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Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Based on Multi-GNSS

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2023) | Viewed by 3550

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Geodesy and Photogrammetry, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland
Interests: GNSS remote sensing; GNSS meteorology; low-cost GNSS applications for environmental monitoring

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Maritime Studies, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Interests: maritime; transport; satellite navigation; navigation information systems; maritime education and training; data visualisation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Research Division Higher Geodesy, Department for Geodesy and Geoinformation, TU Wien, Vienna, Austria
Interests: GNSS; PPP; ambiguity resolution; low-cost; atmosphere monitoring

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Guest Editor
International Space Science Institute, Bern, Switzerland
Interests: geomonitoring with (low-cost) GNSS; signal processing; estimation and detection techniques for very small geophysical signals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has proven to be a substantial positioning method based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals. Nowadays, PPP is used for various scientific and commercial applications. The concept of PPP is quite simple: the user’s position and viable byproducts (e.g., tropospheric delay) are calculated with the most accurate satellite products (orbits, clocks, and biases) available. Typically, PPP exploits multi-frequency code and phase observations of a single GNSS receiver and precise satellite products (orbits, clocks, and biases, for example), provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). The positioning process involves accurate observation models and sophisticated algorithms. Currently, centimeter to millimeter accuracy can already be reached in positioning applications, comparable to relative positioning techniques. On the other hand, PPP has a non-negligible coordinate convergence time, which is the primary concern of this technique. Recent studies focused on means to reduce this convergence time through different advances in modeling and new types of observations. With the emergence of new GNSS, such as Galileo and BeiDou, new improvement opportunities are on the horizon.

The utilization of multi-GNSS observations, through the combination of different GNSS, has been shown to improve positioning performance and is able to reduce convergence time significantly. Ambiguity resolution with multiple GNSS has the potential to reduce or even eliminate the convergence period. Furthermore, multi-GNSS PPP may also advance applications such as troposphere and ionosphere monitoring. Due to the flexible characteristics of PPP, it is also perfectly suitable for low-cost devices. Such cost-efficient equipment shows great potential to increase the availability and resolution of GNSS applications.

This Special Issue aims to attract scientific contributions in the field of multi-GNSS PPP and may include studies on topics such as:

  • Reduction of PPP convergence time through multi-GNSS
  • PPP with integer ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR)
  • Atmosphere monitoring (troposphere and ionosphere)
  • Geomonitoring and seismology using PPP
  • PPP with low-cost devices (e.g., smartphones)
  • Real-time PPP processing and applications

Dr. Matthias Aichinger-Rosenberger
Dr. David Brčić
Dr. Giuseppe Casula
Dr. Marcus Glaner
Dr. Roland Hohensinn
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • global navigation satellite system
  • multi-GNSS
  • precise point positioning (PPP)
  • GNSS monitoring
  • GNSS remote sensing (GNSS-RS)
  • GNSS seismology
  • integer ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR)
  • low-cost
  • real-time

