Integrated Research for Cultural Heritage Stone Materials

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 7437

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil - Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, 09123 Cagliari, CA, Italy
Interests: applied geophysics; non-destructive diagnostics for monuments; geophysical–petrographical characterization of stone materials
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil - Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, 09123 Cagliari CA, Italy
Interests: petrography; mercury porosimetry; non destructive techniques; mining

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to present topics of integrated research on the characterization of stone for the diagnostics of monument degradation and is addressed to a large research audience. The integration of different types of complementary information can greatly improve the diagnostic process on the conservation state of building stone materials. Stone materials characterization and the knowledge of rock properties and their correlation are crucial in the network of applied geoscience and related engineering disciplines aimed at the protection and conservation of monuments. The diagnostic process of stone material decay is very complex and cannot be described by any single discipline. The prevention and rehabilitation of monumental structures can only be successful by combining different methodologies. The issue of multidisciplinarity in the nondestructive testing of monuments and in building stone material characterization is of great importance and multifaceted and deserves to be carefully addressed. Papers dealing with the description of new techniques and the integrated approach for the evaluation of the conservation state of building stone materials are greatly welcome.

Dr. Giuseppe Casula
Dr. Silvana Fais
Dr. Paola Ligas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diagnostics on monuments
  • characterization of stone materials
  • thin section of rocks
  • rock properties
  • testing
  • multidisciplinarity, integrated approach

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 6576 KiB  
Article
A pXRF-Based Approach to Identifying the Material Source of Stone Cultural Relics: A Case Study
by Zhiqiang Wang, Zhongjian Zhang, Feiyue Wang and Jianbin Liu
Minerals 2022, 12(2), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12020199 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
Precise identification of material sources is of great significance to archaeological study, conservation, and restoration of stone cultural relics. The present study proposes a simple and efficient approach to identifying the material source of stone cultural relics based on portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer [...] Read more.
Precise identification of material sources is of great significance to archaeological study, conservation, and restoration of stone cultural relics. The present study proposes a simple and efficient approach to identifying the material source of stone cultural relics based on portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF) and statistical analyses. Chemical elements of stone samples, including Ca, K, Fe, Al, Si, Cl, S, and Mg from both cultural relics and potential quarries, were first measured non-destructively using a pXRF device. Obtained chemical element data were then classified using statistical techniques (i.e., cluster analysis and principal component analysis) to match tested materials from cultural relics to the material from a quarry, thereby identifying the material source of stone cultural relics. The proposed method was applied to identify the material sources of the Jin Gang Throne Tower (JGT Tower), the stele of “Rebuilding Pu’ansi Temple” (PAS Stele), and the stele of “Renovation of Sanjinmiao Temple” (SJM Stele) in Beijing Stone Carving Art Museum. The study shows that pXRF can be used on-site for handheld, fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive measurements of the elemental composition of stone materials, being a powerful tool for identifying the material source of stone culture relics especially immovable and large-scale ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Research for Cultural Heritage Stone Materials)
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21 pages, 6011 KiB  
Article
Morphometric Analysis through 3D Modelling of Bronze Age Stone Moulds from Central Sardinia
by Stefano Cara, Paolo Valera and Carlo Matzuzzi
Minerals 2021, 11(11), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11111192 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
Stone moulds were basic elements of metallurgy during the Bronze Age, and their analysis and characterization are very important to improve the knowledge on these artefacts useful for typological characterization. The stone moulds investigated in this study were found during an archaeological field [...] Read more.
Stone moulds were basic elements of metallurgy during the Bronze Age, and their analysis and characterization are very important to improve the knowledge on these artefacts useful for typological characterization. The stone moulds investigated in this study were found during an archaeological field survey in several Nuragic (Bronze Age) settlements in Central Sardinia. Recent studies have shown that photogrammetry can be effectively used for the 3D reconstruction of small and medium-sized archaeological finds, although there are still many challenges in producing high-quality digital replicas of ancient artefacts due to their surface complexity and consistency. In this paper, we propose a multidisciplinary approach using mineralogical (X-ray powder diffraction) and petrographic (thin section) analysis of stone materials, as well as an experimental photogrammetric method for 3D reconstruction from multi-view images performed with recent software based on the CMPMVS algorithm. The photogrammetric image dataset was carried out using an experimental rig equipped with a 26.2 Mpix full frame digital camera. We also assessed the accuracy of the reconstruction models in order to verify their precision and readability according to archaeological goals. This allowed us to provide an effective tool for more detailed study of the geometric-dimensional aspects of the moulds. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the potentialities of an integrated minero-petrographic and photogrammetric approach for the characterization of small artefacts, providing an effective tool for more in-depth investigation of future typological comparisons and provenance studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Research for Cultural Heritage Stone Materials)
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17 pages, 5113 KiB  
Article
Decay Detection in an Ancient Column with Combined Close-Range Photogrammetry (CRP) and Ultrasonic Tomography
by Giuseppe Casula, Silvana Fais, Francesco Cuccuru, Maria Giovanna Bianchi, Paola Ligas and Alessandro Sitzia
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101114 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
This study presents the integrated application of a few non-destructive techniques, i.e., Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP), and low frequency (24 kHz) ultrasonic tomography complemented by petrographical analysis. The aim here is to assess the conservation state of a Carrara marble column in the [...] Read more.
This study presents the integrated application of a few non-destructive techniques, i.e., Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP), and low frequency (24 kHz) ultrasonic tomography complemented by petrographical analysis. The aim here is to assess the conservation state of a Carrara marble column in the Basilica of San Saturnino, which is part of a V-VI century Palaeo Christian complex in the city of Cagliari (Italy). The high resolution 3D modelling of the studied artifact was computed starting from the integration of proximal sensing techniques, such as CRP based on the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, which provided information on the geometrical anomalies and reflectivity of the investigated marble column surface. The inner parts of the studied body were inspected successfully in a non-invasive way by computing the velocity pattern of the ultrasonic signal through the investigated materials, using 3D ultrasonic tomography. The latter was optimally designed based on the 3D CRP analysis and the locations of the source and receiver points were detected as accurately as possible. The integrated application of in situ CRP and ultrasonic techniques provided a full 3D high resolution model of the investigated artifact, which made it possible to evaluate the material characteristics and its degradation state, affecting mainly the shallower parts of the column. The 3D visualisation improves the efficiency, accuracy, and completeness of the interpretative process of data of a different nature in quite easily understood displays, as well as the communication between different technicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Research for Cultural Heritage Stone Materials)
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