Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2022) | Viewed by 14220

Special Issue Editors

Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidad de Alcalá, Química Física e Ingeniería Química, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.6, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
Interests: nanomaterials; polymers; nanocomposites; inorganic nanoparticles; antibacterial agents; surfactants; interphases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Departamento de Química Analítica, Química Física e Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.6, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, España, Spain
Interests: graphene based compounds; process system engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon-based nanomaterials are currently attracting a lot of interest due to their unique chemical, optical, and electronic properties, which make them suitable for a broad range of uses, including supercapacitors, solar cells, fuel cells, lithium batteries, biomedicine, and so forth. Among them, graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide have been widely investigated. The addition of these carbon nanomaterials to polymers can lead to functional nanocomposites with significantly improved properties due to synergistic effects.

 This Special Issue on “Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances” intends to provide a forum for the publication of both research and review articles related to polymeric nanocomposites incorporating graphene or its derivatives. It covers all types of polymeric matrices (e.g., thermoplastics, thermosets, biopolymers, hydrogels, conducting polymers, and adhesives), and involves all branches and aspects of novel processing techniques, testing methods, mechanical, electrical, and optical and thermal properties, along with their applications, to meet product development demands.

Original articles focused on novel surface modifications of graphene to develop polymeric nanocomposites are welcome, as well as those highlighting the synthesis/preparation of graphene-based filled nanomaterials. Research articles or review manuscripts comparing the properties of conventional materials with those of nanocomposites filled with graphene are also highly appreciated, together with those dealing with multifunctional hybrids reinforced with graphene and other types of nanofillers. Authors are encouraged to submit their original works emphasizing the applications of the polymer nanocomposites in various areas, such as in electronics, energy storage, biomedicine, sensors, transport industries, and structural applications.

Prof. Dr. Ana María Díez-Pascual
Dr. José Antonio Luceño Sánchez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Graphene
  • Graphene oxide
  • Polymer nanocomposites
  • Surface modification
  • Processing methods
  • Mechanical properties
  • Thermal properties
  • Electrical properties
  • Optical properties
  • Multifuncional hybrid nanomaterials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 658 KiB  
Editorial
Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2102; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102102 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
Carbon-based nanomaterials are currently attracting a great deal of interest due to their unique chemical, optical, and electronic properties, which make them suitable for a broad range of uses, including supercapacitors, solar cells, fuel cells, lithium batteries, biomedicine, and so forth [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

