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Extraction, Purification and Application of Antioxidants from Food Matrices, Wastes and By-Products

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 92956

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
Interests: nutrients; bioactive compounds; food preservation; thermal treatment; innovative processing; high-pressure processing; compressed fluids; pulsed electric fields; ultrasound; microwaves; phytochemical purification; phytochemical analysis; compound isolation; bioaccessibility; bioavailability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China
Interests: extraction, separation, purification, pulsed electric fields, ultrasounds, compressed fluids, bioactive compounds, antioxidants

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Guest Editor
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 Orense, Spain
Interests: meat quality; genetic influences in meat quality; genetic improvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
SPO, Univ La Réunion, Univ Montpellier, INRAE, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France
Interests: fermentation; non-conventional processing; lactic acid bacteria; aquaculture; waste recovery; bioactive compounds; antioxidants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Naturally bioactive compounds occur in various plant, algal, and animal matrices, which are always believed to possess antioxidant activities and have the potential to be applied in the food and cosmetic industries. Research focused on the extraction, purification, and application of antioxidants from plant, algal, and animal matrices has been a scientific hotspot in recent decades, as more and more new resources, wastes, and by-products have matters of interest.

Green extraction technologies involving pulsed electric fields, high pressure processing, supercritical carbon dioxide, acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation, microwaves, and ball milling are increasingly applied in the extraction of antioxidant compounds from natural sources. Nonconventional strategies such as membrane separation (nanofiltration and ultrafiltration) and molecular distillation can be also successfully used to purify typical bioactive components, being more technically feasible and cost-effective than conventional techniques.

In addition, numerous cell and animal models have been established to evaluate the absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of antioxidants in vivo and in vitro. Various biological functions of natural products have proved to be closely associated with their bioefficiency.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to highlight new challenges in the preparation and application of natural antioxidants from matters of different origin using recent technological advances and innovative evaluation systems. The incorporation of these antioxidants into new matrices as well as the evaluation of bioaccessibility and bioavailability of isolated antioxidants, in extracts or in new complex matrices, will be also a matter of interest.

Dr. Francisco J. Barba
Dr. Zhenzhou Zhu
Dr. Jose Manuel Lorenzo
Dr. Fabienne Remize
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Bioactive compounds
  • Innovative and non-conventional
  • Extraction
  • Separation
  • Purification
  • High-pressure processing
  • Compressed fluids
  • Pulsed electric fields
  • Ultrasound; microwaves
  • Analysis
  • Compound isolation

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2686 KiB  
Article
Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Ephedra alata Stems: Structural Characterization, Functional Properties, and Antioxidant Activity
by Leila Soua, Mohamed Koubaa, Francisco J. Barba, Jawhar Fakhfakh, Hanen Kolsi Ghamgui and Semia Ellouz Chaabouni
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092210 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
In this study, the physicochemical characterization, functional properties, and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from Ephedra alata (EAP) were investigated. EAP were extracted in water during 3 h with a liquid/solid ratio of 5 in a water bath at 90 °C. The structure [...] Read more.
In this study, the physicochemical characterization, functional properties, and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from Ephedra alata (EAP) were investigated. EAP were extracted in water during 3 h with a liquid/solid ratio of 5 in a water bath at 90 °C. The structure of the extracted EAP was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The functional properties and biochemical activities of EAP were determined. The chemical analysis revealed that the contents of carbohydrates, uronic acid, and proteins were 73.24% ± 1.24%, 6.82% ± 0.57%, and 6.56% ± 0.36%, respectively. The results showed that the extracted EAP essentially contain three functional groups: C=O, C-H, and O-H. SEM images showed that EAP present numerous high porosity particles. The monosaccharide composition revealed a polymer composed of glucose (43.1%), galactose (36.4%), mannose (14.9%), arabinose (3.7%), and gluconic acid (1.7%). EAP showed interesting functional properties (solubility, oil holding capacity, foaming and emulsion properties). Finally, the results revealed that EAP displayed excellent antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Overall, EAP present a promising natural source of food additives, antioxidants, and antihypertensive agents. Full article
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11 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
Targeted Isolation of Antioxidant Constituents from Plantago asiatica L. and In Vitro Activity Assay
by Yuanyang Dong, Qihang Hou, Meng Sun, Jingjing Sun and Bingkun Zhang
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081825 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
Plantago asiatica L. is widely distributed in Eastern Asia and a commonly used drug in China, Korea, and Japan for diuretic and antiphlogistic purposes. In this experiment, the present study was performed to isolate antioxidant molecules based on the DPPH scavenging activity assay [...] Read more.
