Special Issue "Animal Parasitic Diseases"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitic Pathogens".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 128350

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Veterinary parasitology encompasses protozoology, mycology, helminthology, as well as entomology. The aetiological agents involved show very different pathogenetic features, depending on both the host physiopathologic status and the characteristics of the parasite. Veterinary practitioners, researchers and official veterinarians are frequently called upon to act as experts and deal with related parasitic diseases in different situations.

Parasites of veterinary interest are able to exert an economic impact, but they can affect animal welfare and human health, also. Economic losses occur not only when animals die, but also when they become unable to perform their regular work, or when they produce poor meat, milk, wool, hides, or eggs. Moreover, parasitic diseases and/or infections can negatively influence pets’ welfare and make affected subjects biological reservoirs for other animal species, domestic and/or wild. Eventually, zoonotic parasites can concern public health, following a direct contact with reservoir animals or the ingestion of animal products.  In this view, parasites affecting the so-called minor animal species raised for human consumption (fish and other fishing products) and for human food (bees) also represent a relevant field of study.

For all the above-mentioned reasons, all information about the parasites of veterinary interest is cutting edge topics.

This Special Issue is devoted to collect original papers and/or review papers dealing with aetiology, epidemiology, management, diagnosis and control of animal parasitic diseases.

Prof. Dr. Francesca Mancianti
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Animal parasitic diseases
  • Parasitic zoonoses
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Control
  • Treatment
  • Helminthic
  • Arthropods
  • Protozoa
  • Fungi

Published Papers (40 papers)

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21 pages, 4928 KiB  
Article
Avian Malaria and Related Parasites from Resident and Migratory Birds in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, with Description of a New Haemoproteus Species
Pathogens 2021, 10(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10020103 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3674
Abstract
Determining the prevalence and local transmission dynamics of parasitic organisms are necessary to understand the ability of parasites to persist in host populations and disperse across regions, yet local transmission dynamics, diversity, and distribution of haemosporidian parasites remain poorly understood. We studied the [...] Read more.
Determining the prevalence and local transmission dynamics of parasitic organisms are necessary to understand the ability of parasites to persist in host populations and disperse across regions, yet local transmission dynamics, diversity, and distribution of haemosporidian parasites remain poorly understood. We studied the prevalence, diversity, and distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon among resident and migratory birds in Serra do Mar, Brazil. Using 399 blood samples from 66 Atlantic Forest bird species, we determined the prevalence and molecular diversity of these pathogens across avian host species and described a new species of Haemoproteus. Our molecular and morphological study also revealed that migratory species were infected more than residents. However, vector infective stages (gametocytes) of Leucocytozoon spp., the most prevalent parasites found in the most abundant migrating host species in Serra do Mar (Elaenia albiceps), were not seen in blood films of local birds suggesting that this long-distance Austral migrant can disperse Leucocytozoon parasite lineages from Patagonia to the Atlantic Forest, but lineage sharing among resident species and local transmission cannot occur in this part of Brazil. Our study demonstrates that migratory species may harbor a higher diversity and prevalence of parasites than resident species, but transportation of some parasites by migratory hosts may not always affect local transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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11 pages, 442 KiB  
Article
Molecular Survey of Vector-Borne Pathogens of Dogs and Cats in Two Regions of Saudi Arabia
Pathogens 2021, 10(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10010025 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
Dogs and cats play an important role as reservoirs of vector-borne pathogens, yet reports of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Blood samples were collected from 188 free-roaming dogs and cats in Asir (70 dogs and 44 cats) and [...] Read more.
Dogs and cats play an important role as reservoirs of vector-borne pathogens, yet reports of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Blood samples were collected from 188 free-roaming dogs and cats in Asir (70 dogs and 44 cats) and Riyadh (74 dogs), Saudi Arabia. The presence of Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., hemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp. was detected using a multiplex tandem real-time PCR. PCR-positive samples were further examined with specific conventional and real-time PCR followed by sequencing. Dogs from Riyadh tested negative for all pathogens, while 46 out of 70 dogs (65.7%) and 17 out of 44 cats (38.6%) from Asir were positive for at least one pathogen. Positive dogs were infected with Anaplasma platys (57.1%), Babesia vogeli (30%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (15.7%), and Bartonella henselae (1.4%), and cats were infected with Mycoplasma haemofelis (13.6%), Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (13.6%), B. henselae (9.2%), and A. platys (2.27%), all of which are reported for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Co-infection with A. platys and B. vogeli was detected in 17 dogs (24.28%), while coinfections were not detected in cats. These results suggest that effective control and public awareness strategies for minimizing infection in animals are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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11 pages, 822 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Anthelminthic Efficacy of Aqueous Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Extracts against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121063 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
The worldwide increased difficulty to counteract gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in sheep, due to progressing anthelmintic resistance, has led to the evaluation of other alternative helminth control options, mainly from plants. The anthelmintic efficacy of an aqueous Punica granatum macerate was evaluated in [...] Read more.
The worldwide increased difficulty to counteract gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in sheep, due to progressing anthelmintic resistance, has led to the evaluation of other alternative helminth control options, mainly from plants. The anthelmintic efficacy of an aqueous Punica granatum macerate was evaluated in sheep naturally infected by GIN in southern Italy. The macerate was chemically characterized by chromatographic analysis coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and an aliquot was concentrated to obtain a dry extract. A part was characterized, the remaining washed with methanol to obtain an insoluble residue and methanol phase. In the methanol fraction, the quantitatively predominant gallic acid was purified to obtain the pure molecule. The three fractions thus obtained were used for in vitro studies (i.e., egg hatch test) to verify anthelmintic efficacy. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from sheep naturally infected by GINs. Fractions were diluted in H2O/DMSO 0.5% at 1.00, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.05, and 0.005 mg/mL concentrations. Thiabendazole (0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) and deionized water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Egg hatch test results indicated that all fractions caused a significant (p < 0.05) egg hatch inhibition within 48 h of exposure highlighting a high (>82%) efficacy in vitro at all tested doses. Maximal egg hatching inhibition effect was exhibited by the methanol fraction (99.3% and 89.3% at 1 and 0.005 mg/mL concentrations), followed by the insoluble residue and gallic acid (94.7% and 85.3% and 94.0% and 82.7% at 1 and 0.005 mg/mL, respectively). The current study validated the anthelmintic potential of traditional P. granatum macerate against GIN infection in sheep, thus highlighting the role of gallic acid as principal component and justifying a need to undertake further in vivo studies on these ethno-veterinary remedies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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11 pages, 1167 KiB  
Article
Phylogenetic Analysis of Mitogenomic Data Sets Resolves the Relationship of Seven Macropostrongyloides Species from Australian Macropodid and Vombatid Marsupials
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121042 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Nematodes of the genus Macropostrongyloides inhabit the large intestines or stomachs of macropodid (kangaroos and wallabies) and vombatid (wombats) marsupials. This study established the relationships of seven species of Macropostrongyloides using mitochondrial (mt) protein amino acid sequence data sets. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that [...] Read more.
Nematodes of the genus Macropostrongyloides inhabit the large intestines or stomachs of macropodid (kangaroos and wallabies) and vombatid (wombats) marsupials. This study established the relationships of seven species of Macropostrongyloides using mitochondrial (mt) protein amino acid sequence data sets. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that species of Macropostrongyloides (M. lasiorhini, M. baylisi, M. yamagutii, M. spearei, M. mawsonae and M. woodi) from the large intestines of their hosts formed a monophyletic assemblage with strong nodal support to the exclusion of M. dissimilis from the stomach of the swamp wallaby. Furthermore, the mitochondrial protein-coding genes provided greater insights into the diversity and phylogeny of the genus Macropostrongyloides; such data sets could potentially be used to elucidate the relationships among other parasitic nematodes of Australian marsupials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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14 pages, 3434 KiB  
Article
NcPuf1 Is a Key Virulence Factor in Neospora caninum
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121019 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3009
Abstract
Background: Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that infects many mammals and particularly causes abortion in cattle. The key factors in its wide distribution are its virulence and ability to transform between tachyzoite and bradyzoite forms. However, the factors are not well understood. [...] Read more.
