Special Issue "Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging in Various Diseases"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 5689

Special Issue Editors

Anatomy Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: anatomy; imaging; trauma
Pathology Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: pathology; ultrasound imaging; interventional
Otorhinolaryngology Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: otorhinolaryngology; imaging; surgery; interventional; oncology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are honored to launch this Special Issue entitled “Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging in Various Diseases”. The main goal of this Special Issue is to gather current updated research centered on imaging modalities such as computer tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET). Anatomy landmarks should be mastered by any imaging specialist, and we welcome reviews regarding complex structures. We encourage articles by imaging specialists joined by specialists from various domains of activity: surgery, otorhinolaryngology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, and urology, just to mention some of the possibilities. The future developments of current imaging modalities are of great interest for many specialists using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) or fusion imaging (FI). Another novelty is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in imaging screening for various diseases. Patients can benefit from the increased use of interventional imaging procedures, minimizing the risk and lowering the costs of healthcare procedures.

Dr. Romica Cergan
Prof. Dr. Adrian Costache
Dr. Mihai Dumitru
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • anatomy
  • ultrasound
  • tomography
  • magnetic
  • interventional
  • imaging
  • surgery
  • artificial intelligence
  • otorhinolaryngology
  • pathology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1217 KiB  
Article
A Cone Beam Computed Tomography-Based Investigation of the Frequency and Pattern of Radix Entomolaris in the Saudi Arabian Population
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59112025 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Background and Objectives: An understanding of the anatomical complexity of teeth is a significant factor for a successful endodontic treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and pattern of distribution of radix entomolaris (RE) in mandibular first [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: An understanding of the anatomical complexity of teeth is a significant factor for a successful endodontic treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and pattern of distribution of radix entomolaris (RE) in mandibular first molars (MFMs) of a Saudi Arabian subpopulation using CBCT scans. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at dental clinics of Qassim University from February to May 2023 by evaluating CBCT scans that were previously obtained for diagnostic purposes. Scans of Saudi national patients with bilaterally present MFMs and fully formed root apices were included. Conversely, scans with one/or two missing MFMs, MFMs with incomplete root apices, full- or partial-coverage prosthesis, endodontic treatment, and associated radicular resorption were excluded from study. A total of 303 CBCT scans with 606 bilateral MFMs were analyzed by two calibrated evaluators for the presence of, and type according to Song’s typolgy of RE. The data were analyzed using SPPS-24. The descriptive variables were documented as frequencies and percentages. The chi-square test was used to determine the association between the prevalence of RE with the gender, jaw side and age group. Both inter-rater and intra-rater agreements were estimated for detecting and classifying RE using Cohen’s kappa test. Results: The sample had 63.7% males and 36.3% females. The prevalence of RE was 6.6%, with Song’s type III (57.5%) as the most common variant. Absolute agreement was noted between the raters about the presence of RE and very strong agreement was noted for the classification of the RE. Conclusions: RE is an uncommon finding among the mandibular first molars of the Saudi population without any gender and quadrant predilection. The clinicians’ knowledge of the presence and Song’s type of RE may contribute towards the enhancement of endodontic treatment outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging in Various Diseases)
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10 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
High-Resolution Computed Tomography in Middle Ear Cholesteatoma: How Much Do We Need It?
