Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics in Animal Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 26543

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: clinical veterinary microbiology; molecular biology; antimicrobial resistance; animal pathogens; infectious diseases; zoonoses; actinomycetales
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: animal infectious diseases; antimicrobial resistance; veterinary immunology; environmental microbiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economic, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: infectious diseases; equine; epidemiology; horse; diagnostic tests

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria with zoonotic potential is of special significance to a correlation between human health, animal health, and the environment underlying the One Health concept. The phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance remains poorly recognized in some important zoonotic pathogens. There is still limited data on resistance phenotypes and mechanisms in zoonotic species belonging to the genera such as Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Coxiella, Borrelia, Leptospira, Brucella, Francisella, or Mycoplasma. It should be highlighted that those bacteria are frequently multi-host pathogens infecting domestic as well as wild animals; moreover, some of them are able to grow in the environment, while others are transmitted by different vectors. Various factors, including those causing a co-selection effect, may influence such bacteria, leading to development of acquired antimicrobial resistance. In this context, every piece of research on the resistance determinants and every surveillance of their dissemination or every monitoring the spread of resistant strains in different geographical regions, providing new data on the antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic pathogens, is particularly valuable for both human and veterinary medicine.

Therefore, we introduce this Special Issue of Antibiotics to encourage you to submit research in all aspects of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria causing zoonoses, the above-mentioned pathogens as well as better described zoonotic agents such as Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., staphylococci, Actinomycetales, and many others. We welcome original research or review papers that may improve our knowledge in this area.

Dr. Magdalena Rzewuska
Prof. Dr. Marina Spînu
Dr. Lucjan Witkowski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antibiotics
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobial resistance genes
  • monitoring
  • One Health
  • pathogen transmission
  • resistance mechanisms
  • surveillance
  • zoonotic pathogens
  • zoonosis

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1635 KiB  
Article
Serovars, Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains from Dairy Systems in Mexico
by Stephany Barrera, Sonia Vázquez-Flores, David Needle, Nadia Rodríguez-Medina, Dianella Iglesias, Joseph L. Sevigny, Lawrence M. Gordon, Stephen Simpson, W. Kelley Thomas, Hectorina Rodulfo and Marcos De Donato
Antibiotics 2023, 12(12), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12121662 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Salmonella isolated from dairy farms has a significant effect on animal health and productivity. Different serogroups of Salmonella affect both human and bovine cattle causing illness in both reservoirs. Dairy cows and calves can be silent Salmonella shedders, increasing the possibility of dispensing [...] Read more.
Salmonella isolated from dairy farms has a significant effect on animal health and productivity. Different serogroups of Salmonella affect both human and bovine cattle causing illness in both reservoirs. Dairy cows and calves can be silent Salmonella shedders, increasing the possibility of dispensing Salmonella within the farm. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic characteristics of Salmonella isolates from dairy farms and to detect the presence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. A total of 377 samples were collected in a cross-sectional study from calves, periparturient cow feces, and maternity beds in 55 dairy farms from the states of Aguascalientes, Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Mexico, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tlaxcala, and Zacatecas. Twenty Salmonella isolates were selected as representative strains for whole genome sequencing. The serological classification of the strains was able to assign groups to only 12 isolates, but with only 5 of those being consistent with the genomic serotyping. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Montevideo followed by Salmonella Meleagridis. All isolates presented the chromosomal aac(6′)-Iaa gene that confers resistance to aminoglycosides. The antibiotic resistance genes qnrB19, qnrA1, sul2, aph(6)-Id, aph(3)-ld, dfrA1, tetA, tetC, flor2, sul1_15, mph(A), aadA2, blaCARB, and qacE were identified. Ten pathogenicity islands were identified, and the most prevalent plasmid was Col(pHAD28). The main source of Salmonella enterica is the maternity areas, where periparturient shedders are contaminants and perpetuate the pathogen within the dairy in manure, sand, and concrete surfaces. This study demonstrated the necessity of implementing One Health control actions to diminish the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant and virulent pathogens including Salmonella. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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20 pages, 9926 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Study of Historical Detection Data for Pathogen Isolates from U.S. Cattle