Background: Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that infects many mammals and particularly causes abortion in cattle. The key factors in its wide distribution are its virulence and ability to transform between tachyzoite and bradyzoite forms. However, the factors are not well understood. Although Puf protein (named after Pumilio from Drosophila melanogaster and fem-3 binding factor from Caenorhabditis elegans) have a functionally conserved role in promoting proliferation and inhibiting differentiation in many eukaryotes, the function of the Puf proteins in N. caninum is poorly understood. Methods: The CRISPR/CAS9 system was used to identify and study the function of the Puf protein in N. caninum. Results: We showed that N. caninum encodes a Puf protein, which was designated NcPuf1. NcPuf1 is found in the cytoplasm in intracellular parasites and in processing bodies (P-bodies), which are reported for the first time in N. caninum in extracellular parasites. NcPuf1 is not needed for the formation of P-bodies in N. caninum. The deletion of NcPuf1 (ΔNcPuf1) does not affect the differentiation in vitro and tissue cysts formation in the mouse brain. However, ΔNcPuf1 resulted in decreases in the proliferative capacity of N. caninum in vitro and virulence in mice. Conclusions: Altogether, the disruption of NcPuf1 does not affect bradyzoites differentiation, but seriously impairs tachyzoite proliferation in vitro and virulence in mice. These results can provide a theoretical basis for the development of attenuated vaccines to prevent the infection of N. caninum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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10 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Report on the Effect of Savanna Plants Leucaena leucocephala, Parkia platycephala and Senna alata against Eggs and Immature Stages of Trichostrongylid Nematodes In Vitro
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120986 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
The current study evaluated the anthelmintic effect of different extracts of Leucaena leucocephala, Parkia platycephala, and Senna alata on trichostrongylid eggs and infective larvae and determined the potential active components of each plant. Dried and macerated plant material was concentrated using rotaevaporation [...] Read more.
The current study evaluated the anthelmintic effect of different extracts of Leucaena leucocephala, Parkia platycephala, and Senna alata on trichostrongylid eggs and infective larvae and determined the potential active components of each plant. Dried and macerated plant material was concentrated using rotaevaporation to obtain the crude extract (CE), followed by solvent partitioning to obtain hexanic (HexE), acetatic (AcE), and butanolic (BuE) extracts used for phytochemical analysis and anthelmintic efficacy testing in vitro. All the crude and partitioned extracts tested showed inhibition activity in the hatching of trichostrongylid eggs. Larvicidal efficacy was observed at CE concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/mL for P. platycephala and S. alata. However, L. leucocephala CE did not significantly reduce the number of living larvae in the tested concentrations. Chromatographic analysis revealed several active metabolites; gallic acid, ellagic acid, naringin, morin, and kaempferol on AcE of P. platycephala; gallic acid, rutin, and ellagic acid on BuE of P. platycephala; and gallic acid and naringin on BuE of L. leucocephala. The extracts of P. platycephala, L. leucocephala, and S. alata leaves showed egg hatching inhibition and larvicidal activity, probably produced by tannins and flavonoids, which may act alone or by synergism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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13 pages, 3592 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Profiling of the Liver, Hepatic Lymph Nodes, and Spleen of Buffaloes Infected with Fasciola gigantica
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120982 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
In the present study, we used an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics technology to characterize the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the liver, hepatic lymph nodes (hLNs), and spleen of buffaloes infected with Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica). We [...] Read more.
In the present study, we used an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics technology to characterize the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the liver, hepatic lymph nodes (hLNs), and spleen of buffaloes infected with Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica). We also used the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) method to verify the expression levels of the DEPs in the three infected tissues. At three days post-infection (dpi), 225, 1821, and 364 DEPs were detected in the liver, hLNs, and spleen, respectively. At 42 dpi, 384, 252, and 214 DEPs were detected in the liver, hLNs, and spleen, respectively. At 70 dpi, 125, 829, and 247 DEPs were detected in the liver, hLNs, and spleen, respectively. Downregulation of metabolism was prominent in infected livers at all time points, and upregulation of immune responses was marked in the hLNs during early infection (three dpi); however, no changes in the immune response were detected at the late stages of infection (42 and 70 dpi). Compared to the hLNs, there was no significant upregulation in the levels of immune responses in the infected spleen. All the identified DEPs were used to predict the subcellular localization of the proteins, which were related to extracellular space and membrane and were involved in host immune responses. Further PRM analysis confirmed the expression of 18 proteins. These data provide the first simultaneous proteomic profiles of multiple organs of buffaloes experimentally infected with F. gigantica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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7 pages, 921 KiB  
Communication
Genetic Diversity and Zoonotic Potential of Blastocystis in Korean Water Deer, Hydropotes inermis argyropus
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110955 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Blastocystis is a protozoan parasite commonly detected in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. It has been actively studied worldwide; however, information on Blastocystis is limited in Korea. Because there is an increasing concern about the contact between wildlife and domestic animals [...] Read more.
Blastocystis is a protozoan parasite commonly detected in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. It has been actively studied worldwide; however, information on Blastocystis is limited in Korea. Because there is an increasing concern about the contact between wildlife and domestic animals or humans, we assessed the infection status and zoonotic potential of Blastocystis in Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) using genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 125 fresh fecal samples were collected from KWD which were killed by vehicles on highways or roadsides in this study. Among the 125 samples, 51 (40.8%) were PCR positive. We performed nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 26 of the 51 PCR-positive samples. By analyzing Blastocystis 18S rRNA, two subtypes (ST4 and ST14) were identified in this study. Of the 26 samples analyzed, 25 were identified as ST14 and one as ST4. Infection of ST14 in humans has not been reported. Although only one ST4 sample was detected in this study, ST4 has zoonotic potential without showing ruminant specificity. Thus, continuous attention should be provided to the potential of transmission between wildlife and domestic animals and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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15 pages, 2286 KiB  
Article
Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Parasites of the Genus Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Fish of the Southeastern Pacific Ocean (Off Peru Coast)
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110910 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
The study aims to perform, for the first time, the molecular identification of anisakid larvae in commercial fish from the Southeastern Pacific Ocean off the Peru coast, and to provide data on their infection level by fishing ground, fish host, and site of [...] Read more.
The study aims to perform, for the first time, the molecular identification of anisakid larvae in commercial fish from the Southeastern Pacific Ocean off the Peru coast, and to provide data on their infection level by fishing ground, fish host, and site of infection. Fish specimens (N = 348) from the northern and the central coast of Peru were examined for parasites. The fish fillets were examined by the UV-press method. Anisakis spp. larvae (N = 305) were identified by mtDNA cox2 sequences analysis and by the ARMS-PCR of the locus nas10 nDNA. Two hundred and eighty-eight Anisakis Type I larvae corresponded to Anisakis pegreffii, whereas 17 Anisakis Type II larvae clustered in a phylogenetic lineage distinct from Anisakis physeteris deposited in GenBank, and corresponding to a phylogenetic lineage indicated as Anisakis sp. 2, previously detected in fish from both Pacific and Atlantic waters. Anisakis pegreffii was found to infect both the flesh and viscera, while Anisakis sp. 2 occurred only in the viscera. The average parasitic burden with A. pegreffii in the examined fish species from the two fishing grounds was significantly higher than that observed with Anisakis sp. 2. The results obtained contribute to improve the knowledge on the distribution and occurrence of Anisakis species in Southeastern Pacific waters and their implications in seafood safety for the local human populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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12 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
Genetic Analysis of Zoonotic Gastrointestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia in Shelter Cats in South Korea
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110894 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
Feral cats that are roaming outside can serve as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens, negatively impacting public health. They may experience high levels of parasitic infection. Some gastrointestinal protozoa and microsporidia possessing zoonotic potential in cats include Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis sp., [...] Read more.
