rankine cycles for electric power generation, heat pumps for thermal power generation, absorption chillers for cooling generation, and plate heat exchangers for low-temperature heat exchange applications. One of the significant strengths of the tool is that it was developed using real and hard-to-find technologies performance and cost data mainly collected through continuous interactions with WHR technology providers. Moreover, the interaction with the technology providers allowed contextualization and validation of the tool in the field. In addition, the tool was applied to three large companies operating in the Italian industrial sector to test its effectiveness. The tool applications made it possible to propose cost-effective solutions that the companies had not considered before, despite the high level of attention with which they were already approaching energy efficiency improvements. The result obtained demonstrates the applicability and innovativeness of the tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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17 pages, 7458 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of the Effect of Flap Geometry in a Multi-Slot Ducted Wind Turbine
by Antonio García Auyanet and Patrick G. Verdin
Sustainability 2022, 14(19), 12032; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912032 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
One possible way to harness wind more efficiently in low-wind urban areas is to place wind turbines inside a duct. A known issue of such approach is due to the flow separation that can occur at the diffuser walls. This can be avoided [...] Read more.
One possible way to harness wind more efficiently in low-wind urban areas is to place wind turbines inside a duct. A known issue of such approach is due to the flow separation that can occur at the diffuser walls. This can be avoided using a channelled structure consisting of a duct and a flap, also known as a multi-slot system. The present work describes the effects of a flap geometry on the turbine performance, through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Four flaps based on airfoils, with different thicknesses and cambers, were evaluated. It was found that thinner and more cambered flaps produce higher wind turbine performance, showing power augmentations up to 2.5 compared to a bare turbine. A comparison between the multi-slot design and a single-piece duct of the same geometry was also performed, showing that the multi-slot design is more efficient if the flow is maintained attached to the flap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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24 pages, 6108 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Performance Analysis for High-Rise Building Using ArchiCAD: Initiatives towards Energy-Efficient Building
by Siti Birkha Mohd Ali, Amirhossein Mehdipoor, Noora Samsina Johari, Md. Hasanuzzaman and Nasrudin Abd Rahim
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 9780; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159780 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
An energy-efficient building is not built in a day. It requires effective processes, approaches, and tools, as well as high commitment from all the involved parties. A similar requirement is needed for effective retrofitting practice. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is one of the [...] Read more.
An energy-efficient building is not built in a day. It requires effective processes, approaches, and tools, as well as high commitment from all the involved parties. A similar requirement is needed for effective retrofitting practice. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is one of the sensible processes in ensuring either the new building development or retrofitting initiatives arrive at its ultimate objectives, i.e., reduction in energy consumption, energy cost, and removal of harmful emissions. Many studies had proved that a window is one of the building elements that could contribute to establishing an energy-efficient building. Therefore, a 25-floor Wisma R&D, University of Malaya building was modeled using ArchiCAD to analyse the influences of window glazing, opaque materials, and shading elements on overall building energy performances. The accuracy of the model and simulation outcome was initially compared with the energy audit result conducted from March to May 2017. Consequently, this study revealed that the effective combinations of the window parameters had assisted in improving the infiltration rate and heat transfer coefficient which allowed a lower cooling load within 3% to 6%, respectively. After most, minimum savings of 18,133.9 kWh, RM 6618.88, and 1265.16 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) were gained through a reduction of cooling load in Wisma R&D based on the window system improvement. This article aims to promote the capability of ArchiCAD as a practical tool for effective retrofitting decision-making. Ultimately, this study revealed the importance of a multivariate framework in building energy conservation and provide an insight into the improvement of the Malaysia Standard MS1525:2019, mainly for high-rise buildings in Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 10449 KiB  
Review
Wind Load and Wind-Induced Vibration of Photovoltaic Supports: A Review
by Bo Nan, Yuanpeng Chi, Yingchun Jiang and Yikui Bai
Sustainability 2024, 16(6), 2551; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16062551 - 20 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
(1) Background: As environmental issues gain more attention, switching from conventional energy has become a recurring theme. This has led to the widespread development of photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems. PV supports, which support PV power generation systems, are extremely vulnerable to wind [...] Read more.