by George Gu, Henry Pei, Alan Zhou, Brianna Fan, Hanlin Zhou, Austin Choi and Zuyi Huang
Antibiotics 2023, 12(10), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12101509 - 03 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
Foodborne pathogens pose substantial health hazards and result in considerable economic losses in the U.S. Fortunately, the National Center for Biotechnology Information Pathogen Detection Isolates Browser (NPDIB) provides valuable access to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and antimicrobial assay data. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Foodborne pathogens pose substantial health hazards and result in considerable economic losses in the U.S. Fortunately, the National Center for Biotechnology Information Pathogen Detection Isolates Browser (NPDIB) provides valuable access to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and antimicrobial assay data. This study aimed to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of AMR genes in pathogens isolated from U.S. cattle over the past decade, driven by the urgent need to address the dangers of AMR specifically originating in pathogens isolated from U.S. cattle. In this study, around 28,000 pathogen isolate samples were extracted from the NPDIB and then analyzed using multivariate statistical methods, mainly principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (H-clustering). These approaches were necessary due to the high dimensions of the raw data. Specifically, PCA was utilized to reduce the dimensions of the data, converting it to a two-dimensional space, and H-clustering was used to better identify the differences among data points. The findings from this work highlighted Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogens among the isolates, with E. coli being the more concerning pathogen due to its increasing prevalence in recent years. Moreover, tetracycline was observed as the most commonly resistant antimicrobial, with the resistance genes mdsA, mdsB, mdtM, blaEC, and acrF being the most prevalent in pathogen isolates from U.S. cattle. The occurrence of mdtM, blaEC, acrF, and glpT_E448k showed an increase in pathogens isolated from U.S. cattle in recent years. Furthermore, based on the data collected for the locations of AMR cases, Texas, California, and Nebraska were the major areas carrying major AMR genes or antimicrobials with detected resistance. The results from this study provide potential directions for targeted interventions to mitigate pathogens’ antimicrobial resistance in U.S. cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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10 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity and Resistome Analysis of Campylobacter lari Isolated from Gulls in Croatia
by Luka Jurinović, Sanja Duvnjak, Andrea Humski, Biljana Ječmenica, Louie Thomas Taylor, Borka Šimpraga, Fani Krstulović, Tajana Amšel Zelenika and Gordan Kompes
Antibiotics 2023, 12(8), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12081310 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 928
Abstract
Campylobacter lari is a thermotolerant bacterium that sporadically causes gastrointestinal diseases in humans and can be found in wildlife and the environment. C. lari is an understudied species, especially in wild birds such as gulls. Gulls are potentially good carriers of pathogens due [...] Read more.
Campylobacter lari is a thermotolerant bacterium that sporadically causes gastrointestinal diseases in humans and can be found in wildlife and the environment. C. lari is an understudied species, especially in wild birds such as gulls. Gulls are potentially good carriers of pathogens due to their opportunistic behavior and tendency to gather in large flocks. During winter and their breeding period, 1753 gulls were captured, and cloacal swabs were taken to be tested for the presence of C. lari. From isolated bacteria, the DNA was sequenced, and sequence types (ST) were determined. Sixty-four swabs were positive for C. lari, and from those, forty-three different STs were determined, of which thirty-one were newly described. The whole genome was sequenced for 43 random isolates, and the same isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the broth microdilution method to compare them to WGS-derived antimicrobial-resistant isolates. All the tested strains were susceptible to erythromycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol, and all were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was attributed to a gyrA_2 T86V mutation. Genes connected to possible beta-lactam resistance (blaOXA genes) were also detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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11 pages, 1540 KiB  
Article
Screening for Antimicrobial Resistance and Genes of Exotoxins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Infected Dogs and Cats in Poland