Plantago asiatica L. is widely distributed in Eastern Asia and a commonly used drug in China, Korea, and Japan for diuretic and antiphlogistic purposes. In this experiment, the present study was performed to isolate antioxidant molecules based on the DPPH scavenging activity assay and discover the bioactive compounds which contributed to performing the function of Plantago asiatica L. Each faction was chosen for further isolation guided by DPPH scavenging activity assay. Afterwards, two potential bioactive molecules, aesculetin and apigenin, were isolated for in vitro antioxidant activity in cells. Hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress led to decreased cell viability, impaired intercellular junction, and damage to the cell membrane and DNA. Furthermore, aesculetin ameliorated decreased cell viability induced by hydrogen peroxide via upregulation of antioxidant related genes, and apigenin also protected against H2O2 mainly by improving the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system, such as increasing the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and the ration of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Above all, these findings suggest that aesculetin and apigenin may be bioactive compounds for antioxidant function in Plantago asiatica L. Full article
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13 pages, 1214 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonically-Assisted and Conventional Extraction from Erodium Glaucophyllum Roots Using Ethanol:Water Mixtures: Phenolic Characterization, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
by Francisco J. Barba, Cristina Alcántara, Radhia Abdelkebir, Christine Bäuerl, Gaspar Pérez-Martínez, Jose M. Lorenzo, María Carmen Collado and Jose V. García-Pérez
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071759 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2690
Abstract
The paper presents experimental results concerning the ultrasonically-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from Erodium glaucophyllum roots. A comparison with conventional methodology is presented, and thereby the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts are evaluated. The phenolic profile of Erodium [...] Read more.
The paper presents experimental results concerning the ultrasonically-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from Erodium glaucophyllum roots. A comparison with conventional methodology is presented, and thereby the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts are evaluated. The phenolic profile of Erodium extracts was analyzed by TOF–LC–MS–MS. The identification of phenolic compounds revealed that the major component was (+)-gallocatechin in the aqueous extracts obtained for the different extraction methodologies. The highest quantity of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity was found in the hydroethanolic extract obtained by conventional extraction (29.22–25.50 mg GAE/g DM; 21.174 mM Trolox equivalent). The highest content of carotenoids, varying from 0.035 to 0.114 mg/g dry matter, was reached by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Furthermore, Erodium extracts showed a potent inhibition of the inflammatory reaction by means of the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The extracts obtained when ultrasound extraction was combined with ethanol:water (50:50, v/v) presented the greatest inhibition (92%). Full article
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8 pages, 1836 KiB  
Article
Flavones Contents in Extracts from Oroxylum indicum Seeds and Plant Tissue Cultures
by Piyanuch Rojsanga, Somnuk Bunsupa and Pongtip Sithisarn
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071545 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4504
Abstract
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz or Pheka, is a plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various traditional uses. The mature fruits promote anti-helminthic and stomachic effects, while the seeds have been used as a purgative and for the relief of tonsil pain. [...] Read more.
