Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 59743

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
SPO, Univ La Réunion, Univ Montpellier, INRAE, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France
Interests: fermentation; non-conventional processing; lactic acid bacteria; aquaculture; waste recovery; bioactive compounds; antioxidants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
University of La Réunion, UMR QualiSud, F-34398 Montpellier, France
Interests: biopreservation; lactic acid bacteria; food microbiology and safety; pathogens or spoilage agents; fermented beverages; molecular biology; predictive microbiology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
QualiSud, Université de La Réunion, CIRAD, Université Montpellier, Montpellier SupAgro, Université d'Avignon, 97490 Sainte Clotilde, France
Interests: food processing; fermentation; antioxidants; exploration of health effects
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fruit and vegetables’ contribution to fibers, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant compounds intake in human diet is essential. However, some can be very perishable, and because of decay, losses along the food distribution and transformation chain are substantial.

Among others, technologies involving lactic acid bacteria are recognized for their positive effect to maintain fruit and vegetables’ quality or to increase their shelf-life. Thus, they can result in a reduction of losses.

Lactic fermentation is a traditional and worldwide technology used to preserve foods. At small scale, its requirements in energy and water are low. It modifies the sensory properties of fruit and vegetables, increases safety, and preserves the nutritional quality. In addition, consumption of lactic fermented fruit and vegetables brings active microorganisms to the human gastrointestinal tract, leading to potential interaction with the host.

Biopreservation applied to fruit and vegetables aims to inhibit the development of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms with other microorganisms. In this field, the use of lactic acid bacteria prevails as they produce numerous antimicrobials, such as bacteriocins, and can grow well on these substrates.

This Special Issue covers all aspects related to biopreservation with lactic acid bacteria and lactic fermentation of fruit and vegetables, from safety to functional properties, and from technology to consumers’ expectations.

Prof. Dr. Fabienne Remize
Dr. Charlène Leneveu-Jenvrin
Dr. Cyrielle Garcia
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • post-harvest
  • food processing
  • bioactive compounds
  • nutrition
  • aromatic profile
  • consumer preferences

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables”
by Fabienne Remize, Charlène Leneveu-Jenvrin and Cyrielle Garcia
Microorganisms 2021, 9(5), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9050939 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Amongst the microbial diversity in the food chain, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are in the front row for their positive roles [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)