by Daria Płókarz, Karolina Bierowiec and Krzysztof Rypuła
Antibiotics 2023, 12(7), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12071226 - 24 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has assumed an increasingly prominent role as the aetiological agent in serious hard-to-treat infections in animals and humans. In this study, 271 P. aeruginosa strains collected from dogs and cats were investigated. The aim of the research was to screen these [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has assumed an increasingly prominent role as the aetiological agent in serious hard-to-treat infections in animals and humans. In this study, 271 P. aeruginosa strains collected from dogs and cats were investigated. The aim of the research was to screen these P. aeruginosa strains for antibiotic resistance and the presence of selected virulence factor genes. Antibiotic resistance was determined using the Kirby–Bauer method, while virulence genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The most frequently detected resistance was to fluoroquinolones, ranging in prevalence from 17.3% for ciprofloxacin up to 83% for enrofloxacin. The resistance to carbapenems was 14% and 4.8% for imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Almost all P. aeruginosa strains harboured the exoT (97.8%) and lasB (93.4%) genes, while the lowest prevalence was found for exoU (17.3%) and plcH (17.3%). P. aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs that harboured the toxA gene were more frequently resistant to ceftazidime (p = 0.012), while the presence of the exoU gene was found to be connected with resistance to marbofloxacin (p = 0.025) and amikacin (p = 0.056). In strains originating from cats, only the connection between the presence of the exoU gene and resistance to enrofloxacin (p = 0.054) was observed. The confirmation of associations between virulence-factor-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance indicates that problems of antibiotic resistance may not only cause complications at the level of antibiotic dosage but also lead to changes in the virulence of the bacteria; thus, further studies in this area are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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11 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Carried by House Flies (Musca domestica) Captured in Swine and Poultry Farms
by Fabrizio Bertelloni, Giulia Cagnoli, Flavio Bresciani, Bruno Scotti, Luca Lazzerini, Marco Marcucci, Giuseppe Colombani and Valentina Virginia Ebani
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040636 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
House flies (Musca domestica) are very diffuse insects attracted by biological materials. They are abundantly present in farm environments and can frequently come in contact with animals, feed, manure, waste, surfaces, and fomites; consequently, these insects could be contaminated, carry, and [...] Read more.
House flies (Musca domestica) are very diffuse insects attracted by biological materials. They are abundantly present in farm environments and can frequently come in contact with animals, feed, manure, waste, surfaces, and fomites; consequently, these insects could be contaminated, carry, and disperse several microorganisms. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci in house flies collected in poultry and swine farms. Thirty-five traps were placed in twenty-two farms; from each trap, 3 different kinds of samples were tested: attractant material present in the traps, the body surface of house flies and the body content of house flies. Staphylococci were detected in 72.72% of farms, 65.71% of traps and 43.81% of samples. Only coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated, and 49 isolates were subjected to an antimicrobial susceptibility test. Most of the isolates were resistant to amikacin (65.31%), ampicillin (46.94%), rifampicin (44.90%), tetracycline (40.82%) and cefoxitin (40.82%). Minimum Inhibitory concentration assay allowed to confirm 11/49 (22.45%) staphylococci as methicillin-resistant; 4 of them (36.36%) carried the mecA gene. Furthermore, 53.06% of the isolates were classified as multidrug-resistant (MDR). Higher levels of resistance and multidrug resistance were detected in CoNS isolated from flies collected in poultry farms than in swine farms. Therefore, house flies could carry MDR and methicillin-resistant staphylococci, representing a possible source of infection for animals and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
14 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Tetracycline, Macrolide and Lincosamide Resistance in Streptococcus canis Strains from Companion Animals and Its Genetic Determinants
by Ilona Stefańska, Ewelina Kwiecień, Magdalena Kizerwetter-Świda, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel and Magdalena Rzewuska
Antibiotics 2022, 11(8), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11081034 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in companion-animal pathogens, including Streptococcus canis (S. canis), is a significant concern for pet treatment as well for public health. Despite the importance of S. canis in veterinary and human medicine, studies concerning the AMR of this [...] Read more.
Growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in companion-animal pathogens, including Streptococcus canis (S. canis), is a significant concern for pet treatment as well for public health. Despite the importance of S. canis in veterinary and human medicine, studies concerning the AMR of this bacterium are still scarce. A total of 65 S. canis strains, isolated from dogs and cats, were assessed to test for susceptibility to six clinically relevant antimicrobials via a microdilution method. The prevalence of the selected acquired-resistance genes was also investigated via PCR. High MIC50 and MIC90 values (≥128 μg/mL) were noted for tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin. Only a few strains were resistant to the tested beta-lactams (6.2%). Tetracycline resistance was found in 66.2% of the strains. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin (ML resistance) was found in 55.4% of the strains. Strains with a phenotype showing concurrent resistance to tetracycline and ML were predominant (53.8%). AMR in the tested S. canis strains was associated with a variety of acquired and potentially transferable genes. Tetracycline resistance was conferred by tet(O) (40.0%), tet(M) (9.2%), and tet(T) (1.5%), which is reported for the first time in S. canis. In most cases, the tet(M) gene was detected in relation to the conjugative transposon Tn916. The MLSB phenotype was confirmed in the strains harboring erm(B) (43.1%) and erm(TR) (7.7%). To conclude, a high rate of S. canis strains occurring in dogs and cats displayed resistance to antimicrobials important for treatment; moreover, they are a potential reservoirs of various resistance determinants. Therefore, AMR in these pathogens should be continuously monitored, especially regarding the One Health concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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14 pages, 679 KiB  
Article
Should We Consider Them as a Threat? Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Potential and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Varsovian Dogs
by Małgorzata Murawska, Monika Sypecka, Justyna Bartosik, Ewelina Kwiecień, Magdalena Rzewuska and Agnieszka Sałamaszyńska-Guz
Antibiotics 2022, 11(7), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070964 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Campylobacteriosis seems to be a growing problem worldwide. Apart from the most common sources of numerous Campylobacter species, such as poultry and other farm animals, dogs may be an underrated reservoir of this pathogen. Our goal was to establish the frequency of occurrence, [...] Read more.
Campylobacteriosis seems to be a growing problem worldwide. Apart from the most common sources of numerous Campylobacter species, such as poultry and other farm animals, dogs may be an underrated reservoir of this pathogen. Our goal was to establish the frequency of occurrence, antimicrobial resistance, and detection of chosen virulence factor genes in genomes of canine Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter isolates frequency in dogs from shelters, and private origin was 13%. All of the tested virulence factor genes were found in 28 of 31 isolates. We determined high resistance levels to the ciprofloxacin and ampicillin and moderate tetracycline resistance. For C. jejuni shelter isolates, genetic diversity was also determined using PFGE. Our results indicate that dogs may be the reservoir of potentially diverse, potentially virulent, and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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10 pages, 468 KiB  
Communication
Wild Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) as a Source of Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae O58—The First Report in Poland
by Joanna Pławińska-Czarnak, Karolina Wódz, Lidia Piechowicz, Ewa Tokarska-Pietrzak, Zbigniew Bełkot, Janusz Bogdan, Jan Wiśniewski, Piotr Kwieciński, Adam Kwieciński and Krzysztof Anusz
Antibiotics 2022, 11(4), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040530 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
The “One Health” approach increasingly demonstrates the global spread of pathogenic microorganisms and their antimicrobial resistance in the environment, both in animals and humans. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae is nowadays very often isolated from cold-blooded reptiles to a lesser extent from sheep, but [...] Read more.
The “One Health” approach increasingly demonstrates the global spread of pathogenic microorganisms and their antimicrobial resistance in the environment, both in animals and humans. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae is nowadays very often isolated from cold-blooded reptiles to a lesser extent from sheep, but unfortunately more and more often from humans. However, there are a few studies describing the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae from migratory wild birds. The mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), a wild animal that traverses the continent of Eurasia, can be an excellent indicator of the spread of intestinal microbes as well as their resistance to antibiotics. This is the first report of the Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae detection in Poland in a migrating mallard duck. This research presented the identification difficulties associated with the isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae using three different biochemical tests and advanced serology tests. At the same time, we detected very high antimicrobial resistance in the isolated strain. By using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method, it was found that the isolated strain of S. enterica subsp. diarizonae has high antibiotic resistance against 14 of the 33 tested antimicrobials agents. The resistance genes that have been identified in S. enterica subsp. diarizonae include aadA, strA/strB, and blaTEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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11 pages, 553 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strains Isolated from Mares with Fertility Problems
by Francesca Paola Nocera, Elena D’Eletto, Monica Ambrosio, Filomena Fiorito, Ugo Pagnini and Luisa De Martino
Antibiotics 2022, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11010025 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3164
Abstract
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus), is a β-hemolytic Streptococcus belonging to the Lancefield group C; it is a rare human pathogen, but in horses, it is frequently associated with endometritis. This study aimed to isolate S. zooepidemicus strains, associated with [...] Read more.