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz or Pheka, is a plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various traditional uses. The mature fruits promote anti-helminthic and stomachic effects, while the seeds have been used as a purgative and for the relief of tonsil pain. The young fruits are popularly consumed as vegetables, while the seeds are one of the components in traditional drink formulations. To develop new plant raw material sources, a plant tissue culture technique was used to generate plant tissue cultured samples from the seeds of O. indicum. Plant tissue cultured samples were collected from three different growth stages; 4 days, then at 3 and 9 weeks, and prepared as crude extracts by maceration with ethanol, along with the seed raw material sample. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was used for quantitative analysis of the contents of the three major flavones; baicalin, baicalein, and chrysin in the extracts from the seeds and plant tissue cultured samples of this plant. Baicalin was found in the highest amount among these three flavones in all extracts. The seed extract contained the highest baicalin content (24.24% w/w in the extract), followed by the shoot extract from tissue-cultured plant at week 3 (14.78% w/w of the extract). The amounts of chrysin in all O. indicum showed the same trend as the contents of baicalin, but the amounts were lower, while baicalein was accumulated at the lowest amount among three flavonoids and the amounts were quite stable in all O. indicum extracts. From the results, O. indicum seed and plant tissue cultured extracts have potential as sources of flavones, which could be further developed as health products in the future. Full article
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16 pages, 999 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Opuntia Fruit Peels Biocompounds: Optimization and Comparison Using RSM-CCD
by Bruno Melgar, Maria Inês Dias, Lillian Barros, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira, Antonio D. Rodriguez-Lopez and Esperanza M. Garcia-Castello
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3618; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193618 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4095
Abstract
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive compounds, peels from Opuntia engelmannii cultivar (cv.) Valencia were optimized by response surface methodology. Randomized extraction runs were performed for each of the technologies employed in order to build effective models with maximum (bioactive [...] Read more.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive compounds, peels from Opuntia engelmannii cultivar (cv.) Valencia were optimized by response surface methodology. Randomized extraction runs were performed for each of the technologies employed in order to build effective models with maximum (bioactive molecules content and yield) and minimum (antioxidant activity) responses. A 5-level, 4-factor central composite design was used to obtain target responses as a function of extraction time (t), solid to liquid ratio (S/L), methanol concentration (metOH), and temperature (T). Specific response optimization for each technology was analyzed, discussed, and general optimization from all the responses together was also gather. The optimum values for each factor were: t = 2.5 and 1.4 min, S/L = 5 and 5 g/L, metOH = 34.6 and 0% of methanol and T = 30 and 36.6 °C, achieving maximum responses of 201.6 and 132.9 mg of betalains/g, 13.9 and 8.0 mg of phenolic acids/g, 2.4 and 1.5 mg of flavonoids/g, 71.8% and 79.1% of extractable solid and IC50 values for the antioxidant activity of 2.9 and 3.6, for UAE and MAE, respectively. The present study suggested UAE as the best extraction system, in order to maximize recovery of bioactive compounds with a high antioxidant activity. Full article
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13 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Polyphenols during Syrah Grapes Maceration: Time versus Temperature Effect
by Chantal Ghanem, Patricia Taillandier, Ziad Rizk, Nancy Nehme, Jean Pierre Souchard and Youssef El Rayess
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2845; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152845 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3810
Abstract
The effect of maceration time and temperature on the phenolic compounds of Syrah grape musts was studied. Pre-fermentation cold (10 °C) and heat maceration (60, 70 and 80 °C) were applied and compared to traditional maceration (control, 25 °C). The macerations were monitored [...] Read more.
The effect of maceration time and temperature on the phenolic compounds of Syrah grape musts was studied. Pre-fermentation cold (10 °C) and heat maceration (60, 70 and 80 °C) were applied and compared to traditional maceration (control, 25 °C). The macerations were monitored and the kinetic profile of the maceration was studied by taking samples at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h. The results showed that heat treatment had the most significant effect on the extraction of total polyphenol. A significant loss of anthocyanin content was observed when the maceration was extended beyond eight hours at high temperatures, while longer maceration times seemed to favor the extraction of tannins. A principal component analysis showed that independently of the vinification technique, and for the same grape varieties, different winegrowing regions and harvest years affected the phenolic composition of the grape skin. Full article
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18 pages, 1609 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Polyphenols from Grape Pomace Using Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Grafted Silica Particles and PEG-Assisted Cosolvent Elution
by Ayca Seker, Baran Arslan and Shulin Chen
Molecules 2019, 24(12), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24122199 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4642
Abstract
Adsorption on a functionalized surface can be an effective way of purifying polyphenols from complex plant extracts. Polymeric resins that rely on hydrophobic interactions suffer from low selectivity, weak affinity towards polyphenols, and lack tunability therefore making the purification of polyphenols less efficient. [...] Read more.