13 pages, 9032 KiB  
Article
Biological Characterization of Polymeric Matrix and Graphene Oxide Biocomposites Filaments for Biomedical Implant Applications: A Preliminary Report
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193382 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Carbon nanostructures application, such as graphene (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO), provides suitable efforts for new material acquirement in biomedical areas. By aiming to combine the unique physicochemical properties of GO to Poly L-lactic acid (PLLA), PLLA-GO filaments were produced and characterized by [...] Read more.
Carbon nanostructures application, such as graphene (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO), provides suitable efforts for new material acquirement in biomedical areas. By aiming to combine the unique physicochemical properties of GO to Poly L-lactic acid (PLLA), PLLA-GO filaments were produced and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The in vivo biocompatibility of these nanocomposites was performed by subcutaneous and intramuscular implantation in adult Wistar rats. Evaluation of the implantation inflammatory response (21 days) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with PLLA-GO took place in culture for 7 days. Through XRD, new crystallographic planes were formed by mixing GO with PLLA (PLLA-GO). Using macroscopic analysis, GO implanted in the subcutaneous region showed particles’ organization, forming a structure similar to a ribbon, without tissue invasion. Histologically, no tissue architecture changes were observed, and PLLA-GO cell adhesion was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, PLLA-GO nanocomposites showed promising results due to the in vivo biocompatibility test, which demonstrated effective integration and absence of inflammation after 21 days of implantation. These results indicate the future use of PLLA-GO nanocomposites as a new effort for tissue engineering (TE) application, although further analysis is required to evaluate their proliferative capacity and viability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances)
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15 pages, 27310 KiB  
Article
Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Properties of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate)
Polymers 2021, 13(14), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142233 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2313
Abstract
The main shortcomings of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer used for biomedical and food packaging applications, are its low thermal stability, poor impact resistance and lack of antibacterial activity. This issue can be improved by blending with other biodegradable [...] Read more.
The main shortcomings of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer used for biomedical and food packaging applications, are its low thermal stability, poor impact resistance and lack of antibacterial activity. This issue can be improved by blending with other biodegradable polymers such as polyhydroxyhexanoate to form poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), which is a copolymer with better impact strength and lower melting point. However, PHBHHx shows reduced stiffness than PHB and poorer barrier properties against moisture and gases, which is a drawback for use in the food industry. In this regard, novel biodegradable PHBHHx/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites have been prepared via a simple, cheap and environmentally friendly solvent casting method to enhance the mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity. The morphology, mechanical, thermal, barrier and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposites were assessed via several characterization methods to show the enhancement in the biopolymer properties. The stiffness and strength of the biopolymer were enhanced up to 40% and 28%, respectively, related to the strong matrix-nanofiller interfacial adhesion attained via hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, the nanocomposites showed superior thermal stability (as far as 40 °C), lower water uptake (up to 70%) and better gas and vapour barrier properties (about 45 and 35% reduction) than neat PHBHHx. They also displayed strong biocide action against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. These bio-based nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity offer new perspectives for the replacement of traditional petroleum-based synthetic polymers currently used for food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances)
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22 pages, 4633 KiB  
Article
Effect of HDI-Modified GO on the Thermoelectric Performance of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(Styrenesulfonate) Nanocomposite Films
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091503 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Composite films based on conducting polymers and carbon nanomaterials have attracted much attention for applications in various devices, such as chemical sensors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic solar cells (OSCs), among others. Graphene oxide (GO) is an ideal filler for polymeric matrices due to [...] Read more.
Composite films based on conducting polymers and carbon nanomaterials have attracted much attention for applications in various devices, such as chemical sensors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic solar cells (OSCs), among others. Graphene oxide (GO) is an ideal filler for polymeric matrices due to its unique properties. However, GO needs to be functionalized to improve its solubility in common solvents and enable the processing by low-cost solution deposition methods. In this work, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-modified GO and its nanocomposites with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were developed, and their morphology, thermal, electrical, thermoelectrical and mechanical performance were characterized. The influence of the HDI functionalization degree and concentration on the nanocomposite properties were assessed. The HDI-GO increased the crystallinity, lamella stacking and interchain coupling of PEDOT:PSS chains. A strong improvement in electrical conductivity, thermal stability, Young’s modulus and tensile strength was found, showing an optimum combination at 2 wt% loading. Drop and spin casting techniques were applied onto different substrates, and the results from deposition tests were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. A number of parameters influencing the depositions process, namely solvent nature, sonication conditions and ozone plasma treatment, have been explored. This study paves the way for further research on conducting polymer/modified GO nanocomposites to optimize their composition and properties (i.e., transparency) for use in devices such as OSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances)
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13 pages, 6574 KiB  
Article
PET Foams Surface Treated with Graphene Nanoplatelets: Evaluation of Thermal Resistance and Flame Retardancy
Polymers 2021, 13(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040501 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
In this work, fire-retardant systems consisting of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and dispersant agents were designed and applied on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foam. Manual deposition from three different liquid solutions was performed in order to create a protective coating on the specimen’s surface. A [...] Read more.
In this work, fire-retardant systems consisting of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and dispersant agents were designed and applied on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foam. Manual deposition from three different liquid solutions was performed in order to create a protective coating on the specimen’s surface. A very low amount of coating, between 1.5 and 3.5 wt%, was chosen for the preparation of coated samples. Flammability, flame penetration, and combustion tests demonstrated the improvement provided to the foam via coating. In particular, specimens with PSS/GNPs coating, compared to neat foam, were able to interrupt the flame during horizontal and vertical flammability tests and led to longer endurance times during the flame penetration test. Furthermore, during cone calorimetry tests, the time to ignition (TTI) increased and the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) was drastically reduced by up to 60% compared to that of the uncoated PET foam. Finally, ageing for 48 and 115 h at 160 °C was performed on coated specimens to evaluate the effect on flammability and combustion behavior. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images proved the morphological effect of the heat treatment on the surface, showing that the coating was uniformly distributed. In this case, fire-retardant properties were enhanced, even if fewer GNPs were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances)
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15 pages, 1813 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Acetone Vapour Sensing Properties of a Ternary Composite of Doped Polyaniline, Reduced Graphene Oxide and Chitosan Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor
Polymers 2020, 12(11), 2750; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112750 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
This work reports the use of a ternary composite that integrates p-Toluene sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI), chitosan, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the active sensing layer of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The SPR sensor is intended for application in [...] Read more.
This work reports the use of a ternary composite that integrates p-Toluene sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI), chitosan, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the active sensing layer of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The SPR sensor is intended for application in the non-invasive monitoring and screening of diabetes through the detection of low concentrations of acetone vapour of less than or equal to 5 ppm, which falls within the range of breath acetone concentration in diabetic patients. The ternary composite film was spin-coated on a 50-nm-thick gold layer at 6000 rpm for 30 s. The structure, morphology and chemical composition of the ternary composite samples were characterized by FTIR, UV-VIS, FESEM, EDX, AFM, XPS, and TGA and the response to acetone vapour at different concentrations in the range of 0.5 ppm to 5 ppm was measured at room temperature using SPR technique. The ternary composite-based SPR sensor showed good sensitivity and linearity towards acetone vapour in the range considered. It was determined that the sensor could detect acetone vapour down to 0.88 ppb with a sensitivity of 0.69 degree/ppm with a linearity correlation coefficient of 0.997 in the average SPR angular shift as a function of the acetone vapour concentration in air. The selectivity, repeatability, reversibility, and stability of the sensor were also studied. The acetone response was 87%, 94%, and 99% higher compared to common interfering volatile organic compounds such as propanol, methanol, and ethanol, respectively. The attained lowest detection limit (LOD) of 0.88 ppb confirms the potential for the utilisation of the sensor in the non-invasive monitoring and screening of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Recent Advances)
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