Antimicrobial Compounds from Alternative Sources 2.0

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 8949

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine, Law and Ethics, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine—USAMV, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: antimicrobial resistance; infectious diseases of animals; immunology; vegetal extracts; adjuvants for vaccines and other subjects
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: regenerative medicine; molecular medicine; veterinary medicine; cell transplantation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a continuation of our previous Special Issue, “Antimicrobial Compounds from Alternative Sources”.

Antimicrobial therapy revolutionized both human and veterinary medicine, leading to a spectacular decrease in infection rates and a dramatic reduction in epidemics. Diseases such as tuberculosis found their “therapeutic golden standard” when streptomycin was discovered in 1944. Numerous antibiotic groups were subsequently discovered, such as tetracycline (1945), rifamycin (1957), quinolones and streptogramins (1962), cephalexin (1968), carbapenem (1976), norfloxacin (1986), linezolid (1989), and others.

Nevertheless, if one looks into the efficacy of these drugs, many of which are also approved for veterinary or human use, it is obvious that resistance develops soon after their introduction in therapy. Thus, only five years after the introduction of penicillin, the first resistant strain of S. aureus was identified. Similarly, only three years (or one, according to other authors) elapsed between the introduction of erythromycin and linezolid in humans and reports of resistance to these drugs. Additionally, an increasing number of bacterial strains, some pathogenic and some ubiquitous, have been reported to acquire multiple resistance to antibiotics, further complicating the therapeutic approach in both human and animal patients.

Such laboratory and clinical research results led WHO and OIE to consider antibiotic resistance “one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today”. Bacteria, pathogenic or epiphytic, gain their antibiotic resistance under natural circumstances. Nevertheless, the changes that occur in the resistome are accelerated and broadened by either misuse or inappropriate/exaggerated treatment with antimicrobials in both humans and animals. The subsequent pollution of the surrounding habitats/broader environment with resistance genes and also poor infection prevention and control may pose risks for humans, livestock, and wildlife. The “ESKAPE” group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter species) represents one of the best examples of the threat to “one health”. Since new antibiotic resistance mechanisms are continuously developed by bacteria, we cannot expect that antibiotics yet to be synthesized will cope with multiresistant microbial strains in the post-antibiotic era.

Nature has been very generous in providing humankind with numerous resources for its survival and fight against diseases. Medicinal and aromatic plants have represented the center of traditional therapeutic practices for millennia, being cited in the oldest written evidence for their healing power. Nonetheless, modern science relies on traditional preparations, as extracts from these plants are difficult to standardize. Therefore, combinations of plant extracts and allopathic drugs, due to their synergistic effects, have been suggested. Bee products have numerous proven health-directed properties, including antimicrobial ones mainly allocated to propolis and Manuka honey. Numerous other marine and terrestrial organisms, along the entire phylogenetic scale, have also been mentioned as a source of antimicrobials by researchers. Finally, other natural mineral compounds, such as clay or coal, lignite, or zeolites, have been tested and found to be efficient antimicrobials, directly or indirectly, due to their diverse properties.

This Special Issue aims at providing an updated overview of research results for alternative sources of antimicrobial drugs and therapies, their laboratory or clinical use, preparation technologies, factors influencing their efficacy in medicine, and their impact on preserving “One Health” and “”One Welfare”. Submissions of perspectives, opinions, commentaries, and data reports are also welcome.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Antimicrobial compounds from plants: their preparation, use, and biological effects;
  • Bee products: their role in obtaining novel antimicrobials;
  • Antimicrobial compounds from mineral sources: obtainment methodology, standardization, and biological effects;
  • Antimicrobials from other sources (marine or terrestrial, microorganisms, etc.): obtainment methodology, effects, and biological uses;
  • Impact of alternative antimicrobials on antibiotic resistance gene transfer;
  • Farming technologies and alternative antibiotic uses;
  • Potential role of alternative antimicrobial in controlling environment pollution;
  • Prevention and control of antibiotic resistance by use of alternative antimicrobials.