Adsorption on a functionalized surface can be an effective way of purifying polyphenols from complex plant extracts. Polymeric resins that rely on hydrophobic interactions suffer from low selectivity, weak affinity towards polyphenols, and lack tunability therefore making the purification of polyphenols less efficient. In this study, a purification process for the recovery of polyphenols from grape pomace extract was successfully developed using hydrogen bonding affinity ligands grafted on silica particles and PEG-assisted elution solvents. Bare silica (SiO2) and polyethylene glycol (mPEG)-grafted silica microparticles with molecular weights of 2000 and 5000 were tested to determine their polyphenol binding and release characteristics. Functionalizing the surface of bare silica with mPEG ligands increased the adsorption capacity by 7.1- and 11.4-fold for mPEG-2000 and mPEG-5000 compared to bare silica particles, respectively. This was likely due to the introduction of more polyphenol binding sites with mPEG functionalization. Altering the molecular weight (MW) of mPEG grafted on silica surfaces provided tunability in the adsorption capacity. A complete recovery of polyphenols (~99.9%) from mPEG-grafted silica particles was achieved by utilizing PEG–ethanol or PEG–water cosolvent systems. Recovered polyphenols showed up to ~12-fold antioxidant activity compared to grape pomace extract. This study demonstrates that mPEG-grafted silica particles and elution of polyphenols with PEG cosolvents can potentially be used for large-scale purification of polyphenols from complex plant extracts and simplify the use of polyphenols, as PEG facilitates remarkable solvation and is an ideal medium for the final formulation of polyphenols. Full article
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11 pages, 1372 KiB  
Article
Feruloylated Arabinoxylans from Nixtamalized Maize Bran Byproduct: A Functional Ingredient in Frankfurter Sausages
by Daniela D. Herrera-Balandrano, Juan G. Báez-González, Elizabeth Carvajal-Millán, Gerardo Méndez-Zamora, Vania Urías-Orona, Carlos A. Amaya-Guerra and Guillermo Niño-Medina
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112056 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2780
Abstract
Feruloylated arabinoxylans obtained from nixtamalized maize bran were evaluated in terms of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity when incorporated in frankfurter sausages. Concentrations of 0.15% and 0.30% of feruloylated arabinoxylans were incorporated in frankfurter sausages formulations and a control without feruloylated arabinoxylans was [...] Read more.
Feruloylated arabinoxylans obtained from nixtamalized maize bran were evaluated in terms of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity when incorporated in frankfurter sausages. Concentrations of 0.15% and 0.30% of feruloylated arabinoxylans were incorporated in frankfurter sausages formulations and a control without feruloylated arabinoxylans was also prepared. Shear force, hardness, color measurement, proximate analysis, pH, titratable acidity, water-holding capacity, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in all treatments, sausages containing feruloylated arabinoxylans compared to the control. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.0001) in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity with all feruloylated arabinoxylans sausages treatments higher than control. Additionally, significant differences (P < 0.0001) were obtained in the physicochemical parameters. Full article
10 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Effects on Clinical Isolated Bacteria and Simultaneous HPLC Quantitative Analysis of Flavone Contents in Extracts from Oroxylum indicum
by Patchima Sithisarn, Piyanuch Rojsanga and Pongtip Sithisarn
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101937 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3906
Abstract
Oroxylum indicum is a medicinal plant in Thailand, which has been used as a tonic and for the treatment of various diseases. Extracts from various parts of O. indicum were reported as promoting in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Phytochemical analysis suggested that [...] Read more.
