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Bioactive Compounds against Parasite, Bacteria and Related Diseases–2nd Edition

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 8458

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds are phytochemicals present in different plant parts, such as secondary metabolites, which are able to exert health benefits. These molecules are widely studied for their positive impact on different disorders. For these reasons, several bioactive compounds are currently considered as promising therapeutical alternatives. These phytochemicals play an active role in protecting plants from the attacks of different pathogenic agents, thus they also could confer resistance against microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria, as well as against other parasites. For these reasons, bioactive compounds are employed in treatment and prevention of some parasitic, fungal, and bacterial diseases of humans and animals.

This Special Issue will be devoted to specific in vitro and in vivo studies on the activity of such compounds against parasitic, fungal, and bacterial pathogens. Studies and reviews, about the sources and biological effects of bioactive compounds are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Valentina Virginia Ebani
Prof. Dr. Francesca Mancianti
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • essential oils
  • herbal extracts
  • fungi
  • mycoses
  • helmints parasite
  • protozoa parasite
  • arthropods parasite
  • parasitoses
  • anti-drug resistant parasites
  • antifungal resistant molds
  • yeasts
  • gram-positive bacteria
  • gram-negative bacteria
  • antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  • bacterial infections
  • animal infections
  • human infections
  • zoomotic infections

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1989 KiB  
Article
Promising Antileishmanial Activity of Micromeria nervosa Essential Oil: In Vitro and In Silico Studies
by Rym Essid, Sarra Kefi, Bilel Damergi, Ghassen Abid, Nadia Fares, Selim Jallouli, Islem Abid, Dina Hussein, Olfa Tabbene and Ferid Limam
Molecules 2024, 29(8), 1876; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29081876 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 542
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal potential of the essential oil (EO) of Micromeria (M.) nervosa and to investigate its molecular mechanism of action by qPCR. Furthermore, in silicointeraction study of the major M. nervosa EO compounds with the [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal potential of the essential oil (EO) of Micromeria (M.) nervosa and to investigate its molecular mechanism of action by qPCR. Furthermore, in silicointeraction study of the major M. nervosa EO compounds with the enzyme cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) was also performed. M. nervosa EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that α-pinene (26.44%), t-cadinol (26.27%), caryophyllene Oxide (7.73 ± 1.04%), and α-Cadinene (3.79 ± 0.12%) are the major compounds of M. nervosa EO. However, limited antioxidant activity was observed, as this EO was ineffective in neutralizing DPPH free radicals and in inhibiting β-carotene bleaching. Interestingly, it displayed effective leishmanicidal potential against promastigote (IC50 of 6.79 and 5.25 μg/mL) and amastigote (IC50 of 8.04 and 7.32 μg/mL) forms of leishmania (L.) infantum and L. major, respectively. Molecular mechanism investigation showed that M. nervosa EO displayed potent inhibition on the thiol regulatory pathway. Furthermore, a docking study of the main components of the EO with cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) enzyme revealed that t-cadinol exhibited the best binding energy values (−7.5 kcal/mol), followed by α-cadinene (−7.3 kcal/mol) and caryophyllene oxide (−7 kcal/mol). These values were notably higher than that of the conventional drug fluconazole showing weaker binding energy (−6.9 kcal/mol). These results suggest that M. nervosa EO could serve as a potent and promising candidate for the development of alternative antileishmanial agent in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Full article
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17 pages, 925 KiB  
Article
Antiplasmodial and Antileishmanial Activities of a New Limonoid and Other Constituents from the Stem Bark of Khaya senegalensis
by Gabrielle Ange Amang à Ngnoung, Yves Oscar Nganso Ditchou, Peron Bosco Leutcha, Darline Dize, Simplice Joël Ndendoung Tatsimo, Lauve Rachel Yamthe Tchokouaha, Theodora Kopa Kowa, Babalwa Tembeni, Hamadou Mamoudou, Madan Poka, Patrick Hulisani Demana, Xavier Siwe Noundou, Fabrice Fekam Boyom and Alain Meli Lannang
Molecules 2023, 28(20), 7227; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28207227 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania sp. resistance to antiparasitic drugs has become a major concern in malaria and leishmaniasis control. These diseases are public health problems with significant socioeconomic impacts, and mostly affect disadvantaged populations living in remote tropical areas. This challenge emphasizes the [...] Read more.
Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania sp. resistance to antiparasitic drugs has become a major concern in malaria and leishmaniasis control. These diseases are public health problems with significant socioeconomic impacts, and mostly affect disadvantaged populations living in remote tropical areas. This challenge emphasizes the need to search for new chemical scaffolds that preferably possess novel modes of action to contribute to antimalarial and antileishmanial research programs. This study aimed to investigate the antimalarial and antileishmanial properties of a methanol extract (KS-MeOH) of the stem bark of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Khaya senegalensis and its isolated compounds. The purification of KS-MeOH led to the isolation of a new ordered limonoid derivative, 21β-hydroxybourjotinolone A (1a), together with 15 known compounds (1bc14) using a repeated column chromatography. Compound 1a was obtained in an epimeric mixture of 21α-melianodiol (1b) and 21β-melianodiol (1c). Structural characterization of the isolated compounds was achieved with HRMS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. The extracts and compounds were screened using pre-established in vitro methods against synchronized ring stage cultures of the multidrug-resistant Dd2 and chloroquine-sensitive/sulfadoxine-resistant 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani (1S(MHOM/SD/62/1S). In addition, the samples were tested for cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 macrophages. Positive controls consisted of artemisinin and chloroquine for P. falciparum, amphotericin B for L. donovani, and podophyllotoxin for cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells. The extract and fractions exhibited moderate to potent antileishmanial activity with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging from 5.99 ± 0.77 to 2.68 ± 0.42 μg/mL, while compounds displayed IC50 values ranging from 81.73 ± 0.12 to 6.43 ± 0.06 μg/mL. They were weakly active against the chloroquine-sensitive/sulfadoxine-resistant Pf3D7 strain but highly potent toward the multidrug-resistant PfDd2 (extracts, IC50 2.50 ± 0.12 to 4.78 ± 0.36 μg/mL; compounds IC50 2.93 ± 0.02 to 50.97 ± 0.37 μg/mL) with selectivity indices greater than 10 (SIDd2 > 10) for the extract and fractions and most of the derived compounds. Of note, the limonoid mixture [21β-hydroxylbourjotinolone A (1a) + 21α-melianodiol (1b) + 21β-melianodiol (1c)] exhibited moderate activity against P. falciparum and L. donovani. This novel antiplasmodial and antileishmanial chemical scaffold qualifies as a promising starting point for further medicinal chemistry-driven development of a dually active agent against two major infectious diseases affecting humans in Africa. Full article
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11 pages, 2254 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) Berry Iridoid-Anthocyanin Extract on the Intestinal and Muscle Histopathology in Mice during Experimental Trichinellosis
by Jolanta Piekarska, Jan P. Madej, Michał Gorczykowski and Marianna Szczypka
Molecules 2023, 28(20), 7067; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28207067 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of iridoid-anthocyanin extract from honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) (LC) berries on histopathological changes in the intestines and muscles during experimental trichinellosis in mice. The LC extract was administered to uninfected mice (LC [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of iridoid-anthocyanin extract from honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) (LC) berries on histopathological changes in the intestines and muscles during experimental trichinellosis in mice. The LC extract was administered to uninfected mice (LC group) and Trichinella-spiralis-infected mice (T+LC) orally at a dose of 2 g/kg bw, six times at 24 h intervals, from day 3 prior to infection to day 3 post-infection (dpi). Jejunum samples were collected on 5, 7, 14, and 21 dpi, and their histological assessment involved the villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD), goblet cell (GC) number, and morphological changes. In the T. spiralis-infected muscles, the extent of inflammatory infiltration on the 14th and 21st dpi was assessed. LC in the infected mice restored the VH/CD ratio to control values on 14 dpi. A beneficial effect of the LC extract on the villus height was also observed 14 dpi in the LC and T+LC groups. No differences in the extent of inflammatory infiltration in the muscles between the T+LC and T groups were observed. In conclusion, the iridoid-anthocyanin extract from honeysuckle berry contributed to alleviating the symptoms of the intestinal phase of T. spiralis infection. Full article
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8 pages, 524 KiB  
Communication
Effects of Synthetic Ligustrazine-Based Chalcone Derivatives on Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania spp. Promastigotes
by Abdulsalam A. M. Alkhaldi
Molecules 2023, 28(12), 4652; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28124652 - 8 Jun 2023
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Current medication therapy for leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis remains a major challenge due to its limited efficacy, significant adverse effects, and inaccessibility. Consequently, locating affordable and effective medications is a pressing concern. Because of their easy-to-understand structure and high functionalization potential, chalcones are promising [...] Read more.