(1) Background: As environmental issues gain more attention, switching from conventional energy has become a recurring theme. This has led to the widespread development of photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems. PV supports, which support PV power generation systems, are extremely vulnerable to wind loads. For sustainable development, corresponding wind load research should be carried out on PV supports. (2) Methods: First, the effects of several variables, including the body-type coefficient, wind direction angle, and panel inclination angle, on the wind loads of PV supports are discussed. Secondly, the wind-induced vibration of PV supports is studied. Finally, the calculation method of the wind load on PV supports is summarized. (3) Conclusions: According to the particularity of the PV support structure, the impact of different factors on the PV support’s wind load should be comprehensively considered, and a more accurate method should be adopted to evaluate and calculate the wind load to lessen the damage that a PV support’s wind-induced vibration causes, improve the force safety of PV supports, and thereby enhance the power generation efficiency of PV systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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35 pages, 6608 KiB  
Review
Energy Management Systems for Smart Electric Railway Networks: A Methodological Review
by Mohsen Davoodi, Hamed Jafari Kaleybar, Morris Brenna and Dario Zaninelli
Sustainability 2023, 15(16), 12204; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151612204 - 9 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
Energy shortage is one of the major concerns in today’s world. As a consumer of electrical energy, the electric railway system (ERS), due to trains, stations, and commercial users, intakes an enormous amount of electricity. Increasing greenhouse gases (GHG) and CO2 emissions, [...] Read more.
Energy shortage is one of the major concerns in today’s world. As a consumer of electrical energy, the electric railway system (ERS), due to trains, stations, and commercial users, intakes an enormous amount of electricity. Increasing greenhouse gases (GHG) and CO2 emissions, in addition, have drawn the regard of world leaders as among the most dangerous threats at present; based on research in this field, the transportation sector contributes significantly to this pollution. Railway Energy Management Systems (REMS) are a modern green solution that not only tackle these problems but also, by implementing REMS, electricity can be sold to the grid market. Researchers have been trying to reduce the daily operational costs of smart railway stations, mitigating power quality issues, considering the traction uncertainties and stochastic behavior of Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) and Energy Storage Systems (ESSs), which has a significant impact on total operational cost. In this context, the first main objective of this article is to take a comprehensive review of the literature on REMS and examine closely all the works that have been carried out in this area, and also the REMS architecture and configurations are clarified as well. The secondary objective of this article is to analyze both traditional and modern methods utilized in REMS and conduct a thorough comparison of them. In order to provide a comprehensive analysis in this field, over 120 publications have been compiled, listed, and categorized. The study highlights the potential of leveraging RERs for cost reduction and sustainability. Evaluating factors including speed, simplicity, efficiency, accuracy, and ability to handle stochastic behavior and constraints, the strengths and limitations of each optimization method are elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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41 pages, 2433 KiB  
Review
Global Challenges and Prospects of Photovoltaic Materials Disposal and Recycling: A Comprehensive Review
by Hui Fang Yu, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Nasrudin Abd Rahim, Norridah Amin and Noriah Nor Adzman
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8567; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148567 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4727
Abstract
The considerable amount of waste PV modules expected to emerge from recent widespread of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems is a cause of concern, especially in sustainability terms. Currently, most end-of-life (EoL) PV modules are either disposed of in landfills or bulk recycled in [...] Read more.
The considerable amount of waste PV modules expected to emerge from recent widespread of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems is a cause of concern, especially in sustainability terms. Currently, most end-of-life (EoL) PV modules are either disposed of in landfills or bulk recycled in existing recycling facilities. Although these approaches are easier in execution as less efforts are directed at sustainable management of these modules, they can potentially cause environmental issues including loss of valuable resources and leakage of toxic materials. Hence, high-value closed-loop recycling is much preferred for its environmental merits, although its implementation brings forward challenges that this paper attempts to shed light on. This review paper aims to provide an overview of the EoL management of PV modules, concentrating on the challenges faced in PV recycling. Additionally, PV waste-related regulatory frameworks implemented in different countries are discussed. Recommendations to improve the EoL management of PV modules and trade-offs arising from conflicting solutions are proposed. To establish a sustainable PV waste management framework, legislations promoting the extended producer responsibility (EPR) principle, presence of suitable infrastructure, research and development (R&D) and cooperation of various governmental and private bodies are highly needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Technology and Sustainable Energy Systems)
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