Oroxylum indicum is a medicinal plant in Thailand, which has been used as a tonic and for the treatment of various diseases. Extracts from various parts of O. indicum were reported as promoting in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Phytochemical analysis suggested that this plant contained some flavones. O. indicum fruit and seed water and ethanol extracts and their major flavonoids including baicalein, baicalin, and chrysin were tested for in vitro antibacterial activities on four clinical isolated bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus intermedius, Streptococcus suis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and β-Escherichia coli, using a broth micro-dilution assay. The amounts of these three major flavonoids were also quantitatively analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. O. indicum fruit ethanol extract from Nakhon Pathom province (OFNE) promoted the strongest antimicrobial activity against four clinical pathogenic bacteria, including S. intermedius (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL), S. suis (13.59% inhibition at 7.81 mg/mL), P. aeruginosa (IC50 = 39.20 mg/mL), and β-E. coli (IC50 = 66.85 mg/mL). Baicalin showed high in vitro antibacterial effect to all tested bacteria. From the optimized and validated HPLC method, baicalin, baicalein, and chrysin contents in O. indicum extracts were 0.19 ± 0.00 − 9.45 ± 0.13, 0.14 ± 0.00 − 1.27 ± 0.02, and 0.02 ± 0.00 − 0.96 ± 0.02 g/100 g extract, respectively. Baicalin was found to be the major compound in O. indicum seed extract followed by baicalein, whereas chrysin was found in lower amounts than the amounts of the other two flavonoids in all O. indicum extracts. Full article
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9 pages, 1901 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Spray-Drying Process of Jerusalem artichoke Extract for Inulin Production
by Zhenzhou Zhu, Mailing Wu, Jie Cai, Shuyi Li, Krystian Marszałek, Jose M. Lorenzo and Francisco J. Barba
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091674 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3745
Abstract
Jerusalem artichoke is an important natural matrix for inulin production. In this experiment, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the spray-drying parameters in order to determine the maximal inulin yield. For this study, three independent variables (heating temperature (Tª, 110–120 °C), [...] Read more.
Jerusalem artichoke is an important natural matrix for inulin production. In this experiment, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the spray-drying parameters in order to determine the maximal inulin yield. For this study, three independent variables (heating temperature (Tª, 110–120 °C), creep speed (V, 18–22 rpm) and pressure (P, 0.02–0.04 MPa)) were used in the experimental design. Using the Box–Behnken design, the optimal parameters obtained were: drying temperature 114.6 °C, creep speed 20.02 rpm, and pressure: 0.03 MPa. The inulin yield, water content and particle size of inulin obtained by spray-drying and freeze-drying were compared. In this regard, the spray-dried inulin consisted of a white powder having a fine particle size, and the freeze-dried inulin had a pale-yellow fluffy floc. On the other hand, the drying methods had a great influence on the appearance and internal structure of inulin powder, since the spray-dried inulin had a complete and uniform shape and size, whereas the freeze-dried inulin had a flocculated sheet structure. The analysis showed that the spray-drying led to a higher inulin yield, lower water content and better surface structure than freeze-drying. Full article
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12 pages, 1360 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Dietary Flavonoid Hyperoside Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae as a Model
by Yuting Gao, Lianying Fang, Xiangxing Wang, Ruoni Lan, Meiyan Wang, Gang Du, Wenqiang Guan, Jianfu Liu, Margaret Brennan, Hongxing Guo, Charles Brennan and Hui Zhao
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040788 - 22 Feb 2019
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 4959
Abstract
Oxidative stress leads to various diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and even cancer. The dietary flavonol glycoside, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside), exerts health benefits by preventing oxidative damage. To further understand its antioxidative defence mechanisms, we systemically investigated the regulation of [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress leads to various diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and even cancer. The dietary flavonol glycoside, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside), exerts health benefits by preventing oxidative damage. To further understand its antioxidative defence mechanisms, we systemically investigated the regulation of hyperoside on oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, carbon tetrachloride, and cadmium in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hyperoside significantly increased cell viability, decreased lipid peroxidation, and lowered intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the wild-type strain (WT) and mutants gtt1∆ and gtt2∆. However, the strain with ctt1∆ showed variable cell viability and intracellular ROS-scavenging ability in response to the hyperoside treatment upon the stimulation of H2O2 and CCl4. In addition, hyperoside did not confer viability tolerance or intercellular ROS in CdSO4-induced stress to strains of sod1∆ and gsh1∆. The results suggest that the antioxidative reactions of hyperoside in S. cerevisiae depend on the intercellular ROS detoxification system. Full article
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9 pages, 4083 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Treatment on Compression Properties and Solutes Diffusion Behaviors of Jerusalem artichoke
by Zhenzhou Zhu, Rui Zhang, Nabil Grimi and Eugene Vorobiev
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030559 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3247
Abstract
Jerusalem artichoke is widely used as raw material for industrial production of inulin. Pressing (compression) and diffusion are two effective technologies for bio-compounds’ recovery from plants. In this work, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 400, 600, and 800 V/cm during 100 ms [...] Read more.
