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Protection and Conservation of Cultural Heritage: A Role for Remote Sensing

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 13497

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, remote sensing and proximal sensing contactless non-destructive techniques (NDT) are becoming more and more important for the characterization and monitoring of the state of conservation in the protection of monuments, ancient buildings and cultural heritages. For this purpose, the synergistic application of remote and proximal sensing methods is of paramount importance. Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), structure from motion (SfM), space and terrestrial synthetic aperture radar (SAR), SAR tomography, X-ray tomography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM), petrography, high frequency ultrasound tomography, ground penetrating radar (GPR), global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and unmanned aerial system (UAS) are examples of methods to 3D model, diagnose and monitor the conservation state of monuments and ancient artifacts using, as far as possible, non-invasive approaches. This Special Issue is dedicated to all experts of remote and proximal sensing non-destructive techniques that can be applied to the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage throughout the world. Multi-technique and single method approaches are welcome for publication in this Special Issue of Remote Sensing with different theoretical and practical methods applied to single and different case studies relative to the solution of cultural heritage monitoring, preservation and restoration problems.

Dr. Giuseppe Casula
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D-Modelling
  • Non-Destructive Techniques (NDT)
  • Non Invasive Diagnostics
  • Ultrasound Tomography
  • Petrographic Analisys
  • Scanning Electron and Optical Microscopy (SEM, and OM)
  • X-Ray Tomography
  • Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)
  • Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS)
  • Structure from Motion (SfM)
  • Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP)
  • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Tomography

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 14748 KiB  
Article
The Hidden Cairns—A Case Study of Drone-Based ALS as an Archaeological Site Survey Method
by Johanna Roiha, Einari Heinaro and Markus Holopainen
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(10), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13102010 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
Conducting archaeological site surveys is time consuming, and large sites may have many small features or structures that are difficult to locate and interpret. Vegetation cover and dense forest hide small structures, like cairns, while at the same time forest cover can cause [...] Read more.
Conducting archaeological site surveys is time consuming, and large sites may have many small features or structures that are difficult to locate and interpret. Vegetation cover and dense forest hide small structures, like cairns, while at the same time forest cover can cause problems for LiDAR tools. In this case study, drone-based ALS (airborne laser scanning) was tested as an archaeological site survey tool. The research site was complex and located partially in a forested area, which made it possible to evaluate how forest cover affects data. The survey methods used were rather simple: visual analysis, point density calculations in the forest area, and, for site interpretation purposes, digitizing observations and viewshed analysis. Using straightforward methods allowed us to evaluate the minimum time and skills needed for this type of survey. Drone-based ALS provided good results and increased knowledge of the site and its structures. Estimates of the number of cairns interpreted as graves more than doubled as a result of the high-accuracy ALS data. Based on the results of this study, drone-based ALS could be a suitable high-accuracy survey method for large archaeological sites. However, forest cover affects the accuracy, and more research is needed. Full article
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30 pages, 13124 KiB  
Article
Applying Close Range Non-Destructive Techniques for the Detection of Conservation Problems in Rock-Carved Cultural Heritage Sites
by William Frodella, Mikheil Elashvili, Daniele Spizzichino, Giovanni Gigli, Akaki Nadaraia, Giorgi Kirkitadze, Luka Adikashvili, Claudio Margottini, Nikoloz Antidze and Nicola Casagli
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(5), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13051040 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4712
Abstract
Rock-carved cultural heritage sites are often developed in slopes formed by weak rocks, which due to their peculiar lithological, geotechnical, and morpho-structural features are characterized by excellent carvability, which at the same time makes them prone to weathering, deterioration, and slope instability issues. [...] Read more.
Rock-carved cultural heritage sites are often developed in slopes formed by weak rocks, which due to their peculiar lithological, geotechnical, and morpho-structural features are characterized by excellent carvability, which at the same time makes them prone to weathering, deterioration, and slope instability issues. In this context the use of advanced close-range nondestructive techniques, such as Infrared Thermography (IRT) and Unmanned Aerial vehicle-based Digital Photogrammetry (UAV-DP) can be profitably used for the rapid detection of conservation issues (e.g., open fractures, unstable ledges-niches, water seepage and moisture) that can lead to slope instability phenomena. These techniques, when combined with traditional methods (e.g., field surveys, laboratory analysis), can provide fundamental data (such as 3D maps of the kinematic mechanisms) to implement a site-specific and interdisciplinary approach for the sustainable protection and conservation of such fragile cultural heritage sites. In this paper some examples of conservation problems in several rupestrian sites characterized by different geological contexts, from the mountainous regions of Georgia to the ancient city of Petra in Jordan, are presented, with the aim of evaluating the potential of the proposed integrated approach. The final aim is to provide conservators, practitioners, and local authorities with a useful, versatile, and low-cost methodology, to be profitably used in the protection and conservation strategies of rock-carved sites. Full article
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Review

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32 pages, 5789 KiB  
Review
Close-Range Sensing and Data Fusion for Built Heritage Inspection and Monitoring—A Review
by Efstathios Adamopoulos and Fulvio Rinaudo
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(19), 3936; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13193936 - 1 Oct 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4837
Abstract
Built cultural heritage is under constant threat due to environmental pressures, anthropogenic damages, and interventions. Understanding the preservation state of monuments and historical structures, and the factors that alter their architectural and structural characteristics through time, is crucial for ensuring their protection. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Built cultural heritage is under constant threat due to environmental pressures, anthropogenic damages, and interventions. Understanding the preservation state of monuments and historical structures, and the factors that alter their architectural and structural characteristics through time, is crucial for ensuring their protection. Therefore, inspection and monitoring techniques are essential for heritage preservation, as they enable knowledge about the altering factors that put built cultural heritage at risk, by recording their immediate effects on monuments and historic structures. Nondestructive evaluations with close-range sensing techniques play a crucial role in monitoring. However, data recorded by different sensors are frequently processed separately, which hinders integrated use, visualization, and interpretation. This article’s aim is twofold: i) to present an overview of close-range sensing techniques frequently applied to evaluate built heritage conditions, and ii) to review the progress made regarding the fusion of multi-sensor data recorded by them. Particular emphasis is given to the integration of data from metric surveying and from recording techniques that are traditionally non-metric. The article attempts to shed light on the problems of the individual and integrated use of image-based modeling, laser scanning, thermography, multispectral imaging, ground penetrating radar, and ultrasonic testing, giving heritage practitioners a point of reference for the successful implementation of multidisciplinary approaches for built cultural heritage scientific investigations. Full article
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