Feral cats that are roaming outside can serve as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens, negatively impacting public health. They may experience high levels of parasitic infection. Some gastrointestinal protozoa and microsporidia possessing zoonotic potential in cats include Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we show the infection rates and risk factors of intestinal protozoa and microsporidia detected from shelter cats on Jeju Island in South Korea in 2020. Among 158 cats, we detected genes for five internal protozoa and microsporidia, namely, Cryptosporidium felis (0.6%), G. duodenalis (3.8%), Blastocystis sp. (0.6%), E. bieneusi (3.8%), and T. gondii (1.3%). Furthermore, 16 cats (10.1%) were PCR-positive for at least one protozoan or microsporidium. To our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the existence of C. felis, G. duodenalis assemblage F, Blastocystis sp. ST4 subtype, and E. bieneusi genotype Peru11 in cats in South Korea. Despite the small number of positive samples, this study expands our understanding of the incidence of zoonotic gastrointestinal protozoa and microsporidia in shelter cats and genetically characterizes the isolates found in the infected animals. Moreover, these findings emphasize the need for a better control strategy on protozoa and microsporidia in cats, tailored to their individual needs, to protect animal and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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9 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity of Bovine Hemoprotozoa in South Korea
Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090768 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2308
Abstract
Tick-borne pathogens cause economically significant diseases in cattle. Theileria spp. are parasitic protozoa and the causative agent of bovine theileriosis. Here we report the distribution and risk factors of bovine Theileria using blood samples taken between 2018 and 2019. Of 737 tested cattle, [...] Read more.
Tick-borne pathogens cause economically significant diseases in cattle. Theileria spp. are parasitic protozoa and the causative agent of bovine theileriosis. Here we report the distribution and risk factors of bovine Theileria using blood samples taken between 2018 and 2019. Of 737 tested cattle, nine animals (1.2%) were positive for Theileria orientalis infection by 18S rRNA gene amplification. Further analysis of the infected samples using the T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene revealed five different genotypes circulating in the population: Types 1, 2, 3, 7, and N3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research to describe the existence of the T. orientalis MPSP genotype N3 in South Korea. Although the prevalence of bovine T. orientalis was low, our study offers data on the geographical distribution and prevalence of bovine Theileria spp. in South Korea. Further studies are warranted to determine the correlation of clinical symptoms with parasite MPSP genotypes. Our data provide epidemiological information to help control bovine theileriosis in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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16 pages, 4247 KiB  
Article
Modulation of the Functions of Goat Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Fasciola gigantica Thioredoxin Peroxidase In Vitro
Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090758 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica has a remarkable ability to establish a long-term infection within the hepatobiliary system of the mammalian definitive host. F. gigantica achieves this by producing excretory–secretory molecules, which have immunomodulatory activities. In an effort to elucidate the immunomodulatory functions [...] Read more.
The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica has a remarkable ability to establish a long-term infection within the hepatobiliary system of the mammalian definitive host. F. gigantica achieves this by producing excretory–secretory molecules, which have immunomodulatory activities. In an effort to elucidate the immunomodulatory functions of F. gigantica thioredoxin peroxidase protein (FgTPx), we expressed recombinant FgTPx (rFgTPx) in Escherichia coli bacteria and examined its effects on several functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Sequence analysis revealed that FgTPx is related to a thioredoxin-like superfamily. Western blot analysis showed that rFgTPx was recognized by the sera of goats experimentally infected by F. gigantica. The specific binding of rFgTPx protein to the surface of goat PBMCs was demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining. We investigated the influence of serial concentrations of rFgTPx on various functions of goat PBMCs. All concentrations of rFgTPx increased the secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), but inhibited PBMC proliferation, migration, and monocyte phagocytosis. Goat PBMCs exposed to 20–40 μg/mL of rFgTPx secreted increased levels of nitric oxide (NO), and 10–40 μg/mL of rFgTPx promoted cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that rFgTPx influences various functions of goat PBMCs by interacting with a large number of cellular targets, ultimately to promote the parasite’s survival. The roles of rFgTPx and their interacting proteins warrant further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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10 pages, 3395 KiB  
Article
Survey on the Presence of Malassezia spp. in Healthy Rabbit Ear Canals
Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090696 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Malassezia spp. have rarely been reported in rodents and lagomorphs. In 2011, Malassezia cuniculi was described in two rabbits. Further microscopic studies showed M. cuniculi-like yeasts in more than 50% of samples from rabbits’ ear canals, but no isolation was made. The [...] Read more.
Malassezia spp. have rarely been reported in rodents and lagomorphs. In 2011, Malassezia cuniculi was described in two rabbits. Further microscopic studies showed M. cuniculi-like yeasts in more than 50% of samples from rabbits’ ear canals, but no isolation was made. The present study details the presence of Malassezia spp. and tries to typify it from ear canals of healthy rabbits. Seventy-eight half-breed rabbits from rural farms and 98 companion dwarf rabbits from northern Italy were considered. A first attempt to screen ear swabs was performed by microscopic and cultural examination on Sabouraud Glucose Agar (SGA), modified Dixon Agar (mDA) and Leeming and Notman Agar (LNA). Additionally, ear swabs from eight further microscopically positive rabbits for M. cuniculi-like cells, were used for both isolation on LNA medium and nine of its variants and for DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing. The microscopic observation of the swabs of the screened 168 rabbits highlighted the presence of yeasts in one or both of the external ear canals of 98 rabbits (58.3%). Rabbits used for meat production were more frequently diagnosed positive than pet rabbits (P = 0.001), and young ones were more often positive compared to rabbits older than 3 months (P = 0.027). No yeast growth was observed in culture. From the eight selected rabbits, Malassezia isolation failed both on LNA and on the modified mediums. Sequences of ~300 bp fragments of 18s rDNA, obtained by PCR from swabs, showed 99.9% identity with Malassezia phylotype 131 described from human ear canals. As Malassezia-like yeasts have been observed in more than half of the examined population, its colonization of ear meatus can be considered as physiological in rabbits. The results outline how much remains to be discovered on Malassezia as a component of the skin mycobiota of rabbits and that the use of the culture examination alone is not the best choice to detect Malassezia-like yeasts in rabbits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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23 pages, 3390 KiB  
Article
New Molecular Data on Filaria and its Wolbachia from Red Howler Monkeys (Alouatta macconnelli) in French Guiana—A Preliminary Study
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080626 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3512
Abstract
Previous studies have reported filarial parasites of the genus Dipetalonema and Mansonella from French Guiana monkeys, based on morphological taxonomy. In this study, we screened blood samples from nine howler monkeys (Alouatta macconnelli) for the presence of filaria and Wolbachia DNA. [...] Read more.
Previous studies have reported filarial parasites of the genus Dipetalonema and Mansonella from French Guiana monkeys, based on morphological taxonomy. In this study, we screened blood samples from nine howler monkeys (Alouatta macconnelli) for the presence of filaria and Wolbachia DNA. The infection rates were 88.9% for filaria and 55.6% for wolbachiae. The molecular characterization, based on the 18S gene of filariids, revealed that A. macconnelli are infected with at least three species (Mansonella sp., Brugia sp. and an unidentified Onchocercidae species.). Since the 18S and cox1 generic primers are not very effective at resolving co-infections, we developed ITS genus-specific PCRs for Mansonella and Brugia genus. The results revealed coinfections in 75% of positives. The presence of Mansonella sp. and Brugia sp. was also confirmed by the 16S phylogenetic analysis of their associated Wolbachia. Mansonella sp., which close to the species from the subgenus Tetrapetalonema encountered in New World Monkeys, while Brugia sp. was identical to the strain circulating in French Guiana dogs. We propose a novel ITS1Brugia genus-specific qPCR. We applied it to screen for Brugia infection in howler monkeys and 66.7% were found to be positive. Our finding highlights the need for further studies to clarify the species diversity of neotropics monkeys by combining molecular and morphological features. The novel Brugia genus-specific qPCR assays could be an effective tool for the surveillance and characterization of this potential zoonosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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14 pages, 1518 KiB  
Article
Dolphins Stranded along the Tuscan Coastline (Central Italy) of the “Pelagos Sanctuary”: A Parasitological Investigation
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080612 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
Parasite monitoring is considered a necessary step for cetacean management and conservation. Between February 2013 and July 2015, 26 dolphins (15 Stenella coeruleoalba, 10 Tursiops truncatus, and one Grampus griseus) stranded along the Tuscan coastline of the protected marine area [...] Read more.