Dr. Marina Spinu
Dr. Pall Emoke
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial compounds from plants: their preparation, use, and biological effects
  • bee products: their role in obtaining novel antimicrobials
  • antimicrobial compounds from mineral sources: obtainment methodology, standardization, biological effects
  • antimicrobials from other sources (marine or terrestrial, microorganisms, etc.): obtainment methodology, effects, biological uses
  • impact of alternative antimicrobials on antibiotic resistance gene transfer
  • farming technologies and alternative antibiotic uses
  • potential role of alternative antimicrobial to control environment pollution
  • prevention and control of antibiotic resistance by use of alternative antimicrobials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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19 pages, 30153 KiB  
Article
Bovine Lactoferrin and Hen Ovotransferrin Affect Virulence Factors of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND)-Inducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains
by Marieke Vandeputte, Margaux Verhaeghe, Lukas Willocx, Peter Bossier and Daisy Vanrompay
Microorganisms 2023, 11(12), 2912; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11122912 - 02 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), a highly destructive shrimp disease, has inflicted severe setbacks on the shrimp farming industry worldwide. As the use of antibiotics is discouraged due to emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the pollution of ecosystems, there is a pressing demand for [...] Read more.
Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), a highly destructive shrimp disease, has inflicted severe setbacks on the shrimp farming industry worldwide. As the use of antibiotics is discouraged due to emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the pollution of ecosystems, there is a pressing demand for novel, sustainable alternatives. Hence, the influence of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and hen ovotransferrin (OT), two natural antimicrobial proteins, on the growth of three AHPND-causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) strains (M0904, TW01 and PV1) was examined. Additionally, we explored their potential to affect selected Vp virulence factors such as biofilm formation, swimming and swarming, cell surface hydrophobicity, and activity of released lipases and caseinases. Lag phases of all bacterial growth curves were significantly prolonged in the presence of bLF or OT (1, 5 and 10 mg/mL), and bLF (5 and 10 mg/mL) completely inhibited growth of all strains. In addition, bLF or OT significantly reduced biofilm formation (all tested bLF and OT concentrations for Vp M0904 and Vp PV1), bacterial swimming motility (0.5 mg/mL bLF and OT for Vp M0904 and Vp TW01; 1 mg/mL bLF and OT for all strains), cell surface hydrophobicity (for all strains, all bLF and OT concentrations tested except for 0.125 mg/mL OT for Vp PV1) and lipase activity (1 mg/mL bLF and OT for all strains and 0.5 mg/mL bLF and OT for Vp PV1). These promising in vitro results suggest that bLF and/or OT might be used as novel agents for combating AHPND and warrant further research to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action to fully unlock their potential for AHPND disease management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Compounds from Alternative Sources 2.0)
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24 pages, 3799 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Study of Combined Effect of Some Algerian Medicinal Plants and Probiotics against Helicobacter pylori
by Bouhenni Hasna, Hemida Houari, Doukani Koula, Spinu Marina, Ungureanu Emilia and Boumezrag Assia
Microorganisms 2023, 11(5), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11051242 - 08 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer and affects more than half of the world’s population. Although this infection can have serious consequences, no novel cure or remedy have been discovered, the present therapy still relies on a variety of known [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer and affects more than half of the world’s population. Although this infection can have serious consequences, no novel cure or remedy have been discovered, the present therapy still relies on a variety of known antibiotics and anti-secretory agents. In the present study, the potential effect of combinations between methanolic extracts of four Algerian medicinal plants, garlic (Allium sativum), red onion (Allium cepa), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum L.), with different strains of lactic acid bacteria against H. pylori, was investigated. Similarly, the in vivo antibacterial effect of fenugreek extract combined with Bifidobacterium breve on H. pylori colonization potential to confirm the enhanced effect of the mixture was explored. Helicobacter pylori was inhibited by all combined mixtures of extracts and probiotics with varying results. The highest anti-H. pylori activities were found in fenugreek/B. breve, cumin/B. breve, garlic/B. breve and onion/B. breve combinations with inhibition diameters of 29, 26, 23 and 25 mm, respectively. Preliminary studies on the effect of probiotics against H. pylori revealed that the inhibition was due to lactic acid and bacteriocins and it was also related to the presence of phenolic compounds in the studied plants, such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin and vanillic acid. Fenugreek extract was found to inhibit the growth of H. pylori in a concentration-dependent manner. When H. pylori-infected rats were administered B. breve, the infection rate of H. pylori was significantly reduced, while the combination of B. breve and fenugreek extract effectively inhibited H. pylori. In addition, the B. breve and fenugreek extract mixture significantly reduced gastritis in H. pylori-infected rats. These results suggest that this complex mixture may be an alternative to treating diseases caused by H. pylori infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Compounds from Alternative Sources 2.0)
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14 pages, 5425 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Mechanism of Salt/Acid Solution on Microorganisms Isolated from Trimmed Young Coconut
by Khemmapas Treesuwan, Wannee Jirapakkul, Sasitorn Tongchitpakdee, Vanee Chonhenchob, Warapa Mahakarnchanakul and Kullanart Tongkhao
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040873 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
This study investigated the inhibitory activity of organic solutions containing 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30% (w/v) sodium chloride and citric acid solution and 15:10, 15:15, 15:20 and 15:30% (w/v) sodium chloride (NaCl) combined with citric acid (CA) solution [...] Read more.
This study investigated the inhibitory activity of organic solutions containing 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30% (w/v) sodium chloride and citric acid solution and 15:10, 15:15, 15:20 and 15:30% (w/v) sodium chloride (NaCl) combined with citric acid (CA) solution (salt/acid solution) for 10 min against microorganisms isolated from trimmed young coconut: Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Candida tropicalis, Lodderromyces elongisporus, Aspergillus aculeatus and Penicillium citrinum. Commercial antimicrobial agents such as potassium metabisulfite and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) were used as the controls. Results showed that 30% (w/v) NaCl solution displayed antimicrobial properties against all microorganisms, with s reduction range of 0.00–1.49 log CFU/mL. Treatment of 30% (w/v) CA solution inhibited all microorganisms in the reduction range of 1.50–8.43 log CFU/mL, while 15:20% (w/v) salt/acid solution was the minimum concentration that showed a similar antimicrobial effect with NaOCl and strong antimicrobial effect against Gram-negative bacteria. The mode of action of this solution against selected strains including B. cereus, E. aerogenes and C. tropicalis was also determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. B. cereus and E. aerogenes revealed degradation and detachment of the outer layer of the cell wall and cytoplasm membrane, while cytoplasmic inclusion in treated C. tropicalis cells changed to larger vacuoles and rough cell walls. The results suggested that a 15:20% (w/v) salt/acid solution could be used as an alternative antimicrobial agent to eliminate microorganisms on fresh produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Compounds from Alternative Sources 2.0)
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Review

