Plant-Based Green Synthesis of Bioactive Nanoparticles: Innovation and Application

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2024 | Viewed by 3212

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 060021 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: plant extracts: phytochemical compounds; antioxidant properties; metallic nanoparticles; UV-VIS; FTIR; SEM

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the focus of nanotechnology has shifted from classical synthesis methods to modern, “green” methods. These methods include techniques such as biosynthesis (the development of nanomaterials using a living organism, i.e., fungi), radiation-assisted synthesis, or phytosynthesis (the development of nanomaterials using plant extracts). Very promising, this latter method includes the use of a wide range of plant-related materials, such as pulp, core, peel from fruits, stem, root, petal flowers, and the leaves from plants or algae, while also employing a wide range of solvents (including, but not limited to, water, ethanol/methanol/acetone, and single or binary/multiple mixtures). As it was demonstrated, these vegetal materials have the ability to produce nanomaterials with a wide range of applications, including medicine, engineering, agriculture, cosmetic, or environment protection. The composition, size, shape, or stability of metallic (Ag, Au, Pt, Cu, etc.) nanoparticles was investigated using UV-VIS, DLS, FTIR, SEM/TEM, and XRD techniques, among others.

The goal of the present Special Issue is to focus on the influence of the extract composition and characteristics of the vegetal materials, relating to the properties of the obtained nanoparticles, as well as the most recent findings on the development and application of phytosynthesized nanoparticles. The extracts can be characterized through a wide range of phytochemical assays (qualitative and quantitative), as well as more appropriate, analytical methods (including HPLC or GC-MS).

Dr. Raluca Șuică-Bunghez
Dr. Radu Claudiu Fierascu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural extract
  • metallic nanomaterials
  • phytosynthesis

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 10730 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesis and Characterization of Ginger-Derived Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Anticancer Activities
by Shweta Mehrotra, Vinod Goyal, Christian O. Dimkpa and Vinod Chhokar
Plants 2024, 13(9), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13091255 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The efficacy, targeting ability, and biocompatibility of plant-based nanoparticles can be exploited in fields such as agriculture and medicine. This study highlights the use of plant-based ginger nanoparticles as an effective and promising strategy against cancer and for the treatment and prevention of [...] Read more.
The efficacy, targeting ability, and biocompatibility of plant-based nanoparticles can be exploited in fields such as agriculture and medicine. This study highlights the use of plant-based ginger nanoparticles as an effective and promising strategy against cancer and for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections and related disorders. Ginger is a well-known spice with significant medicinal value due to its phytochemical constituents including gingerols, shogaols, zingerones, and paradols. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) derived from ginger extracts could be an important non-toxic and eco-friendly nanomaterial for widespread use in medicine. In this study, AgNPs were biosynthesized using an ethanolic extract of ginger rhizome and their phytochemical, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties were evaluated. UV–visible spectral analysis confirmed the formation of spherical AgNPs. FTIR analysis revealed that the NPs were associated with various functional biomolecules that were associated with the NPs during stabilization. The particle size and SEM analyses revealed that the AgNPs were in the size range of 80–100 nm, with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.510, and a zeta potential of −17.1 mV. The purity and crystalline nature of the AgNPs were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The simple and repeatable phyto-fabrication method reported here may be used for scaling up for large-scale production of ginger-derived NPs. A phytochemical analysis of the ginger extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, and terpenoids, which can serve as active biocatalysts and natural stabilizers of metallic NPs. The ginger extracts at low concentrations demonstrated promising cytotoxicity against Vero cell lines with a 50% reduction in cell viability at 0.6–6 μg/mL. When evaluated for biological activity, the AgNPs exhibited significant antioxidant and antibacterial activity on several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, including Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This suggests that the AgNPs may be used against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Ginger-derived AgNPs have a considerable potential for use in the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobial and anticancer medications, and an optimistic perspective for their use in medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Full article
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22 pages, 13567 KiB  
Article
Application of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Extracts for the Phytosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Characterization and Biomedical Potential
by Ioana Raluca Șuică-Bunghez, Raluca Mădălina Senin, Ana Alexandra Sorescu, Mihaela Ganciarov, Iuliana Răut, Cristina Firincă, Mariana Constantin, Ioana Cătălina Gifu, Rusăndica Stoica, Irina Fierăscu and Radu Claudiu Fierăscu
Plants 2024, 13(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13030333 - 23 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Nanotechnology can offer a series of new “green” and eco-friendly methods for developing different types of nanoparticles, among which the development of nanomaterials using plant extracts (phytosynthesis) represents one of the most promising areas of research. This present study details the use of [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology can offer a series of new “green” and eco-friendly methods for developing different types of nanoparticles, among which the development of nanomaterials using plant extracts (phytosynthesis) represents one of the most promising areas of research. This present study details the use of lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., well-known for their use in homeopathic applications) for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with enhanced antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Several qualitative and quantitative assays were carried out in order to offer an image of the extracts’ composition (the recorded total phenolics content varied between 21.0 to 40.9 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g dry weight (d.w.), while the total flavonoids content ranged between 3.57 and 16.8 mg CE (catechin equivalents)/g d.w.), alongside modern analytical methods (such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry—GC-MS, quantifying 12 phytoconstituents present in the extracts). The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using lavender extract was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS)/zeta potential, with the selected nanoparticles having crystallite sizes of approx. 14.55 nm (AgNP-L2) and 4.61 nm, respectively (for AgNP-L4), and hydrodynamic diameters of 392.4 nm (for AgNP-L2) and 391.6 nm (for AgNP-L4), determined by DLS. A zeta potential of around −6.4 mV was displayed for both samples while presenting as large aggregates, in which nanoparticle clusters with dimensions of around 130–200 nm can be observed. The biomedical applications of the extracts and the corresponding phytosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated using antioxidant and antimicrobial assays. The obtained results confirmed the phytosynthesis of the silver nanoparticles using Lavandula angustifolia Mill. extracts, as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Full article
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