Jerusalem artichoke is widely used as raw material for industrial production of inulin. Pressing (compression) and diffusion are two effective technologies for bio-compounds’ recovery from plants. In this work, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at 400, 600, and 800 V/cm during 100 ms was applied to facilitate juice and solutes recovery from Jerusalem artichoke. The application of PEF led to electroporation of cell membranes and enhanced the tissue compression/juice expression and solutes diffusion. The consolidation coefficient (calculated by application of semi-empirical model) of PEF treated sample at 800 V/cm was 6.50 × 10−7 m2/s, which is significantly higher than that of untreated sample (5.02 × 10−9 m2/s) and close to that of freeze-thawed sample. Diffusion experiments with PEF treated samples were carried out at 25, 50, and 75 °C. A PEF treatment of Jerusalem artichoke at 800 V/cm led to a similar diffusion behavior at 25 °C, compared to diffusion behavior obtained from untreated sample at 75 °C. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

20 pages, 1253 KiB  
Review
Green Chemistry Extractions of Carotenoids from Daucus carota L.—Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Enzyme-Assisted Methods
by Natalia Miękus, Aamir Iqbal, Krystian Marszałek, Czesław Puchalski and Artur Świergiel
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4339; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234339 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 6476
Abstract
Multiple reviews have been published on various aspects of carotenoid extraction. Nevertheless, none of them focused on the discussion of recent green chemistry extraction protocols, especially for the carotenoids extraction from Daucus carota L. This group of bioactive compounds has been chosen for [...] Read more.
Multiple reviews have been published on various aspects of carotenoid extraction. Nevertheless, none of them focused on the discussion of recent green chemistry extraction protocols, especially for the carotenoids extraction from Daucus carota L. This group of bioactive compounds has been chosen for this review since most of the scientific papers proved their antioxidant properties relevant for inflammation, stress-related disorders, cancer, or neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, such as stroke and Alzheimer’s Disease. Besides, carrots constitute one of the most popular sources of carotenoids. In the presented review emphasis has been placed on the supercritical carbon dioxide and enzyme-assisted extraction techniques for the relevant tetraterpenoids. The detailed descriptions of these methods, as well as practical examples, are provided. In addition, the pros and cons of each method and comparison with the standard solvent extraction have been discussed. Full article
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29 pages, 484 KiB  
Review
Recovery of Natural Antioxidants from Agro-Industrial Side Streams through Advanced Extraction Techniques
by Radu Claudiu Fierascu, Irina Fierascu, Sorin Marius Avramescu and Elwira Sieniawska
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4212; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234212 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 89 | Viewed by 6436
Abstract
Large amounts of agro-industrial waste are being generated each year, leading to pollution and economic loss. At the same time, these side streams are rich source of active compounds including antioxidants. Recovered compounds can be re-utilized as food additives, functional foods, nutra-/pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, [...] Read more.
Large amounts of agro-industrial waste are being generated each year, leading to pollution and economic loss. At the same time, these side streams are rich source of active compounds including antioxidants. Recovered compounds can be re-utilized as food additives, functional foods, nutra-/pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, beauty products, and bio-packaging. Advanced extraction techniques are promising tools to recover target compounds such as antioxidants from agro-industrial side streams. Due to the disadvantages of classical extraction techniques (such as large amounts of solvents, increased time of extraction, large amounts of remaining waste after the extraction procedure, etc.), and advanced techniques emerged, in order to obtain more efficient and sustainable processes. In this review paper aspects regarding different modern extraction techniques related to recovery of antioxidant compounds from wastes generated in different industries and their applications are briefly discussed. Full article
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25 pages, 330 KiB  
Review
Antioxidants of Natural Plant Origins: From Sources to Food Industry Applications
by Sofia C. Lourenço, Margarida Moldão-Martins and Vítor D. Alves
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4132; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224132 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 585 | Viewed by 19659
Abstract
In recent years, great interest has been focused on using natural antioxidants in food products, due to studies indicating possible adverse effects that may be related to the consumption of synthetic antioxidants. A variety of plant materials are known to be natural sources [...] Read more.