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus), is a β-hemolytic Streptococcus belonging to the Lancefield group C; it is a rare human pathogen, but in horses, it is frequently associated with endometritis. This study aimed to isolate S. zooepidemicus strains, associated with bacterial endometritis in mares, and to define their antimicrobial resistance profile. Twenty-three isolates were recovered from one hundred ninety-six equine uterine swabs (11.7%). Bacterial identification was carried out by Api 20 Strep and confirmed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), while antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar plates. The antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates revealed a high percentage of resistance to amikacin (95.6%), ampicillin (73.9%) and tetracycline (69.6%), while ceftiofur and ceftriaxone were highly effective with 82.6% and 78.3% of the isolates inhibited, respectively. An intriguing value of resistance to penicillin (34.8%), which represents the first-choice antibiotic in equine S. zooepidemicus infections, was observed. Furthermore, a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains (82.6%) was recorded. Continuous surveillance of this potential zoonotic pathogen and an appropriate antimicrobial stewardship program with the promotion of correct use of antimicrobials, after a proper diagnosis, are needed to allow an effective therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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14 pages, 2466 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Genetic Typing of Salmonella Serovars from Chicken Embryos in China
by Yaohui Xu, Xiao Zhou, Zenghai Jiang, Yaru Qi, Abdelaziz Ed-Dra and Min Yue
Antibiotics 2021, 10(10), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101156 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Salmonella continues to be a major food and public health burden worldwide that can threaten human health via eating contaminated meats, particularly those originating from chicken. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance profiles, epidemiological characteristics of resistance genes, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis [...] Read more.
Salmonella continues to be a major food and public health burden worldwide that can threaten human health via eating contaminated meats, particularly those originating from chicken. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance profiles, epidemiological characteristics of resistance genes, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE-XbaI) typing of 120 non-Pullorum/Gallinarum Salmonella isolates recovered from chicken embryos in Henan province were determined. The antimicrobial resistant phenotypes and evaluation of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Salmonella were investigated by the Kirby–Bauer test and the double-disk synergy test. Additionally, 37 antimicrobial resistance genes encoding resistance to five different categories, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, and β-lactams, were examined by conventional PCR. However, genotyping analysis was conducted by macro-restriction using enzyme XbaI followed by the separation of the restricted DNA fragments by PFGE. The results of this study showed that the studied Salmonella strains were highly resistant to ampicillin (66.67%) and sulfisoxazole (66.67%), while they were all susceptible to meropenem, imipenem, colistin, and chloramphenicol. Additionally, 67.5% (81/120) of the studied strains were multidrug resistant, and 21.67% (26/120) were phenotypically confirmed as ESBLs positive. The statistical analysis showed that resistance depends on the serovars, and ESBLs positive strains showed more multi-resistance than ESBLs negative strains (p < 0.05). The genotypic antimicrobial resistance showed the detection of 14 among the 37 tested genes, and the concordance between genotypic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance ranged from 0% to 100% depending on the serovars. However, the PFGE-XbaI typing results showed that the examined Salmonella strains were divided into 22 individual subtypes and were grouped in nine clusters, with similarity values ranging from 64.7% to 100%. From this study, we can conclude that the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from chicken embryos in Henan province was alarming, with rigorous multidrug resistance, which requires the urgent mitigation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in chicken hatcheries. Additionally, our results showed evidence of the presence of different PFGE patterns among the studied Salmonella serovars, suggesting the presence of different sources of contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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16 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Association of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter spp. in Broilers and Turkeys with Antimicrobial Use
by Bernd-Alois Tenhagen, Matthias Flor, Katja Alt, Marie-Theres Knüver, Christiane Buhler, Annemarie Käsbohrer and Kerstin Stingl
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060673 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
We investigated trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in poultry between 2010 and 2016 in Germany and their association with antimicrobial use. Campylobacter had been isolated from the caeca of broilers and turkeys at slaughter by [...] Read more.