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32 pages, 1499 KiB  
Review
Photothermal/Photoacoustic Therapy Combined with Metal-Based Nanomaterials for the Treatment of Microbial Infections
by Nour Mammari and Raphaël E. Duval
Microorganisms 2023, 11(8), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11082084 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The increased spread and persistence of bacterial drug-resistant phenotypes remains a public health concern and has contributed significantly to the challenge of combating antibiotic resistance. Nanotechnology is considered an encouraging strategy in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections; this new strategy should improve [...] Read more.
The increased spread and persistence of bacterial drug-resistant phenotypes remains a public health concern and has contributed significantly to the challenge of combating antibiotic resistance. Nanotechnology is considered an encouraging strategy in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections; this new strategy should improve therapeutic efficacy and minimize side effects. Evidence has shown that various nanomaterials with antibacterial performance, such as metal-based nanoparticles (i.e., silver, gold, copper, and zinc oxide) have intrinsic antibacterial properties. These antibacterial agents, such as those made of metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, and polymers, have been used not only to improve antibacterial efficacy but also to reduce bacterial drug resistance due to their interaction with bacteria and their photophysical properties. These nanostructures have been used as effective agents for photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill bacteria locally by heating or the controlled production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, PTT or PDT therapies have also been combined with photoacoustic (PA) imaging to simultaneously improve treatment efficacy, safety, and accuracy. In this present review, we present, on the one hand, a summary of research highlighting the use of PTT-sensitive metallic nanomaterials for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, and, on the other hand, an overview of studies showing the PA-mediated theranostic functionality of metal-based nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Compounds from Alternative Sources 2.0)
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