In recent years, great interest has been focused on using natural antioxidants in food products, due to studies indicating possible adverse effects that may be related to the consumption of synthetic antioxidants. A variety of plant materials are known to be natural sources of antioxidants, such as herbs, spices, seeds, fruits and vegetables. The interest in these natural components is not only due to their biological value, but also to their economic impact, as most of them may be extracted from food by-products and under-exploited plant species. This article provides an overview of current knowledge on natural antioxidants: their sources, extraction methods and stabilization processes. In addition, recent studies on their applications in the food industry are also addressed; namely, as preservatives in different food products and in active films for packaging purposes and edible coatings. Full article
54 pages, 553 KiB  
Review
Fruit Seeds as Sources of Bioactive Compounds: Sustainable Production of High Value-Added Ingredients from By-Products within Circular Economy
by Marina Fidelis, Cristiane de Moura, Tufy Kabbas Junior, Nora Pap, Pirjo Mattila, Sari Mäkinen, Predrag Putnik, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Ye Tian, Baoru Yang and Daniel Granato
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3854; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213854 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 84 | Viewed by 10000
Abstract
The circular economy is an umbrella concept that applies different mechanisms aiming to minimize waste generation, thus decoupling economic growth from natural resources. Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced is wasted; this is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons of food, [...] Read more.
The circular economy is an umbrella concept that applies different mechanisms aiming to minimize waste generation, thus decoupling economic growth from natural resources. Each year, an estimated one-third of all food produced is wasted; this is equivalent to 1.3 billion tons of food, which is worth around US$1 trillion or even $2.6 trillion when social and economic costs are included. In the fruit and vegetable sector, 45% of the total produced amount is lost in the production (post-harvest, processing, and distribution) and consumption chains. Therefore, it is necessary to find new technological and environmentally friendly solutions to utilize fruit wastes as new raw materials to develop and scale up the production of high value-added products and ingredients. Considering that the production and consumption of fruits has increased in the last years and following the need to find the sustainable use of different fruit side streams, this work aimed to describe the chemical composition and bioactivity of different fruit seeds consumed worldwide. A comprehensive focus is given on the extraction techniques of water-soluble and lipophilic compounds and in vitro/in vivo functionalities, and the link between chemical composition and observed activity is holistically explained. Full article
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24 pages, 954 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on Chemical and Pharmacological Potential of Viola betonicifolia: A Plant with Multiple Benefits
by Komal Rizwan, Shakeel Ahmad Khan, Ikram Ahmad, Nasir Rasool, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Zubair, Hawa ZE Jaafar and Rosana Manea
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173138 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4501
Abstract
Viola betonicifolia (Violaceae) is commonly recognized as “Banafsha” and widely distributed throughout the globe. This plant is of great interest because of its traditional, pharmacological uses. This review mainly emphases on morphology, nutritional composition, and several therapeutic uses, along with pharmacological properties of [...] Read more.
Viola betonicifolia (Violaceae) is commonly recognized as “Banafsha” and widely distributed throughout the globe. This plant is of great interest because of its traditional, pharmacological uses. This review mainly emphases on morphology, nutritional composition, and several therapeutic uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose plant. Different vegetative parts of this plant (roots, leaves, petioles, and flowers) contained a good profile of essential micro- and macronutrients and are rich source of fat, protein, carbohydrates, and vitamin C. The plant is well known for its pharmacological properties, e.g., antioxidant, antihelminthic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and has been reported in the treatment of various neurological diseases. This plant is of high economic value. The plant has potential role in cosmetic industry. This review suggests that V. betonicifolia is a promising source of pharmaceutical agents. This plant is also of significance as ornamental plant, however further studies needed to explore its phytoconstituents and their pharmacological potential. Furthermore, clinical studies are needed to use this plant for benefits of human beings. Full article
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