Research

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12 pages, 1247 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lactic Acid Fermentation on Color, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in African Nightshade
by Alexandre Degrain, Vimbainashe Manhivi, Fabienne Remize, Cyrielle Garcia and Dharini Sivakumar
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091324 - 30 Aug 2020
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 5277
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the influences of fermentation at 37 °C for 3 days by different lactic acid bacterium strains, Lactobacillus plantarum (17a), Weissella cibaria (21), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (56), W. cibaria (64) or L. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the influences of fermentation at 37 °C for 3 days by different lactic acid bacterium strains, Lactobacillus plantarum (17a), Weissella cibaria (21), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (56), W. cibaria (64) or L. plantarum (75), on color, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of African nightshade (leaves). Results indicated fermentation with L. plantarum 75 strain significantly decreased the pH and total soluble solids, and increased the concentration of ascorbic acid after 3 days. L. plantarum 75 strain limited the color modification in fermented nightshade leaves and increased the total polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity compared to the raw nightshade leaves. Overall, L. plantarum75 enhanced the functional potential of nightshade leaves and improved the bioavailability of gallic, vanillic acid, coumaric, ferulic ellagic acids, flavonoids (catechin, quercetin and luteolin) and ascorbic acid compared to the other lactic acid bacterium strains. Correlation analysis indicated that vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid were responsible for the increased antioxidant activity. Proximate analysis of the fermented nightshade leaves showed reduced carbohydrate content and low calculated energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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21 pages, 999 KiB  
Article
Extension of the Shelf-Life of Fresh Pasta Using Chickpea Flour Fermented with Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria
by Rosa Schettino, Erica Pontonio, Marco Gobbetti and Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091322 - 30 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5536
Abstract
Fresh pasta is subjected to rapid spoilage, mainly due to the metabolic activity of bacteria, yeasts, and especially molds, which negatively affect the sensorial characteristics and the safety of the product. In this work, chickpea flour was fermented with selected lactic acid bacteria, [...] Read more.
Fresh pasta is subjected to rapid spoilage, mainly due to the metabolic activity of bacteria, yeasts, and especially molds, which negatively affect the sensorial characteristics and the safety of the product. In this work, chickpea flour was fermented with selected lactic acid bacteria, characterized in terms of the antifungal activity, and used to fortify fresh semolina pasta. Pasta was characterized and subjected to a long period of storage after being artificially inoculated with Penicillium roqueforti. Conventional fresh semolina pasta, produced with or without calcium propionate addition, was used as a reference. The water/salt-soluble extract from chickpea sourdough exhibited antifungal activity towards a large spectrum of molds. Its purification led to the identification of ten potentially active peptides. Besides the high content of dietary fibers (4.37%) and proteins (11.20%), nutritional improvements, such as the decrease of the antinutritional factors concentration and the starch hydrolysis index (25% lower than the control) and the increase of the protein digestibility (36% higher than the control), were achieved in fresh pasta fortified with the chickpea sourdough. Inhibition of the indicator mold growth during a 40-day storage period was more effective than in pasta added to calcium propionate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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11 pages, 937 KiB  
Communication
Papaya Fruit Pulp and Resulting Lactic Fermented Pulp Exert Antiviral Activity against Zika Virus
by Juliano G. Haddad, Victoria Carcauzon, Omar El Kalamouni, Philippe Desprès, Cyrielle Garcia, Fabienne Remize and Chaker El Kalamouni
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091257 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3815
Abstract
There are a several emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses that are prevalent around the world for which there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs. Zika virus (ZIKV) is an example of an emerging virus that has become a significant concern worldwide because [...] Read more.
There are a several emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses that are prevalent around the world for which there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs. Zika virus (ZIKV) is an example of an emerging virus that has become a significant concern worldwide because of its association with severe congenital malformations and neurological disorders in adults. Several polyphenol-rich extracts from plants were used as nutraceuticals which exhibit potent in vitro antiviral effects. Here, we demonstrated that the papaya pulp extracted from Carica papaya fruit inhibits the infection of ZIKV in human cells without loss of cell viability. At the non-cytotoxic concentrations, papaya pulp extract has the ability to reduce the virus progeny production in ZIKV-infected human cells by at least 4-log, regardless of viral strains tested. Time-of-drug-addition assays revealed that papaya pulp extract interfered with the attachment of viral particles to the host cells. With a view of preserving the properties of papaya pulp over time, lactic fermentation based on the use of bacterial strains Weissella cibaria 64, Lactobacillus plantarum 75 and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides 56 was performed and the resulting fermented papaya pulp samples were tested on ZIKV. We found that lactic fermentation of papaya pulp causes a moderate loss of antiviral activity against ZIKV in a bacterial strain-dependent manner. Whereas IC50 of the papaya pulp extract was 0.3 mg/mL, we found that fermentation resulted in IC50 up to 4 mg/mL. We can conclude that papaya pulp possesses antiviral activity against ZIKV and the fermentation process has a moderate effect on the antiviral effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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13 pages, 4016 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Attenuated Microorganisms Inoculated in Vegetable Beverages: Effect of Strains, Temperature, Ultrasound and Storage Conditions on the Performances of the Treatment
by Daniela Campaniello, Maria Rosaria Corbo, Barbara Speranza, Milena Sinigaglia and Antonio Bevilacqua
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081219 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Four microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum c16 and c19) were attenuated through ultrasound (US) treatments (40% of power for 2, 4 and 6 min; and 60% for 2 min; pulses were set at 2 [...] Read more.
Four microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum c16 and c19) were attenuated through ultrasound (US) treatments (40% of power for 2, 4 and 6 min; and 60% for 2 min; pulses were set at 2 s) inoculated in rice–oats–almond–soy-based beverages and stored at 4 °C for eight days. All strains were able to survive throughout the storage independently by the food matrix. Concerning the effect on acidification, the results were analyzed through multifactorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and the key-findings of this were: (i) The treatment with 40% of power for 6 min was the most efficient at delaying acidification; (ii) Lb. acidophilus LA5 showed the best capacity to delay acidification; (iii) in the soy-based beverage a lower acidification was found. In a second step, L. plantarum c16 and c19 were attenuated, inoculated in rice beverage, stored under a thermal abuse (for 4 and 24 h) and then at 4, 15 and 20 °C. The results showed that only when US were combined with refrigeration temperatures were they efficient at delaying acidification. Thus, a perspective for attenuation could be the optimization of the treatment to design an effective way to counteract acidification also under a thermal abuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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13 pages, 2295 KiB  