Medicina 2023, 59(10), 1712; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59101712 - 25 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: The diagnosis of cholesteatoma is usually clinic, and the only efficient treatment is surgical. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is not considered absolutely necessary for the management of an uncomplicated cholesteatoma, but unsuspected situations from a clinical point of view [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The diagnosis of cholesteatoma is usually clinic, and the only efficient treatment is surgical. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is not considered absolutely necessary for the management of an uncomplicated cholesteatoma, but unsuspected situations from a clinical point of view can be discovered using the scans, warning the surgeon. Our objective is to compare HRCT scan information with intraoperative findings in patients with cholesteatoma and analyze the usefulness of a preoperative HRCT scan from a surgical point of view. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study conducted in the Department of Otolaryngology, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Romania, from May 2021 to April 2022. It was carried out on 46 patients with a clinical diagnosis of cholesteatoma who were consequently operated on in our department. All patients received full clinical and audiological examinations. In all cases, an HRCT scan was performed preoperatively as a mandatory investigation. Preoperative HRCT scans were analyzed, and their findings were compared to the intraoperative notes. The two sets of observations were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Results: Extensive cholesteatoma was the most common type of disease, involving 46% of the patients, followed by pars flaccida cholesteatoma (35%) and pars tensa cholesteatoma (19%). Eroded scutum was the most frequent lesion involving 70% of the patients, followed by incus erosion (67%). Comparison of the HRCT and intraoperative findings revealed a very good correlation for tegmen tympani erosion, sigmoid plate erosion, scutum and malleus erosion, and a moderate-to-good correlation for lateral semicircular canal erosion, incus and stapes erosion, and fallopian canal erosion. Conclusions: HRCT is a valuable tool in the preoperative assessment of cholesteatoma, helping in making surgical decisions. It can accurately predict the extent of disease and is helpful for detecting unapparent dangerous situations. However, it is not very accurate in detecting fallopian canal and stapes erosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging in Various Diseases)
13 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Profile of Newly Diagnosed Patients with HIV Infection in North-Eastern Romania
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030440 - 23 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic are unquestionably the most serious public crisis of our time. Identifying, preventing, and treating HIV-associated comorbidities remains a challenge that must be addressed even in the era of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic are unquestionably the most serious public crisis of our time. Identifying, preventing, and treating HIV-associated comorbidities remains a challenge that must be addressed even in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods: In this study, we aimed to characterize the aspects of newly diagnosed patients with HIV/AIDS, during 2021–2022 in Northeastern Romania. We reviewed the frequency and associated comorbidities of these patients in correspondence with national and global results. Results: Our study found that of all newly diagnosed HIV cases (167 cases—74 cases in 2021 and 98 cases in 2022), 49.70% were diagnosed with HIV infection and 50.30% had AIDS. Based on sex correlated with the CD4+ T-lymphocyte level, the most affected were males, with a lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte level overall. The average HIV viral load was 944,689.55 copies/mL. Half of males had an abnormal ALT or AST (39.53% and 49.61%); as for the females, less than a quarter had an increased value of ALT or AST, respectively (18% and 26%). The most frequent co-infections were as follows: oral candidiasis (34.73% of patients), hepatitis B (17.37% of patients), and SARS-CoV-2 infection (8.38%), followed by hepatitis C (6.39%), tuberculosis (TB), syphilis, toxoplasmosis, Cryptococcus, Cytomegalovirus infections. Males were more affected than females, with a higher percentage of co-infections. The prescribed antiretroviral treatment focused on a single-pill regimen (79.04%) to ensure adherence, effectiveness, and safety. Therefore, 20.96% had been prescribed a regimen according to their comorbidities. Conclusions: Our study found a concerning rise in the incidence of HIV in 2022 compared to that in 2021 in Northeastern Romania, because of the rise in post-SARS-CoV-2 pandemic addressability. Advanced immunodeficiency and the burden of opportunistic infections characterize newly diagnosed HIV patients. The physicians should keep in mind that these patients may have more than one clinical condition at presentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging in Various Diseases)
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Review

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15 pages, 2044 KiB  
Review
Neuroimaging Modalities Used for Ischemic Stroke Diagnosis and Monitoring
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59111908 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Strokes are one of the global leading causes of physical or mental impairment and fatality, classified into hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Ischemic strokes happen when a thrombus blocks or plugs an artery and interrupts or reduces blood supply to the brain tissue. Deciding [...] Read more.