Parasite monitoring is considered a necessary step for cetacean management and conservation. Between February 2013 and July 2015, 26 dolphins (15 Stenella coeruleoalba, 10 Tursiops truncatus, and one Grampus griseus) stranded along the Tuscan coastline of the protected marine area “Pelagos Sanctuary”, were examined. Organs, tissues, and faecal and blood samples taken from all animals were analysed by parasitological, immunological, and molecular techniques. Twenty-one out of 26 dolphins (80.77%) tested positive for at least one parasite species, and 13/15 (86.7%) S. coeruleoalba, 7/10 (70%) T. truncatus, and the single G. griseus were found positive. Identified parasites included the nematodes Skrjabinalius guevarai (7.69%, 2/26), Halocercus lagenorhynchi (3.85%, 1/26), Halocercus delphini (7.69%, 2/26), Stenurus ovatus (7.69%, 2/26), Crassicauda spp. (7.69%, 2/26); the trematodes Pholeter gastrophilus (26.92%, 7/26), Campula palliata (3.85%, 1/26); the cestodes Phyllobothrium delphini (42.31%, 11/26), Monorygma grimaldii (23.08%, 6/26), Tetrabothrium forsteri (7.69%, 2/26), Strobilocephalus triangularis (7.69%, 2/26), and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma vasculosum (7.69%, 2/26). Moreover, 6/26 (23%) animals scored positive to Toxoplasma gondii at serology, but PCR confirmed the infection (T. gondii Type II genotype) in a single animal. In examined dolphins, obtained results showed a high prevalence of endoparasites, which included species considered as a cause of severe debilitation or death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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17 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of Clistobothrium sp. Viable Plerocercoids in Fresh Longfin Inshore Squid (Doryteuthis pealeii) and Implications for Cephalopod Inspection
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070596 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2827
Abstract
Cephalopods, an appreciated seafood product, are common hosts of marine cestodes. The aim of this work is to report visible alive plerocercoids in longfin inshore squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), a cephalopod species commercialized as fresh and whole in Italy. Seventy D. pealeii [...] Read more.
Cephalopods, an appreciated seafood product, are common hosts of marine cestodes. The aim of this work is to report visible alive plerocercoids in longfin inshore squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), a cephalopod species commercialized as fresh and whole in Italy. Seventy D. pealeii from the Northwest Atlantic (FAO area 21) were collected and visually inspected. In total, 18 plerocercoid larvae were found in the viscera of 10 host specimens (P: 14.3% 95% CI 7.1–24.7; MI: 1.8, MA: 0.26; range 1–4) and molecularly analyzed targeting the variable D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. The molecular characterization allowed to identify all the plerocercoids as Clistobothrium sp., a cestode of the Phyllobothriidae family with Lamnidae sharks as definitive hosts, and cephalopods as second intermediate hosts. These findings represent the first molecular record of Clistobothrium sp. in D. pealeii, thus contributing to elucidate its poorly known life cycle. Even if not affecting consumer’s health, these visible parasites may represent a reason for disgust for consumers. Therefore, the results suggest that Food Business Operators should also check for the presence of these visible parasites during inspection and underline the importance of a correct consumers’ education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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20 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Parasitic Infections in African Humans and Non-Human Primates
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070561 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4290
Abstract
Different protozoa and metazoa have been detected in great apes, monkeys and humans with possible interspecies exchanges. Some are either nonpathogenic or their detrimental effects on the host are not yet known. Others lead to serious diseases that can even be fatal. Their [...] Read more.
Different protozoa and metazoa have been detected in great apes, monkeys and humans with possible interspecies exchanges. Some are either nonpathogenic or their detrimental effects on the host are not yet known. Others lead to serious diseases that can even be fatal. Their survey remains of great importance for public health and animal conservation. Fecal samples from gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and humans living in same area in the Republic of Congo, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from Senegal and one other from the Republic of Congo, Guinea baboons (Papio papio) from Senegal, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) from Djibouti and Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) from Algeria, were collected. DNA was extracted and screened using specific qPCR assays for the presence of a large number of helminths and protozoa. Positive samples were then amplified in standard PCRs and sequenced when possible. Overall, infection rate was 36.5% in all non-human primates (NHPs) and 31.6% in humans. Great apes were more often infected (63.6%) than monkeys (7.3%). At least twelve parasite species, including ten nematodes and two protozoa were discovered in NHPs and five species, including four nematodes and a protozoan in humans. The prevalences of Giarida lamblia, Necator americanus, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis were similar between gorillas and human community co-habiting the same forest ecosystem in the Republic of Congo. In addition, human specific Mansonella perstans (5.1%) and other Mansonella spp. (5.1%) detected in these gorillas suggest a possible cross-species exchange. Low prevalence (2%) of Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis were observed in chimpanzees, as well as a high prevalence of Abbreviata caucasica (57.1%), which should be considered carefully as this parasite can affect other NHPs, animals and humans. The Barbary macaques were less infected (7.2%) and Oesophagostomum muntiacum was the main parasite detected (5.8%). Finally, we report the presence of Pelodera sp. and an environmental Nematoda DNAs in chimpanzee feces, Nematoda sp. and Bodo sp. in gorillas, as well as DNA of uncharacterized Nematoda in apes and humans, but with a relatively lower prevalence in humans. Prevalence of extraintestinal parasites remains underestimated since feces are not the suitable sampling methods. Using non-invasive sampling (feces) we provide important information on helminths and protozoa that can infect African NHPs and human communities living around them. Public health and animal conservation authorities need to be aware of these infections, as parasites detected in African NHPs could affect both human and other animals’ health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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15 pages, 4763 KiB  
Article
Natural Compounds from the Marine Brown Alga Caulocystis cephalornithos with Potent In Vitro-Activity against the Parasitic Nematode Haemonchus contortus
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070550 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2821
Abstract
Eight secondary metabolites (1 to 8) were isolated from a marine sponge, a marine alga and three terrestrial plants collected in Australia and subsequently chemically characterised. Here, these natural product-derived compounds were screened for in vitro-anthelmintic activity against the larvae and [...] Read more.
Eight secondary metabolites (1 to 8) were isolated from a marine sponge, a marine alga and three terrestrial plants collected in Australia and subsequently chemically characterised. Here, these natural product-derived compounds were screened for in vitro-anthelmintic activity against the larvae and adult stages of Haemonchus contortus (barber’s pole worm)—a highly pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants. Using an optimised, whole-organism screening system, compounds were tested on exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s) and fourth-stage larvae (L4s). Anthelmintic activity was initially evaluated on these stages based on the inhibition of motility, development and/or changes in morphology (phenotype). We identified two compounds, 6-undecylsalicylic acid (3) and 6-tridecylsalicylic acid (4) isolated from the marine brown alga, Caulocystis cephalornithos, with inhibitory effects on xL3 and L4 motility and larval development, and the induction of a “skinny-straight” phenotype. Subsequent testing showed that these two compounds had an acute nematocidal effect (within 1–12 h) on adult males and females of H. contortus. Ultrastructural analysis of adult worms treated with compound 4 revealed significant damage to subcuticular musculature and associated tissues and cellular organelles including mitochondria. In conclusion, the present study has discovered two algal compounds possessing acute anthelmintic effects and with potential for hit-to-lead progression. Future work should focus on undertaking a structure-activity relationship study and on elucidating the mode(s) of action of optimised compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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12 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity against Malaria Parasites in Non-Human Primates from the Brazilian Amazon, Cerrado and Atlantic Forest
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070525 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3187
Abstract
Non-human primates (NHPs) have been shown to be infected by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, the etiological agent of malaria in humans, creating potential risks of zoonotic transmission. Plasmodium brasilianum, a parasite species similar to P. malariae of humans, have been [...] Read more.