Article
Development of Lactic Acid-Fermented Tomato Products
by Annalisa Ricci, Martina Marrella, Jasmine Hadj Saadoun, Valentina Bernini, Francesco Godani, Franco Dameno, Erasmo Neviani and Camilla Lazzi
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081192 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4545
Abstract
Background: lactic acid fermentation was recently proposed to produce fruit and vegetable beverages with high nutritional value. In this study, a wide screening of strains and fermentation parameters was carried out to develop fermented tomato-based drinks containing viable cells and potentially bioactive metabolites. [...] Read more.
Background: lactic acid fermentation was recently proposed to produce fruit and vegetable beverages with high nutritional value. In this study, a wide screening of strains and fermentation parameters was carried out to develop fermented tomato-based drinks containing viable cells and potentially bioactive metabolites. Methods: six different products (three extracts, two tomato juices and one tomato puree) were used as substrate for fermentation. After preliminary testing, eight fermentation conditions for each tested product were selected. The final products were stabilized with pasteurization or refrigeration and further characterized in terms of (i) antioxidant activity and (ii) total polyphenols. Results: selected strains were able to grow in almost all tomato-based products except for one extract. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content depend on products and fermentation conditions used and, except for tomato puree, an overall increase was observed. The best nutritional profile was reached in fermented samples stored at refrigerated temperature without thermal stabilization. Conclusion: an integrated data vision allowed to choose, for each substrate, the best combination of strains to produce novel fermented tomato-based products with different application perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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15 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Survival of Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 4063 and Stability of Antioxidant Compounds in Dried Apple Snacks as Affected by the Water Activity, the Addition of Trehalose and High Pressure Homogenization
by Cristina Gabriela Burca-Busaga, Noelia Betoret, Lucía Seguí, Ester Betoret and Cristina Barrera
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081095 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3045
Abstract
Survival of probiotic microorganisms in dried foods is optimal for water activity (aw) values between 0.1 and 0.3. Encapsulating and adding low-molecular weight additives can enhance probiotic viability in intermediate aw food products, but the effectiveness of sub-lethal homogenization [...] Read more.
Survival of probiotic microorganisms in dried foods is optimal for water activity (aw) values between 0.1 and 0.3. Encapsulating and adding low-molecular weight additives can enhance probiotic viability in intermediate aw food products, but the effectiveness of sub-lethal homogenization is still not proven. This study evaluates the effect of 10% (w/w) trehalose addition and/or 100 MPa homogenization on Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 4063 counts and antioxidant properties of apple slices dried to different water activity values (freeze-drying to a aw of 0.25 and air-drying at 40 °C to a aw of 0.35 and 0.45) during four-week storage. Optical and mechanical properties of dried samples were also analyzed. Freeze-drying had the least effect on the microbial counts and air drying at 40 °C to a aw of 0.35 had the greatest effect. Antioxidant properties improved with drying, especially with convective drying. Decreases in both microbial and antioxidant content during storage were favored in samples with higher water activity values. Adding trehalose improved cell survival during storage in samples with a water activity of 0.35, but 100 MPa homogenization increased the loss of viability in all cases. Air-dried samples became more translucent and reddish, rather rubbery and less crispy than freeze-dried ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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12 pages, 3300 KiB  
Article
Influence of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Identification of Lactobacillus by MALDI-TOF MS- Preliminary Study
by Joanna Bucka-Kolendo, Barbara Sokołowska and Stanisław Winiarczyk
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060813 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
In the present study, we assessed the ability of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) to identify microbial strains subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a stress factor. Protein changes induced by HHP can affect the identification of microorganisms [...] Read more.
In the present study, we assessed the ability of MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) to identify microbial strains subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a stress factor. Protein changes induced by HHP can affect the identification of microorganisms when the identification technique is based on the protein profile. We evaluated two methods, namely MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rDNA sequencing, as a valuable tool to identify Lactobacillus species isolated from spoiled food, juices and beers. The data obtained from the protein mass fingerprint analysis of some of the lactobacilli strains showed differences in unpressured and pressured mass spectrum profiles (MSPs), which influenced the results of the identification. Four out of 13 strains (30%) showed different MSP results for unpressured and pressured samples and these results did not overlap with the 16S rDNA identification results. The 16S rDNA sequencing method revealed that five unpressured strains (38%) and four pressured strains (40%) were identified correctly by MALDI-TOF MS. Both methods showed compatible results in 38% of unpressured strains and in 30% of pressured strains. Stress factors, cultivation methods or the natural environment from which the bacteria were derived can affect their protein profile and thus change the mass spectrum. It is necessary to expand the database with a wide range of mass spectra dedicated to a high-throughput study of the microorganisms derived from different environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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18 pages, 2998 KiB  
Article
Dual-Purpose Inoculants and Their Effects on Corn Silage
by Dimas Hand Vidya Paradhipta, Seong Shin Lee, Byeongsam Kang, Young Ho Joo, Hyuk Jun Lee, Yeyeong Lee, Jinwoo Kim and Sam Churl Kim
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050765 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
This study was conducted to screen dual-purpose lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from uncontrolled farm-scale silage, and then we confirmed their effects on corn silage. The LAB were isolated from eight farm-scale corn silages, and then we screened the antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to screen dual-purpose lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from uncontrolled farm-scale silage, and then we confirmed their effects on corn silage. The LAB were isolated from eight farm-scale corn silages, and then we screened the antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum and the carboxylesterase activity using spectrophotometer with p-nitrophenyl octanoate as substrate and McIlvane solution as buffer. From a total of 25 isolates, 5M2 and 6M1 isolates were selected as silage inoculants because presented both activities of antifungal and carboxylesterase. According 16S rRNA gene sequencing method, 5M2 isolate had 100.0% similarity with Lactobacillus brevis, and 6M1 isolate had 99.7% similarity with L. buchneri. Corn forage was ensiled in bale silo (500 kg) for 72 d without inoculant (CON) or with mixture of selected isolates at 1:1 ratio (INO). The INO silage had higher nutrient digestibility in the rumen than CON silage. Acetate was higher and yeasts were lower in INO silage than in CON silage on the day of silo opening. In all days of aerobic exposure, yeasts were lower in INO silage than CON silage. The present study concluded that Lactobacillus brevis 5M2 and L. buchneri 6M1 confirmed antifungal and carboxylesterase activities on farm-scale corn silage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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12 pages, 753 KiB  