Strokes are one of the global leading causes of physical or mental impairment and fatality, classified into hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. Ischemic strokes happen when a thrombus blocks or plugs an artery and interrupts or reduces blood supply to the brain tissue. Deciding on the imaging modality which will be used for stroke detection depends on the expertise and availability of staff and the infrastructure of hospitals. Magnetic resonance imaging provides valuable information, and its sensitivity for smaller infarcts is greater, while computed tomography is more extensively used, since it can promptly exclude acute cerebral hemorrhages and is more favorable speed-wise. The aim of this article was to give information about the neuroimaging modalities used for the diagnosis and monitoring of ischemic strokes. We reviewed the available literature and presented the use of computed tomography, CT angiography, CT perfusion, magnetic resonance imaging, MR angiography and MR perfusion for the detection of ischemic strokes and their monitoring in different phases of stroke development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging in Various Diseases)
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20 pages, 25115 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances and Adaptive Strategies in Image Guidance for Cervical Cancer Radiotherapy
Medicina 2023, 59(10), 1735; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59101735 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 917
Abstract
The standard of care for locally advanced cervical cancer is external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with simultaneous chemotherapy followed by an internal radiation boost. New imaging methods such as positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been implemented into daily practice for better tumor [...] Read more.
The standard of care for locally advanced cervical cancer is external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with simultaneous chemotherapy followed by an internal radiation boost. New imaging methods such as positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been implemented into daily practice for better tumor delineation in radiotherapy planning. The method of delivering radiation has changed with technical advances in qualitative imaging and treatment delivery. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) plays an important role in minimizing treatment toxicity of pelvic radiation and provides a superior conformality for sparing the organs at risk (OARs) such as bone marrow, bowel, rectum, and bladder. Similarly, three-dimensional image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (3D-IGABT) with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported to improve target coverage and reduce the dose to normal tissues. Brachytherapy is a complementary part of radiotherapy treatment for cervical cancer and, over the past 20 years, 3D-image-based brachytherapy has rapidly evolved and established itself as the gold standard. With new techniques and adaptive treatment in cervical cancer, the concept of personalized medicine is introduced with an enhanced comprehension of the therapeutic index not only in terms of volume (three-dimensional) but during treatment too (four-dimensional). Current data show promising results with integrated IGRT and IGABT in clinical practice and, therefore, better local control and overall survival while reducing treatment-related morbidity. This review gives an overview of the substantial impact that occurred in the progress of image-guided adaptive external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging in Various Diseases)
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13 pages, 7280 KiB  
Review
Gallbladder Pancreatic Heterotopia—The Importance of Diagnostic Imaging in Managing Intraoperative Findings
Medicina 2023, 59(8), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59081407 - 01 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Pancreatic heterotopy is a rare entity defined as the presence of abnormally located pancreatic tissue without any anatomical or vascular connection to the normal pancreas. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue can be found in various regions of the digestive system, such as the stomach, duodenum, [...] Read more.
Pancreatic heterotopy is a rare entity defined as the presence of abnormally located pancreatic tissue without any anatomical or vascular connection to the normal pancreas. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue can be found in various regions of the digestive system, such as the stomach, duodenum, and upper jejunum, with the less commonly reported location being the gallbladder. Gallbladder pancreatic heterotopia can be either an incidental finding or diagnosed in association with cholecystitis. Pancreatitis of the ectopic tissue has also been described. In this context, we report three cases of heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the gallbladder with different types of pancreatic tissue according to the Heinrich classification. One patient was a 24-year-old male who presented with acute pancreatitis symptoms and an ultrasonographical detected mass in the gallbladder, which proved to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue. The other two cases were female patients aged 24 and 32, respectively, incidentally diagnosed on histopathological examination after cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Both cases displayed chronic cholecystitis lesions; one of them was also associated with low grade dysplasia of the gallbladder. Although a rare occurrence in general, pancreatic heterotopia should be acknowledged as a possible incidental finding in asymptomatic patients as well as a cause for acute cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging in Various Diseases)
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