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 4833 KiB  
Communication
A Rapid-Convergence Precise Point Positioning Approach Using Double Augmentations of Low Earth Orbit Satellite and Atmospheric Information
by Bei He, Changsheng Cai and Lin Pan
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5265; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225265 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 969
Abstract
The precise point positioning (PPP) technique generally takes tens of minutes to converge, severely limiting its use. This longer convergence time is mainly due to the slower variation of satellite geometry in space and the stronger correlation of unknown parameters to be estimated. [...] Read more.
The precise point positioning (PPP) technique generally takes tens of minutes to converge, severely limiting its use. This longer convergence time is mainly due to the slower variation of satellite geometry in space and the stronger correlation of unknown parameters to be estimated. Fortunately, the lower orbit altitude of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites contributes to the fast variation of the satellites’ spatial geometry. In addition, high-precision atmospheric delay information has become readily available, which can help decrease unknown parameters’ correlation. This study proposes a double-augmentation PPP approach with accelerated convergence by tightly integrating the LEO/atmosphere-augmented information. The GNSS observations in both mid-latitude and low-latitude areas, and simulated LEO observations under a Walker/polar mixed constellation, are used to validate the double-augmentation PPP approach. Test results in both areas indicate that the double-augmentation PPP can converge within 0.8 min, improving the convergence time by over 73%, and over 83% compared to the LEO-only augmented PPP and atmosphere-only augmented PPP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Based on Multi-GNSS)
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19 pages, 4147 KiB  
Article
Sequential Generation of Multi-GNSS Multi-Frequency PPP-RTK Products and Their Performance Using the EUREF Permanent GNSS Network
by Hans Daniel Platz
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112792 - 27 May 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
In the classic Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach, observations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are processed at the network level to generate satellite clocks and positions. This information can be used to enable accurate point positioning for a single GNSS receiver. In [...] Read more.
In the classic Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach, observations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are processed at the network level to generate satellite clocks and positions. This information can be used to enable accurate point positioning for a single GNSS receiver. In the PPP Real-Time Kinematic (PPP-RTK) approach, satellite phase biases are considered as well, enabling ambiguity resolution at the network and user levels. In this research, 30 s multi-frequency raw GPS, Galileo, and BDS-2/3 observations are processed at the network and user levels in a sequential Kalman filter. PPP-RTK enabling products are generated for up to five frequencies, and ambiguity resolution is performed at the network and user levels using a flexible ambiguity reparameterization approach, comparable to wide- and narrow-laning, which has shown to yield a significantly improved single epoch coordinate solution when multi-frequency observations are available. Different assumptions regarding the time stability of receiver and satellite phase biases have been made and compared. The availability of a precise user coordinate solution when multi-frequency and dual-frequency observations are processed is assessed and compared. A precise ambiguity-fixed solution is available in three epochs or fewer in 77% of all cases with an average of 24 visible satellites for static and kinematic receivers when multi-frequency observations are processed. When only dual-frequency observations are considered, a fixed solution is available in seven epochs or fewer in 71% of all cases. The fastest fixed solution was found in two epochs with multi-frequency observations and in six epochs with dual-frequency observations. Estimating a reference phase clock did not lead to an improvement in the coordinate solution. The findings indicate that a fixed solution can potentially be found faster than often suggested, with potential for further improvement when more satellites or regional atmospheric corrections are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Based on Multi-GNSS)
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Review

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22 pages, 6272 KiB  
Review
Review of the Monothematic Series of Publications Concerning Research on Statistical Distributions of Navigation Positioning System Errors
by Mariusz Specht
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(22), 5407; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15225407 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 771
Abstract
This review presents the main results of the author’s study, obtained as part of the post-doctoral (habilitation) dissertation entitled “Research on Statistical Distributions of Navigation Positioning System Errors”, which constitutes a series of five thematically linked scientific publications. The main scientific aim of [...] Read more.
This review presents the main results of the author’s study, obtained as part of the post-doctoral (habilitation) dissertation entitled “Research on Statistical Distributions of Navigation Positioning System Errors”, which constitutes a series of five thematically linked scientific publications. The main scientific aim of this series is to answer the question of what statistical distributions follow the position errors of navigation systems, such as Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and others. All of the positioning systems under study (Decca Navigator, DGPS, EGNOS, and GPS) are characterised by the Position Random Walk (PRW), which means that latitude and longitude errors do not appear randomly, being a feature of the normal distribution. The research showed that the Gaussian distribution is not an optimal distribution for the modelling of navigation positioning system errors. A higher fit to the 1D and 2D position errors was exhibited by such distributions as beta, gamma, and lognormal. Moreover, it was proven that the Twice the Distance Root Mean Square (2DRMS(2D)) measure, which assumes a priori normal distribution of position errors in relation to latitude and latitude, was smaller by 10–14% than the position error value from which 95% fixes were smaller (it is known as the R95(2D) measure). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Based on Multi-GNSS)
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