Bioactive Properties of Advanced Nanomaterials

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 20710

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Soseaua Panduri nr. 90-92, Sector 5, 050663 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: human microbiota; probiotics and prebiotics; antimicrobial strategies; surfaces with anti-biofilm properties
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are one of the most significant health problems worldwide, being one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, with a great economic and human impact (due to the period and costs of hospitalization). 2.5 million cases of healthcare associated infections occur in the European Union and the European Economic Area (EU / EEA) each year, according with European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). In this context, the implementation of effective measures to combat and control healthcare associated infections in medical institutions is an essential component of the work of any public health service. In 2016, the World Health Organisation has been published a Clinical guidelines and interventions, in a joint effort to decrease the incidence of HAIs. The great adaptability and increased virulence of the opportunistic pathogens involved in the nosocomial infections pathology and the immunodeficiency status of patients require the implementation the new antimicrobial strategies, like antimicrobial nano-coated surfaces or antimicrobial photocatalytic systems, to streamline the efforts of medical staff to ensure better aseptic conditions. On the other hand, the application of complementary methods to antiseptics, disinfectants and antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of healthcare associated infections, provides new strategies to avoid the resistance mechanisms developed by bacterial strains to all these antimicrobials. The use of antimicrobial bioactive phytoconstituent molecules is among the most promising eco-friendly strategies to favours aseptic conditions in hospitals, by preventing the biofilm development on the medical devices/surfaces.

Original research and review papers are welcomed in the following topics (though not exclusively):

  • Case studies regarding healthcare associated infections
  • Antimicrobial strategies against healthcare associated infections
  • Novel antimicrobial nano-coatings efficient against healthcare associated infections;
  • Photocatalytic systems efficient in combating healthcare associated infections
  • Phytocomponent alternatives for development of aseptic conditions;

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lia Mara Diţu
Dr. Radu Claudiu Fierascu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • healthcare associated infections
  • opportunistic pathogens
  • biofilm
  • antimicrobial nanocoated surfaces
  • bioactive phytoconstituent molecules, antimicrobial photocatalytic systems

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 1086 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Functional Silver Nanoparticles and Microparticles with Modifiers and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial, Anticancer, and Antioxidant Activity
by Erum Dilshad, Mehmoona Bibi, Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh, Khairul Fikri Tamrin, Qaisar Mansoor, Qaisar Maqbool and Muhammad Nawaz
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11040076 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4548
Abstract
An accumulating body of evidence reports the synthesis and biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles. However, the studies regarding the use of maleic acid and citric acid in the synthesis of nano-sized silver particles (AgNPs) and micro-sized silver particles (AgMPs) as well as their [...] Read more.
An accumulating body of evidence reports the synthesis and biomedical applications of silver nanoparticles. However, the studies regarding the use of maleic acid and citric acid in the synthesis of nano-sized silver particles (AgNPs) and micro-sized silver particles (AgMPs) as well as their antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities have not been reported. In the current study, we synthesized AgNPs and AgMPs using maleic acid and citric acid as capping agents and have characterized them by UV-Vis, energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The capped silver particles were examined for their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity against bacteria, fungi, and brine shrimp. Additionally, the anticancer activity of these particles was tested against human breast and liver cancer cell lines. The free radical scavenging activity of capped silver particles was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. SEM analysis revealed a round plate-like morphology of maleic acid capped particles with an average size of 39 ± 4 nm, whereas citric acid capped particles display flower-shaped morphology with rough surfaces and an average size of 250 ± 5 nm. The uncapped AgMPs were hexagonal with 500 ± 4 nm size. EDS and XRD analysis confirmed the presence of Ag and face-centered cubic crystalline nature, respectively. Functionally, capped silver particles exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella setubal, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens). The bactericidal activity was more active against Gram-negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as low as 5 ppm as compared to 25 ppm for Gram-positive. Similarly, the silver particles demonstrated antifungal activity by inhibiting the growth of five fungal strains (Mucor species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Fusarium solani) up to 50% at the concentration of 500 ppm. Additionally, these particles showed substantial toxicity against brine shrimp and also significantly inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer (MCF7) and liver cancer (HePG2) cell lines (IC50 8.9–18.56 µM). Uncapped AgMPs were less effective, inhibiting only the proliferation of MCF7 cells with IC50 46.54 µM. Besides cytotoxicity, these particles acted as potential antioxidants, showing free radical scavenging up to 74.4% in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results showed that the modifiers affect the shape and size of silver particles and may, in part, contribute to the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of silver particles. However, the contribution of maleic acid and citric acid in enhancing the antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant potential independent of silver nano and microparticles needs to be studied further. In vivo experiments may determine the therapeutic effectiveness of silver particles capped with these modifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Properties of Advanced Nanomaterials)
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20 pages, 2900 KiB  
Article
Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Procyanidin Capped Silver Nanoparticles
by Umar M. Badeggi, Jelili A. Badmus, Subelia S. Botha, Enas Ismail, Jeanine L. Marnewick, Charlene W. J. Africa and Ahmed A. Hussein
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11030066 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3026
Abstract
In this study, procyanidin dimers and Leucosidea sericea total extract (LSTE) were employed in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering [...] Read more.
In this study, procyanidin dimers and Leucosidea sericea total extract (LSTE) were employed in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. AgNPs of about 2–7 nm were obtained. DLS and stability evaluations confirmed that the AgNPs/procyanidins conjugates were stable. The formed nanoparticles exhibited good inhibitory activities against the two enzymes studied. The IC50 values against the amylase enzyme were 14.92 ± 1.0, 13.24 ± 0.2, and 19.13 ± 0.8 µg/mL for AgNPs coordinated with LSTE, F1, and F2, respectively. The corresponding values for the glucosidase enzyme were 21.48 ± 0.9, 18.76 ± 1.0, and 8.75 ± 0.7 µg/mL. The antioxidant activities were comparable to those of the intact fractions. The AgNPs also demonstrated bacterial inhibitory activities against six bacterial species. While the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of F1-AgNPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were 31.25 and 15.63 µg/mL respectively, those of LSTE-AgNPs and F2-AgNPs against these organisms were both 62.50 µg/mL. The F1-AgNPs demonstrated a better bactericidal effect and may be useful in food packaging. This research also showed the involvement of the procyanidins as reducing and capping agents in the formation of stable AgNPs with potential biological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Properties of Advanced Nanomaterials)
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Review

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26 pages, 1069 KiB  
Review
Silver Nanoparticles: Mechanism of Action and Probable Bio-Application
by Ekaterina O. Mikhailova
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11040084 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 232 | Viewed by 12191
Abstract
This review is devoted to the medical application of silver nanoparticles produced as a result of “green” synthesis using various living organisms (bacteria, fungi, plants). The proposed mechanisms of AgNPs synthesis and the action mechanisms on target cells are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Properties of Advanced Nanomaterials)
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