We investigated trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in poultry between 2010 and 2016 in Germany and their association with antimicrobial use. Campylobacter had been isolated from the caeca of broilers and turkeys at slaughter by regional laboratories according to current ISO methods in the framework of a national monitoring program. Isolates were submitted to the National Reference Laboratory for Campylobacter and tested for AMR using broth microdilution methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated according to epidemiological cut-off values. Antimicrobial use (AMU) data from 2014 to 2016 were taken from a government report. AMR was higher in C. coli than in C. jejuni and higher in turkeys than in broilers. AMR was highest to tetracycline and the tested (fluoro)quinolones while it was rare to gentamicin in both bacterial species, infrequent to erythromycin in C. jejuni, and moderate in C. coli. AMR to tetracycline and erythromycin decreased over time while it increased to (fluoro)quinolones. An association of AMU and AMR was observed for resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin, while it was not observed for the aminoglycosides. Resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin increased despite a decrease of fluoroquinolone use between 2014 and 2016, indicating that other factors have a strong influence on resistance to (fluoro)quinolones in Campylobacter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)

Review

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20 pages, 1186 KiB  
Review
Clinical Aspects of Bacterial Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance in the Reproductive System of Equids
by Panagiota Tyrnenopoulou and George C. Fthenakis
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040664 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Antibiotic administration is a standard therapeutic practice for the treatment of reproductive disorders of equids. This might lead to undesirable microbial imbalance and could favour the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, it is imperative for clinicians to understand patterns of antibiotic resistance when [...] Read more.
Antibiotic administration is a standard therapeutic practice for the treatment of reproductive disorders of equids. This might lead to undesirable microbial imbalance and could favour the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, it is imperative for clinicians to understand patterns of antibiotic resistance when considering and developing treatment regimes. Continued engagement of clinicians with novel alternative approaches to treat reproductive infections would be essential in order to address this rising threat within the One Health perspective. The objectives of the present review were to present the bacterial infections in the reproductive system of equids (horses, donkeys), to upraise the literature related to the issue of antibiotic resistance of bacteria causing these infections and to discuss the topic from a clinical perspective. Initially, the review summarised the various infections of the reproductive system of equids (genital system of females, genital system of males, mammary glands) and the causal bacteria, providing relevant information about horses and donkeys. Subsequently, the clinical therapeutics of these infections were presented, taking into account the significance of antibiotic resistance of bacteria as a limiting factor in treating the infections. Finally, approaches to circumvent antibiotic resistance in clinical settings were summarized. It was concluded that awareness regarding antibiotic resistance in equine reproductive medicine would increase, as we would recognise the multifaceted problem of resistance. Actions and initiatives within the One Health approach, minimizing the potential dissemination of resistant strains to humans and to the environment, with specific applications in medicine of equids should be appropriately instituted internationally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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23 pages, 1612 KiB  
Review
Lagoon, Anaerobic Digestion, and Composting of Animal Manure Treatments Impact on Tetracycline Resistance Genes
by Getahun E. Agga, Melanie Couch, Rohan R. Parekh, Faranak Mahmoudi, Keerthi Appala, John Kasumba, John H. Loughrin and Eric D. Conte
Antibiotics 2022, 11(3), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11030391 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3373
Abstract
Increased demand for animal protein is met by increased food animal production resulting in large quantities of manure. Animal producers, therefore, need sustainable agricultural practices to protect environmental health. Large quantities of antimicrobials are used in commercial food animal production. Consequently, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria [...] Read more.
Increased demand for animal protein is met by increased food animal production resulting in large quantities of manure. Animal producers, therefore, need sustainable agricultural practices to protect environmental health. Large quantities of antimicrobials are used in commercial food animal production. Consequently, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the resistance genes emerge and are excreted through feces. Manure management is essential for the safe disposal of animal waste. Lagoons, with or without covers, and anaerobic digesters, with the primary purpose of methane production, and composting, with the primary purpose of producing organic fertilizer, are widely used methods of manure treatment. We reviewed manure management practices and their impact on tetracycline resistance genes. Lagoons are maintained at ambient temperatures; especially uncovered lagoons are the least effective in removing tetracycline resistance genes. However, some modifications can improve the performance of lagoons: sequential use of uncovered lagoons and the use of covered lagoons resulted in a one-log reduction, while post-treatments such as biofiltration following covered lagoon treatment resulted in 3.4 log reduction. Mesophilic digestion of animal manure did not have any significant effect; only a 0.7 log reduction in tet(A) was observed in one study. While thermophilic anaerobic digesters are effective, if properly operated, they are expensive for animal producers. Aerobic thermophilic composting is a promising technology if optimized with its economic benefits. Composting of raw animal manure can result in up to a 2.5 log reduction, and postdigestion composting can reduce tetracycline resistance gene concentration by >80%. In general, manure management was not designed to mitigate antimicrobial resistance; future research is needed to optimize the economic benefits of biogas or organic fertilizer on the one hand and for the mitigation of foodborne pathogens and antimicrobial resistance on the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonoses)
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