Non-human primates (NHPs) have been shown to be infected by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, the etiological agent of malaria in humans, creating potential risks of zoonotic transmission. Plasmodium brasilianum, a parasite species similar to P. malariae of humans, have been described in NHPs from Central and South America, including Brazil. The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), besides being a malaria vaccine candidate, is highly immunogenic. Due to such properties, we tested this protein for the diagnosis of parasite infection. We used recombinant proteins of P. malariae MSP1, as well as of P. falciparum and P. vivax, for the detection of antibodies anti-MSP1 of these parasite species, in the sera of NHPs collected in different regions of Brazil. About 40% of the NHP sera were confirmed as reactive to the proteins of one or more parasite species. A relatively higher number of reactive sera was found in animals from the Atlantic Forest than those from the Amazon region, possibly reflecting the former more intense parasite circulation among NHPs due to their proximity to humans at a higher populational density. The presence of Plasmodium positive NHPs in the surveyed areas, being therefore potential parasite reservoirs, needs to be considered in any malaria surveillance program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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8 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Stray Dogs from a Farming and Cattle Region of Northwestern Mexico
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070516 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
Stray dogs are one of the main reservoirs of intestinal parasitic infections and some have zoonotic potential. An epidemiological survey was carried out between September 2017 and May 2018 in Mexicali Valley, this area sacrifices around 92,470 head of cattle monthly, which represents [...] Read more.
Stray dogs are one of the main reservoirs of intestinal parasitic infections and some have zoonotic potential. An epidemiological survey was carried out between September 2017 and May 2018 in Mexicali Valley, this area sacrifices around 92,470 head of cattle monthly, which represents 27% of the national slaughter and has 71,307 hectares for crops. In this period the Municipal Animal Control Center during their routine visits to the Mexicali Valley captured 103 dogs. All the dogs were evaluated using copromicroscopic techniques to detect intestinal parasites. The general frequency of parasitic infections was 28.15% (29/103), the most frequent parasite being Dipylidium caninum 16.50% (17/103), followed by Taenia spp. 6.79% (7/103), Taenia hydatigena 2.91% (3/103), Taenia serialis 0.97% (1/103), Taenia pisiformis (0.97%), Toxocara canis 3.88% (4/103), Toxascaris leonina 1.94% (2/103), and Cystoisospora spp. 1.94% (2/103). No significant statistical associations were found between parasitic infections and the studied variables (sex, age, and size) however; there was a significant statistical association with the capture area. Most of the parasites found in this survey have potential to affect the human population and animal production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
21 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Zoonotic Abbreviata caucasica in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from Senegal
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070517 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3237
Abstract
Abbreviata caucasica (syn. Physaloptera mordens) has been reported in human and various non-human primates including great apes. The identification of this nematode is seldom performed and relies on egg characterization at the coproscopy, in the absence of any molecular tool. Following the [...] Read more.
Abbreviata caucasica (syn. Physaloptera mordens) has been reported in human and various non-human primates including great apes. The identification of this nematode is seldom performed and relies on egg characterization at the coproscopy, in the absence of any molecular tool. Following the recovery of two adult females of A. caucasica from the feces of wild Senegalese chimpanzees, morphometric characteristics were reported and new data on the width of the esophagus (0.268–0.287 mm) and on the cuticle structure (0.70–0.122 mm) were provided. The molecular characterization of a set of mitochondrial (cox1, 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA) and nuclear (18S rRNA and ITS2) partial genes was performed. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates for the first time that A. caucasica is monophyletic with Physaloptera species. A novel molecular tool was developed for the routine diagnosis of A. caucasica and the surveillance of Nematoda infestations. An A. caucasica-specific qPCR targeting the 12S gene was assessed. The assay was able to detect up to 1.13 × 10−3 eggs/g of fecal matter irrespective of its consistency, with an efficiency of 101.8% and a perfect adjustment (R2 = 0.99). The infection rate by A. caucasica in the chimpanzee fecal samples was 52.08%. Only 6.19% of the environmental samples were positive for nematode DNA and any for A. caucasica. Our findings indicate the need for further studies to clarify the epidemiology, circulation, life cycle, and possible pathological effects of this infestation using the molecular tool herein developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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14 pages, 1338 KiB  
Article
Global Prevalence Estimates of Toxascaris leonina Infection in Dogs and Cats
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060503 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3475
Abstract
Toxascaris leonina is an ascaridoid nematode of dogs and cats; this parasite affects the health of these animals. This study estimated the global prevalence of Ta. leonina infection in dogs and cats using random effects meta-analysis as well as subgroup, meta-regression and heterogeneity [...] Read more.
Toxascaris leonina is an ascaridoid nematode of dogs and cats; this parasite affects the health of these animals. This study estimated the global prevalence of Ta. leonina infection in dogs and cats using random effects meta-analysis as well as subgroup, meta-regression and heterogeneity analyses. The data were stratified according to geographical region, the type of dogs and cats and environmental variables. A quantitative analysis of 135 published studies, involving 119,317 dogs and 25,364 cats, estimated prevalence rates of Ta. leonina in dogs and cats at 2.9% and 3.4%, respectively. Prevalence was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (7.2% for dogs and 10.0% for cats) and was significantly higher in stray dogs (7.0% vs. 1.5%) and stray cats (7.5% vs. 1.8%) than in pets. The findings indicate that, worldwide, ~26 million dogs and ~23 million cats are infected with Ta. leonina; these animals would shed substantial numbers of Ta. leonina eggs into the environment each year and might represent reservoirs of infection to other accidental or paratenic hosts. It is important that populations of dogs and cats as well as other canids and felids be monitored and dewormed for Ta. leonina and (other) zoonotic helminths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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16 pages, 2986 KiB  
Article
Distribution of Parasitic Helminths in the Small Intestine of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes)
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060477 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2738
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution of the main groups of parasitic helminths within the small intestine of the red fox on the example of animals coming from eastern Poland. Two hundred and sixteen red foxes shot in eastern [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution of the main groups of parasitic helminths within the small intestine of the red fox on the example of animals coming from eastern Poland. Two hundred and sixteen red foxes shot in eastern Poland were used in the investigation. Before examination, each small intestine was divided into three equal parts: anterior (A), middle (M), and posterior (P). Each part was examined separately with the sedimentation and counting technique. Six different types of intestinal parasites were detected: Alaria alata (78.7%), Mesocestoides spp. (78.2%), hookworms (72.7%), Taenia spp. (53.2%), Toxocara/Toxascaris (43.1%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (18.5%). Alaria alata was most often found in A and in the only-A variant. Taenia spp. and Toxocara/Toxascaris occurred often in A and were the second (after A. alata) parasites in terms of frequency occurring in the only-A variant. Mesocestoides spp. was most commonly located in M. Parasites with predilection sites located mainly in M and P were E. multilocularis and hookworms. In all parasite species, the variant covering the entire intestine (A + M + P) was found in samples with a higher intensity compared to variants limited to one or two fragments. Our investigation, as one of the few of its type, conducted a comprehensive analysis of the distribution of intestinal helminths in the small intestine of the red fox. It showed significant differences in the distribution of parasitic helminths in the small intestine of the red fox. Determining typical predilection sites for parasites in the intestine can be helpful in creating effective diagnostic methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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8 pages, 401 KiB  
Article
A Targeted “Next-Generation” Sequencing-Informatic Approach to Define Genetic Diversity in Theileria orientalis Populations within Individual Cattle: Proof-of-Principle
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060448 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Oriental theileriosis is an economically important tickborne disease of bovines, caused by some members of the Theileria orientalis complex. Currently, 11 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs), or genotypes, are recognized based on their major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene sequences. Two [...] Read more.