Current medication therapy for leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis remains a major challenge due to its limited efficacy, significant adverse effects, and inaccessibility. Consequently, locating affordable and effective medications is a pressing concern. Because of their easy-to-understand structure and high functionalization potential, chalcones are promising candidates for use as bioactive agents. Thirteen synthetic ligustrazine-containing chalcones were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis in etiologic agents. The tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) analogue ligustrazine was chosen as the central moiety for the synthesis of these chalcone compounds. The most effective compound (EC50 = 2.59 µM) was the chalcone derivative 2c, which featured a pyrazin-2-yl amino on the ketone ring and a methyl substitution. Multiple actions were observed for certain derivatives, including 1c, 2a–c, 4b, and 5b, against all strains tested. Eflornithine served as a positive control, and three ligustrazine-based chalcone derivatives, including 1c, 2c, and 4b, had a higher relative potency. Compounds 1c and 2c are particularly efficacious; even more potent than the positive control, they are therefore promising candidates for the treatment of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Full article
13 pages, 2311 KiB  
Article
Volatile Organic Compounds of Bacillus velezensis GJ-7 against Meloidogyne hapla through Multiple Prevention and Control Modes
by Wentao Wu, Yuanling Zeng, Xirui Yan, Zhuhua Wang, Liwei Guo, Youyong Zhu, Yang Wang and Xiahong He
Molecules 2023, 28(7), 3182; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28073182 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
The Bacillus velezensis GJ-7 strain isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Panax notoginseng showed high nematicidal activity and therefore has been considered a biological control agent that could act against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. However, little was known about whether the [...] Read more.
The Bacillus velezensis GJ-7 strain isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Panax notoginseng showed high nematicidal activity and therefore has been considered a biological control agent that could act against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla. However, little was known about whether the GJ-7 strain could produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that were effective in biocontrol against M. hapla. In this study, we evaluated the nematicidal activity of VOCs produced by the fermentation of GJ-7 in three-compartment Petri dishes. The results revealed that the mortality rates of M. hapla J2s were 85% at 24 h and 97.1% at 48 h after treatment with the VOCs produced during GJ-7 fermentation. Subsequently, the VOCs produced by the GJ-7 strain were identified through solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Six characteristic VOCs from the GJ-7 strain fermentation broth were identified, including 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, 5-methyl-2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 6-methyl-2-heptanone. The in vitro experimental results from 24-well culture plates showed that the six volatiles had direct-contact nematicidal activity against M. hapla J2s and inhibition activity against egg hatching. In addition, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-heptanone showed significant fumigation effects on M. hapla J2s and eggs. Furthermore, all six of the VOCs repelled M. hapla J2 juveniles in 2% water agar Petri plates. The above data suggested that the VOCs of B. velezensis GJ-7 acted against M. hapla through multiple prevention and control modes (including direct-contact nematicidal activity, fumigant activity, and repellent activity), and therefore could be considered as potential biocontrol agents against root-knot nematodes. Full article
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16 pages, 2154 KiB  
Article
Mexican Oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer and Poliomintha longiflora Gray) Essential Oils Induce Cell Death by Apoptosis in Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana Promastigotes
by Karla Fabiola Chacón-Vargas, Luvia Enid Sánchez-Torres, Mónica L. Chávez-González, Jaime R. Adame-Gallegos and Guadalupe Virginia Nevárez-Moorillón
Molecules 2022, 27(16), 5183; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165183 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne disease; there are different manifestations of the diseases and species involved, and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) mexicana is the most prevalent in Mexico. Currently, the drugs available for the treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic, expensive, and [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is a neglected vector-borne disease; there are different manifestations of the diseases and species involved, and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) mexicana is the most prevalent in Mexico. Currently, the drugs available for the treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic, expensive, and often ineffective; therefore, it is imperative to carry out research and development of new therapeutic alternatives, with natural products being an attractive option. In particular, oregano is a plant with worldwide distribution; in Mexico, two species: Lippia berlandieri Schauer and Poliomintha longiflora Gray are endemic. Both essential oils (EO’s) have been reported to have antimicrobial activity attributed to their main components, thymol and carvacrol. In this research, the leishmanicidal effect and mechanism of cell death induced by L. berlandieri EO, P. longiflora EO, thymol, and carvacrol in L. mexicana promastigotes were determined in vitro. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity in mammalian cells was evaluated. L. berlandieri EO presented higher leishmanicidal activity (IC50 = 41.78 µg/mL) than P. longiflora EO (IC50 = 77.90 µg/mL). Thymol and carvacrol were the major components of both Mexican oregano EO’s. Thymol presented higher leishmanial inhibitory activity (IC50 = 22.39 µg/mL), above that of carvacrol (IC50 = 61.52 µg/mL). All the EO’s and compounds evaluated presented lower cytotoxic activity than the reference drug; thymol was the compound with the best selectivity index (SI). In all cases, apoptosis was identified as the main mechanism of death induced in the parasites. The leishmanicidal capacity of the Mexican oregano EO is an accessible and affordable alternative that can be further explored. Full article
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