Article
Effect of Drying Process, Encapsulation, and Storage on the Survival Rates and Gastrointestinal Resistance of L. salivarius spp. salivarius Included into a Fruit Matrix
by Ester Betoret, Noelia Betoret, Laura Calabuig-Jiménez, Cristina Barrera and Marco Dalla Rosa
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050654 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2554
Abstract
In a new probiotic food, besides adequate physicochemical properties, it is necessary to ensure a minimum probiotic content after processing, storage, and throughout gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. The aim of this work was to study the effect of hot air drying/freeze drying processes, encapsulation, [...] Read more.
In a new probiotic food, besides adequate physicochemical properties, it is necessary to ensure a minimum probiotic content after processing, storage, and throughout gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. The aim of this work was to study the effect of hot air drying/freeze drying processes, encapsulation, and storage on the probiotic survival and in vitro digestion resistance of Lactobacillus salivarius spp. salivarius included into an apple matrix. The physicochemical properties of the food products developed were also evaluated. Although freeze drying processing provided samples with better texture and color, the probiotic content and its resistance to gastrointestinal digestion and storage were higher in hot air dried samples. Non-encapsulated microorganisms in hot air dried apples showed a 79.7% of survival rate versus 40% of the other samples after 28 days of storage. The resistance of encapsulated microorganisms to in vitro digestion was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in hot air dried samples, showing survival rates of 50–89% at the last stage of digestion depending on storage time. In freeze dried samples, encapsulated microorganisms showed a survival rate of 16–47% at the end of digestion. The different characteristics of the food matrix after both processes had a significant effect on the probiotic survival after the GI digestion. Documented physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the stress response of probiotic cells would explain these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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12 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Pectin Degradation is an Important Determinant for Alfalfa Silage Fermentation through the Rescheduling of the Bacterial Community
by Bing Wang, Zhiqiang Sun and Zhu Yu
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040488 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2812 | Correction
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the four kinds of additives on the silage quality and the relevant bacterial community diversity by Illumina HiSeq 16S rRNA sequencing. The four kinds of additives were Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), organic acids including gallic acid [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the four kinds of additives on the silage quality and the relevant bacterial community diversity by Illumina HiSeq 16S rRNA sequencing. The four kinds of additives were Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), organic acids including gallic acid (GA) and phenyllactic acid (PA), pectin (PEC), and enzymes including pectinase (PEE) and cellulase (CE). After 30 d of fermentation, the pH value was shown to have the lowest value in the PEE and PEC groups, followed by the PA group, and then in CE and GA groups; the highest value of pH was found in both LP and control groups. The ammonia nitrogen concentration was lower in the PEE group compared to the other groups except for the PA group. In the comparisons among the seven groups, Lactobacillus was higher in the LP group, Paracoccus was higher in the GA group, Weissella was higher in the PA group, Leuconostoc was higher in the PEC group, Bacillus, Aeromonas, and Curvibacter were higher in the PEE group, and Coriobacteriaceae_UCG_002 was higher in the CE group compared to the other groups. This study proposed that the addition of PEC and PEE improved the fermentation quality of alfalfa silage compared to other additives by improving the bacterial community of Leuconostoc, and Bacillus and Aeromonas, respectively. Moreover, the enhanced fermentation quality of alfalfa silage by the supplementation of PEC and PEE might be attributed to other unclassified genera. This study provides an implication that pectin degradation is an important determinant for alfalfa silage fermentation through the rescheduling of bacterial community diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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15 pages, 2168 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Tropical Fruit Processing Coproducts on Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains during Freeze-Drying and Storage
by Caroliny Mesquita Araújo, Karoliny Brito Sampaio, Francisca Nayara Dantas Duarte Menezes, Erika Tayse da Cruz Almeida, Marcos dos Santos Lima, Vanessa Bordin Viera, Estefânia Fernandes Garcia, Andrea Gómez-Zavaglia, Evandro Leite de Souza and Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira
Microorganisms 2020, 8(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010096 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3438
Abstract
This study evaluated the protective effects of coproducts from agroindustrial processing of the tropical fruits acerola (Malpighia glabra L., ACE), cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., CAS), and guava (Psidium guayaba L., GUA) on the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei L-10, Lactobacillus casei L-26, [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the protective effects of coproducts from agroindustrial processing of the tropical fruits acerola (Malpighia glabra L., ACE), cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., CAS), and guava (Psidium guayaba L., GUA) on the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei L-10, Lactobacillus casei L-26, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05 during freeze-drying and storage. The occurrence of damage to membrane integrity, membrane potential, and efflux activity of Lactobacillus cells after freeze-drying was evaluated by flow cytometry, and viable counts were measured immediately after freeze-drying and during 90 days of storage under refrigerated or room temperature conditions. Probiotic strains freeze-dried without substrate had the overall highest count reductions (0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.9 ± 0.3 log cycles) after freeze-drying. Probiotics freeze-dried with fruit processing coproducts had small cell subpopulations with damaged efflux activity and membrane potential. Average counts of probiotics freeze-dried with ACE, CAS, or GUA after 90 days of storage under refrigerated or room temperature were in the range of 4.2 ± 0.1 to 5.3 ± 0.2 and 2.6 ± 0.3 to 4.9 ± 0.2 log CFU/g, respectively, which were higher than those observed for strains freeze-dried without substrate. The greatest protective effects on freeze-dried probiotics were overall presented by ACE. These results revealed that ACE, CAS, and GUA can exert protective effects and increase the stability of probiotic lactobacilli during freeze-drying and storage, in addition to supporting a possible added-value destination for these agroindustrial coproducts as vehicles for probiotics and for the development of novel functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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Review