Oriental theileriosis is an economically important tickborne disease of bovines, caused by some members of the Theileria orientalis complex. Currently, 11 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs), or genotypes, are recognized based on their major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene sequences. Two of these genotypes (i.e., chitose and ikeda) are recognized as pathogenic in cattle, causing significant disease in countries of the Asia-Pacific region. However, the true extent of genetic variation and associated virulence/pathogenicity within this complex is unknown. Here, we undertook a proof-of-principle study of a small panel of genomic DNAs (n = 13) from blood samples originating from individual cattle known to harbor T. orientalis, in order to assess the performance of a targeted “next-generation” sequencing-informatic approach to identify genotypes. Five genotypes (chitose, ikeda, buffeli, type 4, and type 5) were defined; multiple genotypes were found within individual samples, with dominant and minor sequence types representing most genotypes. This study indicates that this sequencing-informatic workflow could be useful to assess the nature and extent of genetic variation within and among populations of T. orientalis on a large scale, and to potentially employ panels of distinct gene markers for expanded molecular epidemiological investigations of socioeconomically important protistan pathogens more generally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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9 pages, 1027 KiB  
Article
Innovative Alternatives for Continuous In Vitro Culture of Babesia bigemina in Medium Free of Components of Animal Origin
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050343 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
In this study, we report Babesia bigemina proliferation in culture medium free of components of animal origin supplemented with a lipid mixture. Babesia bigemina continuously proliferated in VP-SFM with a higher percent parasitized erythrocyte as compare to using other animal component-free culture media. [...] Read more.
In this study, we report Babesia bigemina proliferation in culture medium free of components of animal origin supplemented with a lipid mixture. Babesia bigemina continuously proliferated in VP-SFM with a higher percent parasitized erythrocyte as compare to using other animal component-free culture media. Compared with Advanced DMEM/F12 (ADMEM/F12), VP-SFM had a similar percent parasitized erythrocyte (PPE). Supplementation of VP-SF with a lipid acid mixture improved B. bigemina proliferation in vitro culture, with a maximum PPE of 11.3%. Growth of B. bigemina in a perfusion bioreactor using VP-SFM medium supplemented with lipid mixture resulted in a PPE above 28%. In conclusion, we demonstrated that B. bigemina proliferated in an animal component-free medium supplemented with the fatty acid mixture. This innovation to B. bigemina in vitro culture method presented herein is an important source of biological material for live vaccine production and understanding the mechanisms and molecules involved in parasite attachment and invasion of bovine erythrocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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8 pages, 234 KiB  
Article
Epidemiologic Survey on Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella pseudospiralis Infection in Corvids from Central Italy
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050336 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Free-ranging corvids—678 magpies (Pica pica) and 120 hooded crows (Corvus cornix) from nine protected areas of the Pisa province (central Italy)—were examined for Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella pseudospiralis. The intracardiac blood clots from 651 magpies and 120 hooded [...] Read more.
Free-ranging corvids—678 magpies (Pica pica) and 120 hooded crows (Corvus cornix) from nine protected areas of the Pisa province (central Italy)—were examined for Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella pseudospiralis. The intracardiac blood clots from 651 magpies and 120 hooded crows were serologically examined for T. gondii. The DNA extracted from the hearts of seropositive birds was then used to perform a nested PCR for the amplification of the T. gondii B1 gene and for genotyping for SAG genetic markers. Breast muscle samples from 678 magpies and 91 hooded crows were tested by an artificial digestion method for Trichinella. Data were statistically analyzed. Forty-five (5.8%—41 magpies and four hooded crows) out of the 771 examined animals scored seropositive for T. gondii, with titers ranging from 1:25 to 1:100. T. gondii DNA was detected in 15 of the 45 positive birds and T. gondii genotypes II and III were identified. No positivity for T. pseudospiralis was found. No significant differences between the two species of corvids and among the different areas of origin were observed for seropositivity to T. gondii. This is the first extensive study on both T. gondii and T. pseudospiralis in magpies and hooded crows, as well as the first detection of T. gondii SAG genotypes in magpies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
8 pages, 2951 KiB  
Article
Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon californicus Coinfection in a Merlin (Falco colombarius)
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040263 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4613
Abstract
The Leucocytozoon genus comprises numerous widely distributed parasites which have been less investigated than other avian hemoprotozoa. Their occurrence is common, with very variable prevalence values and pathogenicity degrees. Leucocytozoon species are characterized by a great taxonomic diversity, and infections are usually restricted [...] Read more.
The Leucocytozoon genus comprises numerous widely distributed parasites which have been less investigated than other avian hemoprotozoa. Their occurrence is common, with very variable prevalence values and pathogenicity degrees. Leucocytozoon species are characterized by a great taxonomic diversity, and infections are usually restricted to birds of the same family. In the present paper, a mixed hemosporidia infection by Leucocytozoon californicus and Haemoproteus sp. in an adult male merlin (Falco columbarius) which died during hospitalisation is reported, indicating, for the first time, a newly described avian host species. A molecular investigation was carried out through cytochrome b gene analysis, revealing a 100% match with L. californicus and Haemoproteus spp. A blood smear examination allowed us to detect Leucocytozoon fusiform mature gametocytes and different degrees of maturity of Haemoproteus gametocytes. Histopathology revealed foci of necrosis, hemorrhagic areas and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver, the presence of microthrombi in the heart and lung and scattered hemorrhages in the lung. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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15 pages, 2564 KiB  
Article
Molecular Typing, Antibiogram and PCR-RFLP Based Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila Complex Isolated from Oreochromis niloticus
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030238 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 5659
Abstract
Motile Aeromonas septicemia is a common bacterial disease that affects Oreochromis niloticus and causes tremendous economic losses globally. In order to investigate the prevalence, molecular typing, antibiogram and the biodiversity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex, a total of 250 tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [...] Read more.
Motile Aeromonas septicemia is a common bacterial disease that affects Oreochromis niloticus and causes tremendous economic losses globally. In order to investigate the prevalence, molecular typing, antibiogram and the biodiversity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex, a total of 250 tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were collected randomly from 10 private tilapia farms (25 fish/farm) at El-Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. The collected fish were subjected to clinical and bacteriological examinations. The majority of infected fish displayed ulcerative necrosis, exophthalmia, and internal signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. The prevalence of A. hydrophia complex was 13.2%, where the liver was the most predominant affected organ (54.1%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to verify the identification of A. hydrophila complex using one set of primers targeting gyrB as well as the detection of virulent genes (aerA, alt, and ahp). All isolates were positive for the gyrB-conserved gene and harbored aerA and alt virulence genes. However, none of those isolates were positive for the ahp gene. The antimicrobial sensitivity was carried out, where the recovered strains were completely sensitive to ciprofloxacin and highly resistant to amoxicillin. All retrieved strains showed the same phenotypic characteristics and were identical based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Experimentally challenged fish presented a high mortality rate (76.67%) and showed typical signs as in naturally infected ones. In conclusion, the synergism of phenotypic and genotypic characterization is a valuable epidemiological tool for the diagnosis of A. hydrophila complex. RFLP is a fundamental tool for monitoring the biodiversity among all retrieved strains of A. hydrophia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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10 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Tritrichomonas Foetus: A Study of Prevalence in Animal Hosts in Poland
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030203 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3218
Abstract
Tritrichomonas foetus is described as a pathogen of cattle and cats and also exhibits commensalism with pigs. In order to estimate the prevalence and determine the risk factors for parasite infection, specimens from animal hosts (cat, pigs, and cattle) from Poland were investigated. [...] Read more.
Tritrichomonas foetus is described as a pathogen of cattle and cats and also exhibits commensalism with pigs. In order to estimate the prevalence and determine the risk factors for parasite infection, specimens from animal hosts (cat, pigs, and cattle) from Poland were investigated. To our best knowledge, this is the first such study to examine samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa) for the presence of T. foetus. Data were collected from 117 cats, 172 pigs, 236 wild boars, and 180 cattle. The sensitivity of T. foetus identification was increased by using two molecular assays: PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The prevalence of feline tritrichomonosis was 20.51%, and statistically significant differences were obtained between groups of animals regarding age, breed, number of cats, diarrhea, and place of living. Positive PCR and LAMP results for T. foetus were estimated for 16.28% of pigs, and the obtained data were significantly correlated with age. Conversely, no significant differences were observed concerning the farm size factor. In our survey, no cases of bovine tritrichomonosis were found, which is consistent with the data from the other countries of the European Union. Similarly, all wild boar samples were also T. foetus-negative according to LAMP and PCR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
15 pages, 2237 KiB  
Article
Myrrh Oil in Vitro Inhibitory Growth on Bovine and Equine Piroplasm Parasites and Babesia microti of Mice
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030173 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3250
Abstract
The present experimental study was conducted for the assessment of the efficacy of in vitro inhibition of myrrh oil on the propagation of Babesia bovis, B. divergens, B. bigemina, Theileria equi, and B. caballi and in vivo efficacy on B. microti in mice [...] Read more.