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23 pages, 1422 KiB  
Review
Lactic Acid Bacteria as Antibacterial Agents to Extend the Shelf Life of Fresh and Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables: Quality and Safety Aspects
by Sofia Agriopoulou, Eygenia Stamatelopoulou, Monika Sachadyn-Król and Theodoros Varzakas
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060952 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 105 | Viewed by 15880
Abstract
Eating fresh fruits and vegetables is, undoubtedly, a healthy habit that should be adopted by everyone (particularly due to the nutrients and functional properties of fruits and vegetables). However, at the same time, due to their production in the external environment, there is [...] Read more.
Eating fresh fruits and vegetables is, undoubtedly, a healthy habit that should be adopted by everyone (particularly due to the nutrients and functional properties of fruits and vegetables). However, at the same time, due to their production in the external environment, there is an increased risk of their being infected with various pathogenic microorganisms, some of which cause serious foodborne illnesses. In order to preserve and distribute safe, raw, and minimally processed fruits and vegetables, many strategies have been proposed, including bioprotection. The use of lactic acid bacteria in raw and minimally processed fruits and vegetables helps to better maintain their quality by extending their shelf life, causing a significant reduction and inhibition of the action of important foodborne pathogens. The antibacterial effect of lactic acid bacteria is attributed to its ability to produce antimicrobial compounds, including bacteriocins, with strong competitive action against many microorganisms. The use of bacteriocins, both separately and in combination with edible coatings, is considered a very promising approach for microbiological quality, and safety for postharvest storage of raw and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the purpose of the review is to discuss the biopreservation of fresh fruits and vegetables through the use of lactic acid bacteria as a green and safe technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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Other

2 pages, 990 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Wang, B., et al. Pectin Degradation Is an Important Determinant for Alfalfa Silage Fermentation through the Rescheduling of the Bacterial Community. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 488
by Bing Wang, Zhiqiang Sun and Zhu Yu
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050769 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactic Acid Bacteria, Biopreservation Agents for Fruit and Vegetables)
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