The present experimental study was conducted for the assessment of the efficacy of in vitro inhibition of myrrh oil on the propagation of Babesia bovis, B. divergens, B. bigemina, Theileria equi, and B. caballi and in vivo efficacy on B. microti in mice through fluorescence assay based on SYBR green I. The culture of B. divergens B. bovis and was used to evaluate the in vitro possible interaction between myrrh oil and other commercial compound, such as pyronaridine tetraphosphate (PYR), diminazene aceturate (DA), or luteolin. Nested-polymerase chain reaction protocol using primers of the small-subunit rRNA of B. microti was employed to detect any remnants of DNA for studied parasitic species either in blood or tissues. Results elucidated that; Myrrh oil significantly inhibit the growth at 1% of parasitic blood level for all bovine and equine piroplasm under the study. Parasitic regrowth was inhibited subsequently by viability test at 2 µg/mL for B. bigemina and B. bovis, and there was a significant improvement in the in vitro growth inhibition by myrrh oil when combined with DA, PYR, and luteolin. At the same time; mice treated with a combination of myrrh oil/DA showed a higher inhibition in emitted fluorescence signals than the group that challenged with 25 mg/kg of diminazene aceturate at 10 and 12 days post-infection. In conclusion, this study has recommended the myrrh oil to treat animal piroplasmosis, especially in combination with low doses of DA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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19 pages, 2841 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Haemonchus contortus Excretory/Secretory Antigen (ES-15) and Its Modulatory Functions on Goat Immune Cells In Vitro
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030162 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
Small size excretory/secretory (ES) antigens of the Haemonchus contortus parasite have intense interest among researchers for understanding the molecular basis of helminths immune regulation in term of control strategies. Immunomodulatory roles of H. contortus ES-15 kDa (HcES-15) on host immune cells during host–parasite [...] Read more.
Small size excretory/secretory (ES) antigens of the Haemonchus contortus parasite have intense interest among researchers for understanding the molecular basis of helminths immune regulation in term of control strategies. Immunomodulatory roles of H. contortus ES-15 kDa (HcES-15) on host immune cells during host–parasite interactions are unknown. In this study, the HcES-15 gene was cloned and expression of recombinant protein (rHcES-15) was induced by isopropyl-ß-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Binding activity of rHcES-15 to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunohistochemical analysis showed that H. contortus 15 kDa protein localized in the outer and inner structure of the adult worm, clearly indicated as the parasite’s ES antigen. The immunoregulatory role on cytokines production, cell proliferation, cell migration, nitric oxide (NO) production, apoptosis, and phagocytosis were observed by co-incubation of rHcES-15 with goat PBMCs. The results showed that cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, the production of nitric oxide (NO), PBMCs apoptosis, and monocytes phagocytosis were all elevated after cells incubated with rHcES-15 at differential protein concentrations. We also found that IFN-γ, TGF-β1, cells proliferation and migration were significantly suppressed with the interaction of rHcES-15 protein. Our findings indicated that low molecular ES antigens of H. contortus possessed discrete immunoregulatory roles, which will help to understand the mechanisms involved in immune evasion by the parasite during host–parasite interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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11 pages, 2122 KiB  
Article
Automated Diagnosis of Canine Gastrointestinal Parasites Using Image Analysis
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020139 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5181
Abstract
Because canine intestinal parasites are considered cosmopolitan, they carry significant zoonotic potential to public health. These etiological agents are routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination commonly used because of its low cost, simple execution, and direct evidence. However, there are reports in the literature [...] Read more.
Because canine intestinal parasites are considered cosmopolitan, they carry significant zoonotic potential to public health. These etiological agents are routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination commonly used because of its low cost, simple execution, and direct evidence. However, there are reports in the literature on the poor performance of this test due to low to moderate sensitivity resulting from frequent errors, procedures and interpretation. Therefore, to improve the diagnostic efficiency of microscopic examination in veterinary medicine, we developed and evaluated a unique new protocol. This system was tested in a study involving four genera of highly prevalent canine intestinal parasites in an endemic region in São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal samples from 104 animals were collected for this research. The new protocol had a significantly higher (p < 0.0001) number of positive cases on image data, including parasites and impurities, and was elaborate to test them with the TF-GII/Dog technique, with a moderate agreement and Kappa index of 0.7636. We concluded that the new Prototic Coproparasitological Test for Dogs (PC-Test Dog) allowed a better visualization of the parasitic structures and showed a favorable result for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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11 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Molecular Survey of Metastrongyloid Lungworms in Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus) from Romania: A Retrospective Study (2008–2011)
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020080 - 26 Jan 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Background: Lungworms are recognized as important agents in the pathology of the respiratory system in domestic cats. While Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is worldwide known and studied, Troglostrongylus brevior has gained the attention of the scientific community only in the last decade. The pathogenicity of [...] Read more.
Background: Lungworms are recognized as important agents in the pathology of the respiratory system in domestic cats. While Aelurostrongylus abstrusus is worldwide known and studied, Troglostrongylus brevior has gained the attention of the scientific community only in the last decade. The pathogenicity of this species seems to be higher than A. abstrusus, causing more severe clinical presentations and being potentially fatal, especially in young animals. Methods: In this study, 371 DNA isolates of faecal samples were tested by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the presence of A. abstrusus, T. brevior, and Angiostrongylus chabaudi. Results: The results showed that 30.2% and 6.7% of the investigated domestic cats were positive for A. abstrusus and T. brevior respectively, stressing out the importance of these parasites as agents of respiratory conditions in domestic cats from Romania. None of the samples were positive for A. chabaudi. The age, the outdoor access, and the lack of deworming were identified as significant risk factors for infection with A. abstrusus. Conclusions: This paper represents the first report of T. brevior in domestic cats from Romania. Moreover, it presents the most northern localization in Europe of T. brevior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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12 pages, 1819 KiB  
Article
Immunization of Goats with Recombinant Protein 14-3-3 Isoform 2(rHcftt-2) Induced Moderate Protection against Haemonchus contortus Challenge
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010046 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
A previous study identified that isoform 2 (Hcftt-2) of the 14-3-3 protein of Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) could suppress immune functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and might be a potential vaccine target, as neutralization of the protein function [...] Read more.
A previous study identified that isoform 2 (Hcftt-2) of the 14-3-3 protein of Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) could suppress immune functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and might be a potential vaccine target, as neutralization of the protein function may enhance anti-parasite immunity. In this research, the recombinant Hcftt-2 was evaluated for its immunoprotective efficacy against H. contortus infection in goats. Five experimental goats were immunized twice with rHcftt-2 along with Freund’s adjuvant. The five immunized goats and five nonimmunized goats (adjuvant only) were challenged with 5000 L3-stage H. contortus larvae after 14 days of second immunization. Five nonimmunized and uninfected goats (adjuvant only) were set as the uninfected group. A significant increase in the serum immunoglobin G(IgG) and serum IgA levels were identified in the rHcftt-2 immunized animals. The mean eggs per gram in feces (EPG) and the worm burdens of rHcftt-2 immunized group were reduced by 26.46% (p < 0.05) and 32.33%, respectively. In brief, immunization of goats with rHcftt-2 induced moderate protection against H. contortus challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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11 pages, 2413 KiB  
Article
Adhesion-Regulating Molecule from Haemonchus contortus: Potential Antigen for Diagnosis of Early Infection in Goats
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010034 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2796
Abstract
Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking nematode of ruminants, causes large economic losses worldwide. Diagnosis of infection mainly depends on the evaluation of clinical signs and fecal examination. However, this has limitations for the diagnosis of early or light infections, where serological diagnosis seems [...] Read more.
Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking nematode of ruminants, causes large economic losses worldwide. Diagnosis of infection mainly depends on the evaluation of clinical signs and fecal examination. However, this has limitations for the diagnosis of early or light infections, where serological diagnosis seems to be more accurate and reliable. In this study, the recombinant H. contortus adhesion-regulating molecule protein (rHCADRM) was expressed and purified, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated. Serum samples from goats experimentally infected with H. contortus (n = 5) were collected at 0 (before infection, negative control), 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 63, 85, and 103 days post-infection (DPI). The reactions between rHcADRM and goat serum were tested using Western blot (WB) analysis. The results show that rHcADRM can be recognized in the serum as early as 14 DPI, and the antibody against rHcADRM in infected goat could be maintained for over 89 days. No reaction was found between rHcADRM and antibodies against Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica, or Toxoplasma gondii. An indirect enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) was developed based on rHcADRM. The optimal coating antigen (279 ng of rHcADRM/well) and serum dilutions (1:50) were determined by checkerboard titration. A total of 64 serum samples, including 32 from H. contortus infection goats and 32 from helminth-free goats, were used to determine the positive (0.362) and negative (0.306) cut-off values for the ELISA. The results show this serological diagnosis method is highly sensitive (90.6%) and specific (93.75%). The coefficient of variation within run and between runs was less than 11%. To apply this indirect ELISA during field examination, 51 serum samples were randomly collected from goat farms and tested using this method. The result showed that 19.6% (10/51) of goats were infected with H. contortus, which was 100% consistent with the necropsy result, higher than that of fecal examination (15.7%, 8/51). These results indicate that rHcADRM could be a potential antigen for diagnosis of H. contortus infection in goats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

32 pages, 3383 KiB  
Review
Twenty Years of Equine Piroplasmosis Research: Global Distribution, Molecular Diagnosis, and Phylogeny
Pathogens 2020, 9(11), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110926 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5697
Abstract
Equine piroplasmosis (EP), caused by the hemoparasites Theileria equi, Theileria haneyi, and Babesia caballi, is an important tick-borne disease of equines that is prevalent in most parts of the world. Infection may affect animal welfare and has economic impacts related [...] Read more.
Equine piroplasmosis (EP), caused by the hemoparasites Theileria equi, Theileria haneyi, and Babesia caballi, is an important tick-borne disease of equines that is prevalent in most parts of the world. Infection may affect animal welfare and has economic impacts related to limitations in horse transport between endemic and non-endemic regions, reduced performance of sport horses and treatment costs. Here, we analyzed the epidemiological, serological, and molecular diagnostic data published in the last 20 years, and all DNA sequences submitted to GenBank database, to describe the current global prevalence of these parasites. We demonstrate that EP is endemic in most parts of the world, and that it is spreading into more temperate climates. We emphasize the importance of using DNA sequencing and genotyping to monitor the spread of parasites, and point to the necessity of further studies to improve genotypic characterization of newly recognized parasite species and strains, and their linkage to virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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13 pages, 1419 KiB  
Review
Pathogens Manipulating Tick Behavior—Through a Glass, Darkly
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080664 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 10841
Abstract
Pathogens can manipulate the phenotypic traits of their hosts and vectors, maximizing their own fitness. Among the phenotypic traits that can be modified, manipulating vector behavior represents one of the most fascinating facets. How pathogens infection affects behavioral traits of key insect vectors [...] Read more.
Pathogens can manipulate the phenotypic traits of their hosts and vectors, maximizing their own fitness. Among the phenotypic traits that can be modified, manipulating vector behavior represents one of the most fascinating facets. How pathogens infection affects behavioral traits of key insect vectors has been extensively investigated. Major examples include Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma spp. manipulating the behavior of mosquitoes, sand flies and kissing bugs, respectively. However, research on how pathogens can modify tick behavior is patchy. This review focuses on current knowledge about the behavioral changes triggered by Anaplasma, Borrelia, Babesia, Bartonella, Rickettsia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection in tick vectors, analyzing their potential adaptive significance. As a general trend, being infected by Borrelia and TBEV boosts tick mobility (both questing and walking activity). Borrelia and Anaplasma infection magnifies Ixodes desiccation resistance, triggering physiological changes (Borrelia: higher fat reserves; Anaplasma: synthesis of heat shock proteins). Anaplasma infection also improves cold resistance in infected ticks through synthesis of an antifreeze glycoprotein. Being infected by Anaplasma, Borrelia and Babesia leads to increased tick survival. Borrelia, Babesia and Bartonella infection facilitates blood engorgement. In the last section, current challenges for future studies are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

7 pages, 4422 KiB  
Case Report
Enzootic Hepatic Capillariasis (Calodium hepaticum) in Street Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Marseille City, France
Pathogens 2020, 9(12), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121048 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Hepatic capillariasis is a rare and neglected zoonosis affecting wild and synanthropic small rodents. It is caused by infection with Calodium hepaticum in liver. Despite the worldwide distribution of the host Rattus norvegicus (brown or street rats) in the urban area, the epidemiological [...] Read more.
Hepatic capillariasis is a rare and neglected zoonosis affecting wild and synanthropic small rodents. It is caused by infection with Calodium hepaticum in liver. Despite the worldwide distribution of the host Rattus norvegicus (brown or street rats) in the urban area, the epidemiological status of this parasitosis remains unknown. In the present study, we examined a total of 27 brown rats from the city centre and a garden (four km from the city centre) of Marseille, France. All rats were autopsied and 52% showed the presence of C. hepaticum eggs in the liver. This result draws general attention to public health risks, since street rats are living near the human population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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8 pages, 1092 KiB  
Case Report
An African Canine Trypanosomosis Case Import: Is There a Possibility of Creating a Secondary Focus of Trypanosoma congolense Infection in France?
Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090709 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2647
Abstract
African animal trypanosomosis are parasitic diseases caused by several protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma, transmitted by hematophagous insects, essentially tsetse flies, but also, less frequently by Tabanidae and Stomoxidae. They are geolocated in a part of the continent and affect livestock animals [...] Read more.
African animal trypanosomosis are parasitic diseases caused by several protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma, transmitted by hematophagous insects, essentially tsetse flies, but also, less frequently by Tabanidae and Stomoxidae. They are geolocated in a part of the continent and affect livestock animals and carnivores; dogs are especially sensitive to them. They do not seem to present a zoonotic risk. Despite the chemical prevention with trypanocides for French military working dogs on mission in Côte d’Ivoire, a fatal case induced by Trypanosoma congolense in France after returning from Abidjan raises the question of an imported secondary focus. The clinical case was developed and the causative agent was confirmed by microscopy and PCR methods. The three necessary pillars to create a secondary potential focus are present: the parasite introduction in a new territory, the presence and the propagation vectors, and their proximity with sensitive species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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6 pages, 194 KiB  
Brief Report
Quantification of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Penaeid Shrimps from Southeast Asia and Latin America Using TaqMan Probe-Based Quantitative PCR
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040233 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3756
Abstract
We developed a qPCR assay based on the β-tubulin gene sequence for the shrimp microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). This assay reacted with the hepatopancreas (HP) of EHP-infected shrimps, and the highest copy numbers were found in HP and feces samples from [...] Read more.
We developed a qPCR assay based on the β-tubulin gene sequence for the shrimp microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). This assay reacted with the hepatopancreas (HP) of EHP-infected shrimps, and the highest copy numbers were found in HP and feces samples from Southeast Asian countries (106–108 copies mg−1), while HP samples from Latin America, Artemia, and EHP-contaminated water showed lower amounts (101–103 copies mg−1 or mL−1 of water). No false positive was found with the normal shrimp genome, live feeds, or other parasitic diseases. This tool will facilitate the management of EHP infection in shrimp farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Parasitic Diseases)
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